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designers
M. Starczewski BSc.Eng,
Stress Engineer, Research Dept.
Introduction
The aim of this article is to set
down, in readily available fashion,
the fundamental theory needed for
the design of some typical pressure
vessels of non-circular cross-
section.
(Of these the most common are
the rectangular section tanks.
‘They are often used as bulk
storage containers or as baths in
the treatment of metals and fibres
and surface coating processes etc.
For this reason vessels ofthis type
have been given special attention.
Other shapes are also included by
reference rather than by a worked
example.
Tn explanation ofthe
underlying theory a number of
fully worked out examples are
given showing the procedure
Which may be adopted when
| preparing he nesenay”
| calculation sheets for different
types of vessels. Such calculation
sheets may frequently be required
for approval by Inspection and
Insurance companies as well as
Certification Authorities.
‘There are no national or
international standards or codes of
Practice that will cover all of the
types. Here ASME VIII, Div. 1,
Appendix 13 probably offers the
heat guidance on amumber of,
different d nfortunately,
ints present orm, itis rather
‘cumbersome and requires
considerable time for pro
understanding and assimilation,
other useful source of
information on rectangular tanks
can be found in the Theory and
2
British Engine Technical Repunt 198] Vams XIV
Non-Circular Pressure Vessels
—Some guidance notes for
Practical Design of Bunkers?.
Rectangular section headers are
also covered by the Swedish
Pressure Vessels Code, British
Standard BS 1113: 1969* and the
Italian Standard ANCC—-VSR
Collection Section VSR IS:
1978°. The last two references
need to be viewed with
considerable reservations as they
appear to contain a number of
discrepancies which are
inconsistent with the
fundamental theory.
‘Where there is no relevant code,
the procedure outlined in this
article follows the same logic,
based on fundamental engineering
theory as used in the codes and
should therefore be equally
acceptable. Such procedure
should be regarded as evidence of
‘good modern day general
‘engineering practice in this field
Ttis hoped that it will promote a
better understanding of the
problems associated with such
vessels which are often either
ignored or not given the
consideration and attention which
they deserve. Such tanks can be
quite complex in their detailed
leign and unawareness on the
rt of the designer and/or
fabricator, to appreciate the
various aspects can lead to costly
‘amifcationslter on. These ans
although they appear to be very
Simple indesd, can nonetheless
‘cause considerable embarrassment
ifnot assessed adequately at the
outset
Additional guidance is given on
oare/rectangular ducting
lormally such ducting is
restricted t0 20 psig
(0138 N/mm?), However, the
procedure outlined in this atil
14s no limitation per se.
o
ls indicate that the former are
rather inefficient. Cylindrical
vessels will sustain considerably
higher pressures, for the same wall
thicknesses and size, see Fig. 20
However, practical consideration
will often force the designer to
select a rectangular shape as the
best available option,
The fundamental theory is
applicable to both external and
internal pressure. Worked
examples given in the text refer 1
internal pressure for the simple
reason that, for the external
resture application, considerable
fapssill ext in the knowledge of
the allowable compressive stress
levels which will not cause
‘buckling or plastic collapse in
fectangular and other non-
circular tanks. In such instances it
should be possible to use the
design data contained in the
British Standard BS 449: 1969° for
checking the main stiffeners and
beams.
Fundamental theory for
rectangular section
Pressure vessels
Figure 1 shows the basic geometry
of the rectangular vessel with
sharp corners and whi
subjected to a uniform pressure
of.
where L = the longer span
A = the shorter span
+1, = second moment of
area of the beam
BCB about its
neutral axis
J, = second moment of
area of the beam
BAB about its
neutral axis
Due to symmetry about axes 4A
and CCit will be convenient to
B
Tt
[re
Al
j-th
Fil
analyse one quad
Crosssection show
juadrantis in eq
the action of the |
‘moments indicate
Clearly from th:
horizontal and ve
acting on the qua
which represents
Toad in member
the ven loadin
respectively. In ¢
tense forces the
tare considered
in comparison wi
suchas Land by
In beams and fi
rigid joints, asin ¢
case, the strain en
direct and shear f
in comparison wit
bending that only
to be considered
statically indeterna SEES igs AION ANNAN ERNST I 0 2 oto Tat SOM
Now. Cvetan Presane Vewch > Same Guidance Notes Jor designer
this article clement of length.
ie “Two further postulates
rectangular (Castigtiano’s theory) help to solve
alent size TETT TTT the problem. These are:
ros-section) J (i) The partial differential
he former are » Coefficient ofthe strain energy in a
lindcieal structure with respect to a load F
siderably Slog on a structare, i equivalent
the same wall to the displacement of F along its
theory is
ternal and
orked
e text refer to
the simple
xternal
, considerable
knowledge of
ollapse in
ch instances it
use the
ed in the
449: 19698 for
iffeners and
cory for
ion
asic geometry
ssl wi
-m pressure
nger span
orter span
1 moment of
f the beam
sbout its
moment
f the beam
about its
al axis
pout axes AA
nvenient (0
Fig
analyse one quadrant only of the
cross-section shown. This
juadrant isin equilibrium under
the action of the loads and
moments indicated in Fig. 2
Clearly from the balance of the
horizontal and vertical forces
acting on the quadrant we obtain
which represents the direct tensile
load in member BC, and
the tensile load in member AB
respectively. In evaluating these
tensile forces the thicknesses , and
{, are considered to be negli
in comparison with dimensions
such as Land h, i.e.
L
£2) effectively equals to =
2) ete ly equals to 5
In beams and frames having
igi joints, asin this particular
see, the strain energy due to the
dliveet and shear forces isso small
in comparison with that due to
Trending that onl the later need
tw he cansidered when evaluating
statically indeterminate moments.
In any member of a structure
subjected to bending the total
strain energy is given by
ye (ee :
|, 267
where M isthe bending moment
Zany point on the member
Caused by the combined effect of
the imposed loads and the
supporting forces and moments,
whether statically determinate
hot. The integration must be
taken over the entirelength of
tach member, of which dream
Tine of action, ie.
au _ ['2Mem
oF ~ ),2e1aF
“MoM
(EM eee
f EIOF @
(ii) The paral dierentit
foeficient of the strain energy
wwith respect co a moment acting
on a structure is equivalent to the
Single through which that portion
ofthe structure rotates when the
moment is applied
au ft mam,
om, ~ |,EIaM,
When, asin this cat, the
support of the structure (point 4)
diges not give way under the action
ofthe loading, then there is no
deformation fhe wractare ahs
point of support and the two
Expressions just quoted can be
equated tozer0.
de=$......(3)
Us
Fig 2Tirtish Engine Tocknical Report 19R1 Volume XT
By serting down the equation
for moments along AB and BC and
by considering the strain energy
dlc to bending (by integrating
along AB and BC respectively) it
an be shown that the moments at
the three important points 4, B
and C become fora general case
oo
Mya x
[r ait (233). “
hh b
Ka2y wd Baz
Notice that
pi _ pl? (K+3—26?
Ma's a” eT
phere the first term denotes the
bending moment at mid span for a
simply supported beam BCB
under the action of uniform load p.
For a uniform wall thickness
throughout, the parameter
Which is the same as 8 and the
three moment expressions simplify
tothe following
ete
a8
(8)
pl? (B+3—2p?
ESSA T ear ra @)
where once again
A
bare
thera of shrew longer spas
5 subaituting specific values,
forthe parametet BG
1,09, ete uptop = 1)
wwe can expres the three moments
ina very uch simplified form
Mg = OPP occcce cece (10)
My = pl? uy
Me = cpl? (12)
where a, %p and a are the three
new parameters which, for
uniform wall thickness
throughout, are dependent on
A
» ratio onl
F ly.
The plots for these three
parameters are shown in Fig. 3,
‘where after simplification these
can be written as
B+28-2
a, == (13)
ane
TB HPA +I
= (15)
Identical plots to those shown in
Figure 3 were obtained from the
equations given in ASME VIII,
“Appendix 13" and the Swedish
Pressure Vessels code? indicatin
that these are also based on
fundamental engineering theory.
‘When comparing the above
‘equations with the corresponding
parameters given in these 1
‘codes it must be borne in mind
that the latter? specifies the two
spans as 2m x 2n so that thé
relevant constants. will differ by «
factor of four, since M = a, pilin
reference (1) and M = aspm? in
reference (3). Thus for consistency
4? must be equal to aym?
AS 2? = 4m? hence this factor of 1
is contained in the parameter a,
in all the expressions for
‘moment given as M = apm?
Hence it can be seen that the
approach presented in this article
will satisfy both ASME VIII,
Div.t and the Swedish Presse
Vessels code for the plain
rectangular vessels but reference
hasstill to be made to these codes
for the allowable design stress level
and the weld factor where
along each member can be quite
‘easily obtained by the following
method,
(2)__ For members BCB, span /
First draw toa suitabie scale the
free end moment distribution
curve BCB which is given by the
standard equation
My =toe{e—Z} weve (16)
where xs the distance from point
B. (Distance B-B to represent the
gpan Jeng L) Refer back co
ig. 3 to obtain the relevant
bending moment at the corners,
My = aypl?. Draw a new “zero
bending moment’ axis 0-0 at a
distance equal to Mg below the
original datum line BB (as shown
4a). The resultant sketch
will give the complete bending
‘moment distribution diagram for
the longer span length L. Moment
at any point along BB is then
imply given by the vertical
intercept, either above or below
Fig 3
the new datum
may be. In this
Fig. 4 shows th:
distribution cu
applicable to t!
geometries: (i)
a rectangular!)
ratio equals 0
0-0" for squar:
and (ii) for bui
=o. The poi
are also shown
useful when th
made on the by
welded seam
attachment.
(©) Formem
‘Similar pro
described abo
‘obtain the mo
diagram for th
only differenc:
the initial free

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