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AP Biology Chapter 34 Outline Sarah Gianakon 34.1 Ecologists- describe the distribution and abundance of organisms.

They describe where they live, why they live there, and how many there are in that place. Biotic factors- the living components of an environment. They include all of the organisms in the area. Abiotic factors- the nonliving components of the environment. They include physical and chemical factors, like temperature, forms of energy available, water, and nutrients. Habitat- the environment in which an organism lives and includes biotic and abiotic factors present in surroundings I. Levels of study for Environmental Interactions A. Organism level 1. Examine how one kind of organism adjusts and reacts to its environments through its physiology or behavior 2. Example: adaptations of the Himalayan blue poppy to freezing temperatures/short days of the abiotic environment. B. Population level 1. Group of organisms from the same species living in a specific area 2. Example: blue poppies living in an alpine meadowlook into factors that affect size of population, like abundance of chemical nutrients/seed dispersal, maybe rain C. Community level 1. All the populations living in close proximity with the potential for interaction 2. Example: all organisms in the alpine meadow is a community; investigate interactions between species, like competition between plants for soil nutrients D. Ecosystem level 1. Biotic and abiotic components 2. How chemicals cycle and how energy flowers between species and environment E. Landscapesarrays of ecosystems 1. Example: Alpine meadows are part of a mountain landscape with conifer and broadleaf forests 2. Energy, materials, and organism exchanged within a landscape 34.2 -Few people aware of environmental problems until 1960s. -chemical fertilizers and pesticides such as DDT brought increases in crops and killed disease carrying insects -Insects began to resist pesticides, making them less effective. Therefore, the chemical companies made even stronger pesticides -Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring to tell the world community about the dangers of pesticide -scientists began to realize the harmful effects of DDT on predatory birdstraces of DDT were turning up where they hadnt been applied

34.3 -Solar energy from photosynthesis powers most ecosystems -In many aquatic environments, light is not available constantly. Microorganisms and the water absorb the light and prevent it from going beyond certain depths. -in caves and hydrothermal vents- bacteria exract energy from inorganic chemicals and power ecosystems (hydrothermal vents=sulfur bacteria) A. Temperature 1. affects metabolism a. few organisms can have an active metabolism below 0C (32F) or above 45C(107.6F), but some have adapted, such as bacteria living in hot springs or mammals/birds in cold areas B. Water 1. watertight coverings are inherent adaptations for plants and vertebrates on land 2. freshwater organisms live in a hypotonic medium (lower osmotic pressure), while the environment of marine organisms is hypertonic (higher osmotic pressure) C. Nutrients 1. distribution/abundance of photosynthetic organisms depends on amount of inorganic nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, which are obtained by plants from the soil. -Soil structure, pH, and nutrient content are important for determining distribution of plants. D. Other Aquatic Factors 1. depend on oxygen dissolved in water 2. cold, fast moving water has more oxygen than warm/stagnant water 3. salinity (salt content), current, and tides also play roles in aquatic ecosystems E. Other Terrestrial Factors 1. wind- abiotic factor that can damage and create openings in forests that can lead to colonization -increases rate of water loss by evaporation. There is then an increase in evaporative cooling, which can be good on a hot day, but can cause perilous wind chill in winter 34.4 Two explanations for the presence of a species in a place: 1. Evolved from ancestors living in that location 2. Moved to that location and was able to survive -those able to survive reproduce under new conditions and have children that carried their alleles to new generations -biotic environment (animal food/predators) is a factor determining which members survive -natural selection may limit the distribution of organisms when a population is adapting to a new environment. Example: pronghorn antelope 34.5 Climate of a region (esp. temperature and rainfall) determines what organisms live in an area -moist air at the equator rises, heated by direct rays of the sun; this creates an area of very calm/light winds which are the doldrums -as warm equatorial air rises, it cools and releases water content

-after losing moisture over equatorial zones, high-altitude air masses move away from the equator until they cool. Then, the dry air descends at latitudes of 30 north/south, absorbing moisture from land. -results in deserts such as the Sahara -as the dry air descends, some of it goes back to the equator, creating cooling trade winds (they dominate the tropics). As it goes back to the equator, it warms and picks up moisture until it ascends again Temperate zones-latitudes between tropics and Arctic/Antarctic Circle -some descending air goes into latitudes above 30, and pick up moisture, but then they drop it as they cool at higher latitudeswhy temperate zones are moist Prevailing winds- major global air movements that result from the combined effects of the rising/falling air masses and Earths rotation. -rapidly moving surface in the tropics deflects vertically circulating air, making trade winds blow from east to west -temperate zones- slower-moving surface makes the westerlies which blow from west to east. Ocean currents-formed by prevailing winds, Earths rotation, unequal heating of surface waters, and locations and shapes of continents -landforms affect climate Example: moist air from Pacific Ocean goes to the western mountains (Coast Range) and flows upward. It cools at the higher altitudes and drops lots of water, which is why the redwoods thrive there. Inland, precipitation increases again as the air goes over the Sierra Nevada. On the eastern side, there is little precipitation and causes a rain shadow Biomes- major types of ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water -terrestrial kind determined by temperature and rainfall -aquatic kind is determined by abiotic factors, primarily salinity 34.6 Pelagic realm- includes all open water Benthic realm- the seafloor Photic zone- the zone to which light penetrates (maximum of 200 meters) Continental shelves- shall areas such as the submerged parts of continents Phytoplankton- microscopic algae and cyanobacteria which provides energy for a diverse community of animals Zooplankton- small drifting animals which are abundant in the pelagic photic zone. Aphotic zone- below the photic zone; some light reaches these depths; dominated by diverse fish Most benthic organisms below 1000 m are deposit feeders (animals that consume detritus on the substrate) Intertidal zone- where the ocean meets land; home to many sedentary organisms like algae, barnacles, and mussels. They attach to rocks and are prevented from being washed away Estuary- a biome that occurs where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean; waters are enriched by nutrients from the river Wetlands- a biome that transitions between an aquatic ecosystem and a terrestrial one; grow aquatic plants; often border estuaries 34.7 -Respiration by microbes removes oxygen from water near the bottom, and sometimes benthic areas are unsuitable for any organisms except anaerobic microbes

-Temperature also has effect on freshwater communities; during the summer, upper layer of water is warmed and does not mix with underlying water, so fish spend times in the deeper waters. -Nitrogen and phosphorous are nutrients that may limit the amount of phytoplankton growth -near the sources of rivers and streams, the water is cold, low in nutrients, and clear, fast current -wetlands among the richest of biomes in species diversity; provide water storage areas which reduce flooding and improve water quality by filtering pollutants. 34.8 -the geographic distribution of plants (ergo terrestrial biomes), largely depends on climate, with temperature and rainfall often being the key factors in deciding what kind of biome is in a particular region -global warming is causing interest in the effect of climate on vegetation patterns; scientists are documenting latitudinal shifts in biome borders, snow and ice coverage, and changes in length of the growing season 34.9 A. Tropical Forests (dry forests and rain forests) 1. variability of rainfall generally determines the vegetation the grows in a particular tropical forest. 2. Tropical rain forest is among the most complex of all biomes, having many different species. The forest structure has distinct layers that provide many different habitats. Because of the closed canopy, little sunlight reaches the forest floor. The soils are usually poor due to high temperatures and rainfall which lead to rapid decomposition. The nutrients are thus released and quickly taken up by the vegetation or leached away by frequent rain. 34.10 Savanna- a biome dominated by grasses and scattered trees. The temperature is warm yearround. Rainfall averages 30-50 cm per year -poor soils and lack of moisture inhibit the establishment of most trees -savanna plants have ability to survive prolonged periods of drought. -dominant herbivores in savannas are insects. Burrowing animals are also common. -many of the largest herbivores and their predators live in the savanna 34.11 Deserts- the driest of all terrestrial biomes, characterized by low/unpredictable rainfall -often shrouded in fog, but the ground remains very dry -often occur round the 30 N and 30 S latitudes. In higher latitudes, deserts are caused by rain shadows of mountains -some very hot and some are very cold (west of the Rocky Mountains) -less arid regions have scattered deep-rooted shrubs often along with cacti -after periods of rainfall (often in late winter), deserts have many blooms of annual plants -desert animals are adapted to drought and extreme temperatures; may live in burrows and are only active during the cooler nights Desertification- the conversion of semiarid regions to desert 34.12 Chaparral (place of evergreen scrub oaks; also known as Mediterranean)- characterized by dense, spiny shrubs with tough, evergreen leaves. -climate results mainly from cool ocean currents which produce mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.

-limited to small coastal areas -animals characteristic of the chaparral are browsers like deer -adapted to periodic fires often caused by lightningafter fire, shrubs use food reserves stored in the surviving roots to support rapid shoot regeneration -ashes of burned vegetation fertilize the soil with mineral nutrients, promoting regrowth of the plant community 34.13 Temperate grasslands- have some of the characteristics of tropical savannas, but are mostly treeless, except along rivers of streams. They are found in regions of relatively cold winter temperatures -periodic severe droughts; rainfall too low to support forest growth -fires/grazing inhibit growth of woody plants -large grazing mammals are characteristic of grasslands -enriched by glacial deposits and mulch from decaying plant material, the soil supports the diverse microorganisms and small animals -amount of annual rainfall influences the height of grassland vegetation -one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world (North American prairies) 34.14 Temperate broadleaf forests- grow throughout midlatitude regions where there is sufficient moisture to support large trees -Northern Hemisphere: deciduous trees characterize forests -temperatures range from very cold in the winter to hot in the summer -high annual precipitation which is evenly distributed -growing season of 5-6 months -loss of leaves in the winter prevents evaporation of water from the tree at a time when freezing reduces the available water -soils are rich in inorganic and organic nutrients. Rates of decomposition are lower 34.15 Coniferous forests- cone-bearing evergreen trees -northern coniferous forest is called taiga and is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth, stretching across N. America and Asia south of the Arctic Circle -Taiga also found at cool, high elevations in more temperate latitudes -taiga characterized by long, cold winters and short, wet summers (sometimes warm) -soil is thin and acidic, and the slow decomposition of conifer needles makes few nutrients available. -a lot of precipitation, but mostly in the form of snow, which insulates the soil so it wont freeze -animals of the taiga include moose, elk, hares, bears, wolves, etc. -temperate rain forests of coastal North America (Alaska-Oregon) are coniferous; warm, moist air from Pacific supports it 34.16 -tundra (marshy plain in Russian)- northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes -arctic tundra encircles the North Pole; Alpine tundras are found above the treeline on high mountains, even in the tropics -during brief, warm summers when there is nearly constant daylight, plants grow rapidly -arctic tundra is characterized by permafrostcontinuously frozen subsoil; only the upper part of tundra soil thaws in the summer

-arctic tundra may receive as little rain as some deserts -poor drainage because of permafrost, and low evaporation keep the soil continually saturatd -permafrost also keeps roots from penetrating deep into soil which explains the absence of trees. This absence is also due to extremely cold winter air temperatures and high winds -vegetation includes dwarf shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens -animals withstand the cold by having good insulation that retains heat; large herbivores and smaller rodents; many animals are migratory, using the tundra as a summer breeding ground 34.17 -all parts of the biosphere are linked by the global water cycle and nutrient cycles -accumulation of silt has muddied the waters of some coral reefs, dimming the light available to the photosynthetic algae that power the reef community. -one of the main sources of atmospheric water is transpiration from the dense vegetation making up tropical rain forests. Chapter Review Connecting the Concepts 1. a. Because the Earth is a sphere, different parts receive uneven heating from the sun. This results in very warm tropics year-round, or the equator, while the polar regions are very cold. b. Earths orbit around the sun creates the four seasons. As the planet travels around the sun, different parts are exposed more than others as it tilts toward the sun. For example, on the longest day of the year for the Northern Hemisphere, the sun hits the northernmost point it can, or about 30 N. This is also the shortest day of the year for the Southern Hemisphere. c. Global patterns of air circulation and rainfall are: the sun first evaporates moisture from the tropics and this warm air rises. It then cools and drops again to the Earth as precipitation. The air cools as it circulates and warms again as it descends and thus evaporates moisture. This creates dry regions. 2. a. The high productivity rates in these ecosystems (coral reefs, estuaries, and shallow ponds) are due to the great amount of sunlight they receive. b. Nitrogen and phosphorous are used in fertilizers. When they runoff into lakes or ponds, this produces an explosion of algae. This is not beneficial to the ecosystem, because the algae then reduce sunlight for animals. When the algae die, decomposers at the bottom use up much of the oxygen which the other animals living in the ecosystem need. 3. F 4. G 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. E 10. A 11. E

12. D 13. A 14. C 15. B 16. E 17. Factors that contribute to the diversity of the tropical rainforest include a huge diversity of plants, which create habitats for other animals. This biome also has a warm and generally unchanging climate and year-round growing conditions. 18. I live in the biome of the temperate broadleaf forest. Animals typical of this biome are mice, shrews, squirrels, various birds, bobcats, foxes, black bears, and mountain lions. Plants that are common include deciduous trees such as oak, hickory, birch, beech, and maple. The climate ranges from very cold during the winter to very hot during the summer. Annual precipitation is high and evenly distributed. There is a growing season of 5-6 months, and then the trees drop their leaves so they will not have unnecessary evaporation during the dry winter months. The suburban area in which I live has had many clearing for building more houses. My neighborhood formerly was a woods, but now trees only surround it. 19. a. Desert b. Grassland c. Tropical rainforest d. Temperate broadleaf forest e. Coniferous forests f. Tundra Biomes may overlap on this graph due to different seasonal temperatures or amount of rainfall. 20. The North American pronghorn is similar to the antelopes of Africa due to a similar climate and environment to which they both adapted in alike ways. 21. The issues and values which are in conflict include the right to perform actions on ones own, purchased land. However, one must consider the environment and how the action of plowing these native plants is a severe loss to the naturalist society. Perhaps this story would have been more favorable had the environmental activists offered the owner a substantial amount of money for purchase of his/her land. In that way, the activists could have created the reserve they wanted, and the owner would have been considerably richer. The endangered, native plants could have been preserved and we would still have the rare patch of original unplowed grassland.