Anda di halaman 1dari 91


Chapter - 1
Surveying and Civil Engineering Materials
Civil engineering is one of the oldest engineering professions. Ancient feats such as building of the Egyptian pyramids and Roman road systems where based on civil engineering principles. This is the engineering profession, concerned with the understand development of structures meant for public use. Civil engineers can be found in all areas of society from small private contractors to municipal agencies, government organizations and the military. Because civil engineering focuses on the study of structural systems, the core courses in a civil engineering curriculum reflect this. Most civil engineers start their learning with basic physics and calculus courses. Later courses can include geology, soil mechanics, and design of steel structures. A civil engineering curriculum is usually rounded out with advanced classes that match the students desired speciality, which may hydrology, development of concrete structures, and highway design, among other specialties.


Some of the branches of civil engineering include: Transportation This branch of civil engineering is concerned with developing transportation systems, including highways, airports and runways, and rail systems. Environmental Environmental engineering involves wastewater treatment, air pollution management, and the handling and processing of hazardous wastes. Surveying Surveying is defined as an art of collecting data for mapping the relative positions of points on the surface of the earth. Geotechnical Geotechnical engineering includes the design and construction of rock and soil based structures, including foundations and retaining walls. Structural Structural engineering includes the design and construction of steel structures, including buildings, bridges, tunnels, and offshore structures such as oil rings. Water Resources This branch includes construction of dams, canals and water pipeline systems, as well as conservation and resource management. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances.Structures,

1.3 History of the science of civil engineering

roads and infrastructure that existed were repetitive and increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3 rd century BC,including Archimedes principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedesscrew.Brahmaguptan is considered to be the first to use arithmetic for civil engineering.Brahmagupta used arithmetic based on HinduArabic numerals for canal construction, excavation and volume computations.

1.4 Functions of Civil Engineer

Civil engineering incorporates activities such as construction of structures like buildings, dams, bridges, roads, railways, hydraulic structures, water supply and sanitary engineering. Various function of a civil engineer is listed below. 1. Investigation: The first function of a civil engineer is to collect the necessary data that is required before planning a project. 2. Surveying: The objective of surveying is to prepare maps and plans to locate the various structures of a project on the surface of earth. 3. Planiing: Depending on the results obtained from investigation and surveying, a civil engineer should prepare the necessary drawing for the project with respect to capacity, size and location of its various components. On the basis of this drawing, a preliminary estimate should be worked out. 4. Design: After planning, the safe dimension of the components required is worked out. With this dimension a detailed drawing is prepared for various components and also for the whole structure and a detailed estimate is also calculated. 5.Execution: This function deals with the preparation of schedules for construction activities, floating of tenders, finalization of contracts, supervision of construction work, preparation of bills and maintenance. 6. Research and Development: In addition to the above works, a civil engineer has to engage himself in research and development to achieve economy and to improve the efficiency to meet the present and future needs.

Chapter 2

2.1 Definition
Surveying is the art of determining the rate of relative positions of points on earths surface. This is achieved by the measurement of distances directions and elevations. Surveying is limited to operations concerned with the representation of ground features in plan Objects The data obtained in surveying are used to prepare the plan or map showing the horizontal features. A plan or a map is a true representation to some scales of the ground and the objects upon it as projected on a horizontal plane. The representation is called as the map if the scale is small, while it is called a plan if the scale is large (e.g.) a map of India, a plan of building The data obtained in surveying is used to prepare the contour map. The representation of the relative heights of objects in a vertical plane is called a contour map

2.2 Types of Surveying


Plane surveying

Geodetic surveying

2.2.1Plane Surveying The surveying in which the earth surface is assumed as a plane and the curvature of the earth is ignored is known as plane surveying. As the plane survey extends only over small areas, the line connecting the two points on the earth is considered as a straight line and the angle between any two lines is considered as a plane angle. Plane surveying is conducted for area less than 260 Plane surveys are used for the layout of highways, railways, canals bridges dams, building etc. 2.2.2Geodetic surveying The surveying in which the curvature of the earth is taken into account for all measurements is known as geodetic surveying. This surveying extends over large areas and so any line connecting earths surface is considered as an arc. The angle between any two such arcs is treated as a spherical angle. In India geodetic surveys are carried out by the department of the survey of India under the direction of the surveyor general of India

2.3 Classification of Surveys.

Based on nature of fields a) Land surveys b) Marine or navigation surveys Based on objective of survey a) Engineering survey b) Military or defense surveys c) Geological surveys Based on methods employed a) Triangulation surveys Based upon instruments used a) Chain surveying b) Compass surveying c) Plane table surveying d) Theodolite surveying e) Tachometric surveying f) Aerial surveying g) Photographic surveying b) Traverse surveys d) Mine surveys e) Archeological surveys c) Astronomical surveys

2.4 Principles of surveying

1. To work from whole to part. 2. To fix the positions of new stations by at least two independent processes 2.4.1 Work from whole to the part By the triangulation method the area to be surveyed is to be divided into large triangles and then they are further sub-divided into small triangles which are surveyed with less accuracy. The object of this system of working is to prevent the accumulation of error and to control & localize minor errors. 2.4.2 Fix the positions new stations by at least two independent processes. The relative positions of the points to be surveyed should be located by measurements from at least two points reference the positions of which have been already been fixed by at least two independent processes (Linear & Angular measurements).Let P & Q be the reference points on the ground. Any other point, such as R can be located is any of the following direct methods.

Fig 2.1 Fixing of Points

2.5 Measurement of distances

Measurement of distances

Direct method (Using tapes, chains etc)

Computative method (Tachometry, triangulation etc)

2.5.1 Chains The chain is generally composed of 100 or 150 links. The links are formed by galvanized mild steel wire 4mm in diameter. The ends of each links are bent into loops connected together by three oval shaped rings. The oval shaped links afford flexibility to the chain. In good quality chains the joints of the links are welded so that change in length will be reduced considerably due to stretching. The ends of the chain are provided with brass handles with swivel joints so that the chain can be turned round without twisting. The outside of the handles the zero point or the end of the chain. The length of the link is the distance between the centers of the two consecutive middle rings. The end links also include the handles. Metallic tags of different patterns called tallies are fixed at specific points of a chain for quick and easy reading of the distance. For every five meters there will be a tally. On tallies letter M will be engraved so as to distinguish the metric chain from non metric chain. The length of the chain will be available in standard length of 20 or30 m on the handle for easy identification. The details of metric chain are given below.

Fig 2.2 chain 5

2.5.2 Stability of chain It is suited for ordinary works as is length alters due to continued use. Sagging of chain due to its heavy weight reduces the accuracy of measurements. It can be read easily and repaired in the field itself. It is suitable for rough usage A steel band consists of a ribbon of steel with a brass swivel handle at each end, The width of the band is 16 mm& the length may be 20m or 30m. The graduations in it are marked in two ways. The band is divided by brass studs at every 0.2m & numbered at every one meter. The first and the last links are subdivided into cm & mm.The graduations are etched as meters, decimeters, cm on one side& 0.2mlinks on the other side the band is wound on an open steel cross or in a metal steel case.

2.5.3 Steel band

2.5.4 Advantages of steel band Measurements using steel bands are more accurate than chaining It is lighter and easier to handle The length is not altered due to usage as compared to chain It cannot be so easily read Frequent cleaning is essential to avoid rust It needs proper care while handling as it breaks easily It cannot be repaired in case it is broken

2.5.5Disadvantages of steel band

2.6 Principle of Chain Surveying. The principle of chain surveying is to divide the area into number of triangles of suitable sides. A network of triangles is preferred here as triangle is the simple plane geometrical figure which can be plotted with the lengths of its sides alone. Chain surveying is the simplest kind of surveying. In this case there is no need of measuring angles. 2.7 Suitability of chain surveying It is suitable when the ground is fairly level& open with single details When large scale plans are needed, this type is suitable It is suitable when the area to be surveyed is comparatively small in extent It is unstable for large areas crowded with many details It is unsuited for wooded areas &undulating areas

2.8 Unsuitability of chain surveying

2.9 Various instruments needed for chain surveying Chain (20 or 30 m length) Arrows or marking pins (10 no for one chain) Pegs are used for marking the positions of stations Ranging rods are used for marking the positions of stations and for ranging the line Offset rods are used to align the offset line & for measuring the same Cross staffs are used to set out the staffs at right angles

Fig 2.3 a) Arrow b) Ranging Rod c) peg d) cross staff d) plumb bob

2.10 Technical Terms in Chain Surveying

2.10.1 Main survey station It is the point where the two sides of a main triangle. 2.10.2 Tie stations 1. These are the stations selected on the main survey lines for running auxiliary lines. 2. These are otherwise called as subsidiary stations. 2.10.3 Base line It is the longest of the main survey lines. This line is the main reference line for fixing the positions of various stations and also to fix the direction of other lines. This should be carefully measured &laid as the accuracy of entire triangulation critically depends on this measurement 2.10.4 Check line A check line is used in the field in order to check the accuracy of the measurements made. 2.10.5 Tie line 7

The chain line joining the tie stations or subsidiary station is called tie line. 2.10.6 Offset While surveying is carried out, important details such as boundaries, fences, building and towers are located with respect to main chain lines by means of lateral measurement. The two types of offsets are shown in fig. Perpendicular offset oblique offset

Fig 2.4 Layout of chain Survey 2.11 Traverse survey The frame work in traverse survey consists of series of connected lines. The lengths and directions of these lines are measured with a chain or tape & with an angular measurement respectively A traverse is divided into Closed traverse Open traverse 2.11.1 Closed traverse A traverse is said to be closed if a complete circuit is made, i.e., the origin and the end point are one and the same there by the circuit forms a closed polygon. This is particularly suitable for locating a building, boundaries of lakes, wooden lands, etc.

Open traverse A traverse is said to be open if it does not form a closed polygon. It consists of a series of survey lines extending in one general direction but never return to starting point.

Measurement of angles The horizontal angles may be measured by Included angles

Deflection angles

2.12 Compass This instrument essentially consists of a freely suspended magnetic needle on a pivot, which can move over a graduated scale. In addition to the above, it has an object vane and an eye vane which will be useful to get the line of sight. This instrument will be supported by a tripod stand while taking observations. There are two types of compasses Prismatic compass Surveyors compass 2.12.1 Prismatic Compass It is the most suitable type of rough surveys where speed is very important rather than accuracy. It is commonly used for the preliminary survey for road, railway, military purposes

a rough traverse etc. the result from compass observation may be unrealistic in places where there is more local attraction due to magnetic rock or iron ore deposits. The prismatic compass are given below

Fig 2.6 Prismatic Compass 2.12.2 Surveyors compass This type is not often used now for land surveying. In general it is similar to a prismatic compass except that it has another plain sight having a narrow vertical slit in place of the prism is given below

Fig 2.7 Surveyors Compass


Table 2.1 Comparison between Prismatic Compass & Surveyors Compass

S.N O 1

Prismatic Compass

Surveyors Compass

In the prismatic compass the magnetic In the surveyors compass the magnetic needle needle and the graduated dial are attached remains freely suspended stationary while the together while the prism and the box rotate dial is attached to the box The graduations are provided in the In this case the graduations are marked from 00 clockwise direction to 900 in all the four quadrants. Readings are observed by looking through Reading are taken by directly looking on the the prism eye piece from south end of the dial immediately below the north end of the compass needle The zero of the reading is marked on the Here it is marked on the north and south end south end of the instrument A mirror is attached to the object vane for No such mirror is provided in the object vane sighting objects at higher elevations or depression The position of the east and the west are in The position of the east and the west are inter their correct positions changed By using this, one can obtain directly the This is based on quadrantal system having 00 at whole circle bearings N &900 at E & W ends. With this it is possible to read only the reduced bearings The prismatic compass may be held in The surveyors compass needs a light tri pod or hand while taking in observations a single pointed rod to support it.

2.13 Bearing
Bearing is the horizontal angle between the reference meridian and the survey line. It is measured in the clockwise direction. Bearings are classified into different types. a) True meridian The line passing through the geographical north & South Pole is known as true meridian. b) Magnetic Meridian The magnetic needle without being affected by magnetic substances, when the needle is suspended freely & balanced properly is known as the magnetic meridian. c) True Bearing The horizontal angle made by the line with reference to a true meridian.


d) Magnetic Bearing The horizontal angle made by the line with reference to a magnetic meridian. e) Whole Circle Bearing (W.C.B) In this system the bearing of a line is always measured clockwise from the north point of the reference meridian. The value of the bearing varies from 00 to 3600.

f) Quadrantal bearing (or) reduced bearing In this system the bearing of a line is measured clockwise or counter clockwise or counter clockwise from the north point or the south point whichever is nearer to the line towards the east or west. The value of the bearing varies from 00 to 900 .

g) Fore bearing

Every line has two bearings, observed at each end of the line. The bearing of the line in the direction of the progress of the survey is called the fore or forward bearing (F.B) h) Back Bearing


Bearing of a line measured in the reverse direction of survey is called the back bearing

Table 2.2 Conversion of W.C.B into R.B.

Case W.C.B between Rule of R.B (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 00 and 900 900 and 1800 1800 and 2700 2700 and 3600 R.B =W.C.B R.B =1800-W.C.B R.B =W.C.B-1800 R.B =3600-W.C.B Quadrant NE SE SW NW

Table 2.3 Conversion of R.B.into.W.C.B

Case R.B. quadrant Rule for W.C.B (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) N 1 E S 2 E S 3 W N 4W W.C.B=R.B W.C.B=1800-R.B W.C.B between 00 and 900 900 and 1800

W.C.B=1800+R.B 1800 and 2700 W.C.B=3600-R.B 2700 and 3600

2.14 Conversion of Fore Bearing into Back Bearing in W.C.B

B ack B earing

= F .B 180

0 0

F .B 180

( + if F .B <180 ve

& ve if F .B >180

2.15 Conversion of Fore Bearing into Back Bearing in R.B

In back bearing N is replaced by S, S by N, and E by W & W by E without changing the numerical value of its bearing 2.16 Examples 1) Convert the following W.C.B to R.B. 1) 200 30 3)2200 30 1. The given W.C .B is between 00 and 900 R.B =W.C.B quadrant NE Therefore N200 30E 2) 1760 10 R.B =1800-W.C.B quadrant S.E =1800 - 1760 10 2) 1760 10 4)2950 40


= 30 50 Therefore S 30 50 E 3) 2200 30 R.B = W.C.B -1800quadrant S.W = 2200 30 -1800 = 40030 Therefore S 40030 W 4)2950 40 R.B = 3600-W.C.B quadrant S.E = 3600-2950 40 = 64020 Therefore N 64020W 2) The W.C.B of a line is (i) N25030 E (iii) S32030W (i) N25030 E R.B = W.C.B = N25030 E = 25 30 (ii) S 65010E W.C.B =1800-R.B =1800-65010 =1140 50 (iii) S32030W W.C.B =1800+R.B =1800+32030 =212030 (ii) S 65010E (iv) N40020 W

What will be the R.B in each case?

(iv) N40020 W W.C.B = 3600-R.B = 3600-40020 =319040


3) The following are the observed fore bearings of the traverse slides AB 80030 BC 150015; CD270020 and DE 325030. Find their Back Bearings W.K.T.
B ack B earing

= F .B 180

0 0

F .B 180

( + if F .B <180 ve

& ve if F .B >180

B.B of AB =F.B + 1800 =80030+ 1800 =260030 B.B of BC =F.B + 1800 =150015+ 1800 =330015 B.B of CD =F.B - 1800 =270020- 1800 =90020 B.B of DE =F.B - 1800 =325030- 1800 =145030 4) The F.B of the lines is as follows AB N 40045 E; BC, S80020E; CD, S50030W; DE. N70015W. Find their back bearing B.B = F.B with opposite letters B.B of AB = S 40045 W B.B of BC = N80020W B.B of CD = N50030E B.B of DE = S70015E

2.17 Local Attraction

If external magnetic influences are present in the place of observation using a compass, the needle will be seriously deflected from its normal position. Such disturbance due to the surrounding magnetic field is called local attraction. The readings observed will be affected due to presence of magnetic rocks or iron ore deposits or steel structures, railways, iron lamp posts, electrical steel towers etc. To detect its presence, one has to find the fore & back bearing of the line & obtain the difference between them. If the distance is not exactly equal to1800 then, it indicates the presence of local attraction.

2.18 Determination of Areas

The main objectives of the land surveying are to determine the area of the land surveyed. There are two methods Considering the entire area as the whole


Considering the area of skeleton plus area bounded between the survey line of the skeleton and boundary

2.18.1 Considering the entire area as the whole (or) dividing area into number of triangles

In this method, the area is divided into a number of triangles and the area of each triangle is calculated by measuring their sides and included angles. Then the total area of the land will be equal to the sum of the areas of indridual triangles. If two sides are one included angle of a triangle is known then area =1/2 ab sin When the lengths of three sides of a triangle is measured then
Area = where S ( S a ) ( S b) ( S c ) s= 1 (a + b + c ) & a, b, c, are the sides of the triangle 2

2.18. 2 Areas between Survey Lines and Boundaries

In this method a number of off sets are measured from the survey line to the boundary one at regular intervals. Then the area between the survey line and the boundary line can be measured by the following rules a) Trapezoidal Rule b) Simpsons Rule a) Trapezoidal Rule The base line is divided into equal parts and ordinates are drawn from the base line to the boundary. The figures between the ordinates base line & irregular boundary are considered as trapezoids. The ordinates are measured and the lengths are calculated.


d n

= distance between adjacent ordinates = number of ordinates

Total Area 16


d [( O1 + On ) + 2( O2 + O3 + O4 + .......... . + On 1 ) ] 2

= distance /2 [sum of first and last ordinates +2(sum of all remaining ordinates)] b) Simpsons Rule

In this rule the boundaries are assumed as an arc of parabola and it is sometimes known as parabolic rule. Here also the base is divided into equal parts and ordinates are drawn and measured
d [( O1 + On ) + 2( O3 + O5 + .......... . + On 2 ) + 4( O2 + O4 + ........ + On 1 ) ] 3 dis tan ce [ sum of first and last ordinates + 2( odd ordinates Total area = 3 A=

) + 4( even



Table 2.4 Comparison between Trapezoidal and Simpsons Rule S. No 1 2 3 Trapezoidal Rule This method is suitable for straight boundaries Less accurate Application is simple (applicable for any number of ordinates) Simpsons Rule This method is suitable for irregular and straight boundaries More accurate Application is difficult (Only applicable for odd ordinates)

2.19 Leveling
Definition Leveling is the process of determining the relative heights on the positions of the earths surface. Objectives To find the elevations of the given points with respect to a given or assumed datum. To establish points at a given elevation or at different elevations with respect to a given or assumed datum 17

The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed, while the second operation is required in the setting out of all kinds of engineering works such as railways, highways, canals, dams, water supply etc.

2.20 Technical terms used in Leveling

2.20.1 Level Surface The surface which is normal to the direction of gravity at all points is called a level surface. Every point on level surface will be equidistant from the center of the earth. For e.g.:- the surface of a still lake forms a level surface 2.20.2 Horizontal plane The plane tangential to the level surface at any point is known as a horizontal plane 2.20.3 Vertical plane The plane which contains vertical line at a plane is called a vertical plane. The vertical line at any point will be perpendicular to the level surface at that point. 2.20.4 Datum Surface This is an arbitrary surface with reference to which the heights (elevations) of points are measured and compared. 2.20.5 Reduced Level (R.L) Reduced level of a point is its height above or below the datum. 2.20.6 Back Sight (B.S) It is the first staff reading taken after setting up the instrument in any position. This will always be a reading on a point of known height 2.20.7 Fore Sight (F.S) This is the last staff reading taken on a point before shifting the instrument. This will always be a point whose height has to be determined. 2.20.8 Intermediate Sight (I.S) Intermediate sight refers to any staff reading taken on a point of unknown elevation after the back sight and before the fore sight. This is necessary if it is needed to take more than two reading from the same position of the instrument 2.20.9 Change Point (C.P) A change point indicates the shifting of the instrument both the back sight and the fore sight are taken on a change point. 2.20.10 Bench Mark (B.P) A bench mark is a fixed reference point of known elevation. It is used as a starting point for leveling. It is classified as (a) Great trignometrical survey (b) Permanent bench marks (c) Arbitrary bench marks (d) Temporary bench marks


2.21 Principle of Leveling

The principle of the leveling lies in furnishing a horizontal line of sight and finding the vertical distances of the points above are below the line of sight. The line of sight is provided with a level. A graduated leveling staff is used to measure the sight of the line sight. Following figure shows the principle of leveling.

Let O represents the centre of the earth. A & A are the points whose difference in elevation is required c is the position of the instrument (level). The line CO is the direction of the plumb line. BB denotes the line of sight which is perpendicular to CO. AB & AB is the readings on the staff vertically held at points A&A respectively. OA + AB= OA+AA+AB (or) AB AB-AA=dh Where: dh is the difference in elevation between the points A &A

2.22 Instruments used for leveling

The level: - consists of A telescopic to provide the line of sight A level tube to make the line of sight horizontal. A leveling head to bring the level of the bubble of the tube level at the centre of its run. The tripod to support the above parts of the level Dumpy level, Tilting level, Wye level, Automatic level A leveling staff

2.22.1 Dumpy levels The below figure shows the different parts of a dumpy level which was designed by Gravatt. This is also called the solid dumpy level. In this the telescope is rigidly fixed to the base so that the telescope can neither be rotated about its longitudinal axis nor it can be removed from the supports. This instrument consists of a long bubble tube attached to the fixed telescope. Dumpy literally means short & thick. This is more stable than the other types


Fig 2.9 Dumpy Level 2.22.2 Leveling Staff

Fig 2.10 Leveling staff

A leveling staff is a straight rectangular wooden rod graduated in meters & smaller divisions the bottom most reading is zero and the reading given by the line of sight on the staff is the height of the point on which the staff is held.

2.23 Classification of Leveling

Simple Leveling Differential Leveling 2.23.1 Simple leveling Simple leveling is the easiest way adopted to find the difference in level between any two points. Let A & B are the two points and O be the station point placed approximately mid way between A & B. station O need not lie on the line joining A & B. The reading at the staff at A is first taken. Let this be h1 then the reading of the staff h2 at b is noted after adjusting the bubble to be at the centre. The difference between the two readings. i.e.) h 1-h2 gives the difference in level between A & B. If reduced level of A is 100 then R.L of B can be found as Height of a instrument at O=100+h1 R.L of B=100+h1-h2


Fig 2.11 simple leveling 2.23.2 Differential leveling If it is necessary to find the difference in elevation between two points which are too far apart or if there are any obstacles between them or if the difference is high then differential leveling is adopted in successive stages. Hence it is also known as compound or continuous leveling

. Fig 2.12. Differential leveling Let A & E is the two points whose difference in elevation necessary. The staff reading at a is noted as a form stating point O1. After adjusting the bubble, the staff reading at the firm point B is noted from O1as b1. The staff reading is the back sight &b1 is the foresight. B is selected such that AO1is approximately equal toO1B. Now the instrument is shifted to O2 & the staff reading from B1 to O2 is taken and noted as b2. Another firm point C is selected & the procedure is repeated till the point E is reached. The difference in level A & B is (a-b 1). The difference in level between B & C (b2-c1) and so on. The difference in level is between A&E are the algebric sum of the differences.

2.24 Reduction of Levels

There are two methods to calculating the reduced levels of points by Height of Collimation Method Rise and Full Method


2.24.1Height of Collimation In this method the height of the instrument (H.I) is calculated for each setting by adding the back sight (B.S) to the elevation of B.M. the reduced level of the first station or the intermediate sight at the intermediate station. For the second setting H.I is calculated by adding the back sight taken on the second point to its reduced level. The reduced level of the last point is obtained by subtracting the fore sight of the last point from the H.I at the last setting. Arithmetic check can be done in the following manner B.S - F.S = Last R.L First R.L This method is simple, easy & rapid. 2.24.2 Rise and Fall Method In this method the difference of level between two consecutive points for each setting of the instrument is obtained by comparing their staff readings. A rise is indicated if the back sight reading is greater than the foresight and a fall is shown if it is greater than the foresight reading. The rise and fall worked out for all the points give the level difference of each point with respect to the proceeding one. If the R.L of the back staff point is known, the R.L of the following point can be obtained by subtracting its fall from the R.L of the proceeding point or by adding its raise to the R.L of the proceeding point. Arithmetic check is done in the following manner B.S - F.S = Rise - Fall = Last R.L First R.L Table 2.5 Comparison between Height of Collimation & Rise and Fall Method S. No 1 Height of Collimation Method Rise and Fall Method

It is more rapid and saves time and It is laborious as the staff reading of each labors station is compared to get a rise or fall It is adopted for reduction of levels This is adopted for determining the for longitudinal or cross sectional difference in levels of two points where leveling works precision is required There is no check on the R.L of There is a complete check on the R.L s of intermediate stations intermediate station There are two arithmetic checks There are three arithmetic checks = Rise - Fall

B.S - F.S =Last R.L First R.L B.S - F.S = Last R.L First R.L

Errors in any of the intermediate Errors in the intermediate sights are noticed sights are not noticed as these are used for finding out rises and falls


Chapter 3 Civil Engineering Materials

The common brick is one of the oldest building materials and it is extensively used at present as a leading building material of construction because of its durability, strength, low cost, easily availability etc. This bricks are made from soil and hence the property of bricks will depend on the property of the soil. 3.1.1Composition of Good Brick Earth Alumina Silica Lime Oxide of Iron Magnesia

Alumina A good brick earth should contain about 20 to 30% of alumina. This constituent imparts plasticity to earth so that it can be moulded . If it is present in excess, raw bricks sink and warp during drying & burning Silica A good brick earth should contain 50-60%of silica. Presence of this constituent prevents cracking shrinking and warping of raw bricks Lime A good brick earth should contain a small quantity of lime. It prevents shrinkage of raw bricks if it is in excess, it will cause the brick to melt and hence its shape is lost. If the lumps of the lime are present in brick earth. These are converted into quick lime after burning and this quick lime slacks and expands in the presence of moisture this will result in splitting of bricks into pieces. Oxide of Iron A good brick earth should contain a small quantity of oxide of iron to the extent of about 5-6%. It gives red color to the bricks Magnesia A small quantity of this constituent imparts yellow tints to bricks and it decrease shrinkage 3.1.2 Manufacture of Bricks The following are the four processes involved in the manufacture of bricks 1. Preparation of brick earth 2. Moulding of bricks 3. Drying of bricks 4. Burning of bricks

1) Preparation of Brick Earth Removal of loose soil Digging, spreading & cleaning Weathering Blending Tempering

a) Removal of loose soil The top layer of the; loose soil about 20 cm depth contains lot of impurities and hence it should be taken out and thrown away. b) Digging, spreading & cleaning The earth is then dug out from the ground. The earth is then spread into heaps of about 60cm to120cm height all the undesirable matters like stones vegetable matter etc are removed. Lumps of clay should be converted into powder form c) Weathering The earth is then exposed to atmosphere for softening. The period of exposure varies from weeks to full season. d) Blending The clay is then mixed with suitable ingredients. It is carried out by taking a small portion of clay every time and by turning it up & down in vertical direction. e) Tempering This is done to make the whole mass of clay homogeneous & plastic. Required quantity of water is added to clay and the whole mass is kneaded under the feet of man or cattle. When bricks are manufactured on a large scale tempering is usually done in a pug mill 2) Moulding of Bricks The tempered clay is then sent to the next operation of moulding. There are two methods of moulding a) Hand Moulding b) Machine Moulding

a) Hand Moulding
This is done by a mould which is a rectangular box with open top and bottom. It may be of wood or steel. Following are the ways of hand moulding. i. Ground Moulding ii. Table Moulding i. Ground Moulding First a small portion of ground is cleaned and leveled. Fine sand is sprinkled over it. Moulding is started from one end of the ground. Mould is dipped in water and kept on the ground and clay is pressed on the ground nicely so that all the corners of the mould are filled with clay, and excess is scrapped by strikes. Mould is again dipped in water and it is placed just hear the previous brick to prepare another brick. Process is repeated till the ground is covered with bricks. A mark of depth about 10 mm to 20 mm is placed on raw brick by a

pallet during moulding. This mark is called as frog. After the bricks become sufficiently dry, they are sent for the next process of drying. ii. Table Moulding: This should be done by an experienced supervisor. The moulder stands near a table of size about 2m x 1m clay, mould water pots, stocks, board, strikes and pallet boards are placed on this table. Bricks are moulded on the table and sent for the next process of drying.

b) Machine Moulding:
When bricks are manufactured in huge quantity at the same spot then moulding in huge quantity at the same spot then moulding is done by machines. These machines certain a rectangular opening of size equal to the length and width of the brick. The tampered clay is placed in the machine and as it comes out through the opening under pressure, it is cut into strips by wire fixed in frames. Arrangement is made in such a way that strips of thickness equal to that of the brick are obtained. The machine moulded bricks have sharp edges & corners, smooth external surface & uniform texture. 3. Drying of Bricks: After the bricks are moulded, they are dried. This is done on specially prepared drying yards Bricks are stacked in the yard 8 to 10 bricks in each row. Bricks are dried for a period of 5-12 days. 4. Burning of Bricks: Burning imparts hardness and strength to bricks and makes them dense and durable. It must be done carefully and properly because underburnt bricks remains soft and hence cannot carry loads and overburnt bricks become brittle and hence, break easily. Burning of bricks is done either in clamp or in kilns. 3.1.3 Classification of Bricks. On the basis of method of manufacturing the bricks are classified as: Unburnt Bricks or Sun dried bricks. Burnt bricks.

1. Unburnt Bricks: After the process of moulding, the bricks are dried in sunlight. These bricks have low strength and these are used in the construction of temporary and cheap structures. 2. Burnt Bricks: This bricks are burnt in clamps or kilns. These bricks are used for all construction works. Burnt bricks are classified as First class bricks Second class bricks Third class bricks Fourth class bricks

a. First class bricks

These bricks are table moulded & edges are sharp, square & straight these bricks are used for superior works. b. Second class bricks These bricks are ground moulded & they are burnt in kilns. The surface is not smooth and edges are not regular. These bricks are used at places where brick is to be provided with a cost of plaster. c. Third class bricks These bricks are ground moulded & they are burnt in clamps. They have Rough surfaces with irregular & distorted edges. These bricks are not hard. They are used for unimportant & temporary construction. d. Fourth class bricks These are over burnt bricks. These are dark in color & irregular. These are used as aggregates for concrete in foundations, floors, roads etc. 3.1.4 Qualities of Good bricks Bricks should have prefect edges, well burnt in kilns, copper colored. Free from cracks with proper rectangular shape and of standard size (19*9*9 cm) Bricks should give clear ringing sound when struck with each other Bricks must be homogeneous & free from voids. The % absorption of water by weight should not be greater than 20% for first class bricks & 22% for II class bricks when soaked in cold water for 24hrs. Bricks should be sufficiently hard. i.e. no nail impression must be present when scratched. The average weight of the brick 3-3.5kg Bricks should not break when dropped from a height of 1m Bricks should have low thermal conductivity and should be sound proof. Bricks should not show deposits of salts when immersed in water & dried. The minimum crushing strength of bricks must be 3.5N/mm2. Bricks are mainly used for the construction of walls. Bricks when moulded in the shape of a gutter can be used as drains. Bricks with cavities known as hollow bricks can be used for insulation purposes & because of their light weight they are more useful in speedy construction. Paving bricks prepared from clay containing higher percentage of iron can be used for pavements, since they resist abrasion in a better way. Bricks with holes are used in multi-storied framed structures. Fire bricks made of fire clay can be used as a refractory material. Sand-lime bricks are used for ornamental work.


Bricks are used in the constructing of compound walls, columns etc.. Broken pieces of bricks are used as aggregates in concrete. Bricks of superior quality can be used in the facing of a wall. Bricks are used in the construction of chimneys & other special works.

Stone is a naturally available material of construction and is obtained from rocks.



Rocks are classified as 1. Geological 2. Physical 3. Chemical 1. Geological classification Based on mode of formation the rocks are classified as a. Igneous rocks b. sedimentary rocks c. Metamorphic rocks a. Igneous Rocks These rocks are formed by the cooling of molten rocky material called Magma which is inside the earths surface. If the magma cools at a considerable depth from earths surface then it is called Plutonic rocks. The cooling is slow &hence these rocks posses coarsely grained crystalline structure. E.g.:- Granite. If the magma cools at a relatively shallow depth from earths surface, then it is called Hypabyssal rocks. The cooling is quick and hence these rocks possess finely grained crystalline structure .E.g.: - Dolerite If the magma cools at earths surface then it is called VOLCANIC ROCKS. The cooling is very rapid & hence these rocks posses extremely fine grained structure. Eg: Basalt. b. Sedimentary rocks: Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of products of weathering on the Pre-existing rocks.All the products of weathering are ultimately carried away from their place of origin by the agents of wind,rain,frost etc .. Eg: Sand stone ,Lime stone ,Gravel ,Gypsum. c. Metamorphic rocks: When the Pre-existing rocks i.e. (Igneous and sedimentary rocks) are subjected to great heat and pressure, they are changed in character and forms metamorphic rocks.

PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION Based on the general structure the rocks are classified as Stratified Rocks Un Stratified Rocks Foliated Rocks

a. Stratified Rocks These rocks posses plans of stratification and such rocks can easily be split up along these palnes. Eg: Sedimentary rocks. b. Un Stratified Rocks These rocks donot exhibit any definite layers or strata . The structure of these rocks may be crystalline, granular, compact granular. Eg:Igneous Rocks.. c. Foliated Rocks These rocks have a tendency to be a split up in a definite direction only. Eg: Metamorphic Rocks 3. CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION: Based on chemical constituents the rocks are classified as Silicious Rocks Argillaceous Rocks Calcareous Rocks In these rocks, silica is the main constituent .Eg:Granite, Quartzites. b. Argillaceous Rocks In these rocks clay is the main constituent .Eg: slate, laterite etc... c. Calcareous Rocks Calcium carbonate or lime is the main constituent and are very hard and durable. Eg:- marble, limestones. 3.2.2 QUALITIES OF THE GOOD BULIDING A good building stone should have the following qualities. The Colour of the stone should not be easily attacked by weathering agents. A good building stone should be durable. It should not be easily affected by temperature, rain, sunlight, wind, etc. A good building stone should be easily dressed i.e. easily moulded, cut & curved. Fracture of a good building stone should be sharp, even & clear. A good building stone should not be easily affected by fire.

a. Silicious Rocks

A good building stone should be dry. A good building stone should have compact fine crystalline structure, free from cavities, cracks, etc. The crushing strength should be greater than 1000 kg/cm2. For a good building stone co-efficient of hardness should not be below 14. For a good building stone the percentage of wear should not be less then 3. For a good building stone specific gravity should be greater then 2.7. For a good building stone toughness index should not be less than 14 as tested in impact testing machine. When a stone is immersed in water for 24hrs.The percentage absorption by weight should not exceed 0.60% by weight.

3.2.3 Quarrying The process of taking out stones from natural rock beds is known as quarrying. Usually quarrying can be done by the following two methods. By hand tools. By Blasting.

In the case of soft rocks, stones are merely excavated with the help of suitable instrument such as pick axes, hammers, chisels etc. In the case of hard rocks, explosives are used to convert rock into small pieces of stones. 3.2.4 Dressing of Stone The surfaces of stones obtained from quarry & rough. The blocks are irregular in shape and non-uniform in size. Hence their dressing is essential. The process of cutting the stones into suitable sizes & with suitable surfaces is known as dressing of stones. It is carried out for following purposes. 1. To get desired appearance from stone work. 2. To make the transport easy & economical. 3. To suit the requirements of stone masonry. 3.2.5 Uses of stones: Stones are used in the construction of foundation walls, columns, lintels, arches, roofs, etc. Stones are used to cover floor of buildings of various types such as residential, commercial, industrial, etc, Stones are adopted to form paving of roads & foot paths. Stones are converted to from basic materials for concrete, murrum of roads, artificial stones, hollow blocks, etc. Stones are used as ballast for railway track.

Stones are used as flux in blast furnace. Stone blocks are used in the construction of bridges, piers, abutments, retaining wall, dams, etc. In modern days, polished stone panels are used as cladding for architectural purposes & also polished stone slabs are replacing the dining table tops in residential houses & restaurants.


3.3.1 Definition: Soil is the unaggregated deposits of mineral & particles covering large portion of the earths crust. It is produced by the weathering of the solid rocks. 3.3.2 Classification of Soil The main purpose of soil classification is to arrange various types of soils into groups according to their various engineering properties. They are mainly two types of soil classification. 1. Particle size classification. 2. Unified soil classification & I.S.Classification system. 1. Particle size Classification In this system, soils are classified according to the grain size of the solid particles of the soil. There is various grain size classifications in use, but the Indian Standard Classification is very important. Classification of the soil according to the grain-size Table 3.1 Particle size classification S.NO 1. 2. Boulder Cobble Gravel 3. (a) Fine gravel (b) Coarse gravel Sand 4. (a) Fine sand (b) Medium sand (c) Coarse sand 5. 6. Silt Clay Soil Grain size More than 300 mm 80 mm to 300 mm 4.75 mm to 80 mm 4.75 mm to 20 mm 20 mm to 80 mm 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm 0.075 mm to 0.425 mm 0.425 mm to 2.0 mm 2.0 mm to 4.75 mm 0.002mm to 0.075 mm Less than 0.002 mm

2. Unified soil classification & Indian standard classification This system is based on both grain size & plasticity properties of the soil. Soils are broadly divided into three divisions a. Coarse grained soils In these soils more than half the total material by weight is larger than 75 micron is sieve size. This soil is further divided into two sub-divisions. i. Gravel In these soil, more than half the coarse fraction (+75) is larger than 4.75mm is sieve size .This sub-division includes gravel & gravelly soil and is designed by symbol G. ii. Sands(s) In these soils more than half the coarse fraction (+75) is smaller than 4.75mm is sieve size. b. Fine grained soils In these soils more than half the material by weight is larger than 75 micron is sieve size. Fine grained soils are further divided into three sub-divisions. i. ii. iii. iv. Inorganic silts &very fine sands: M. Inorganic clays: C Organic silts &clays &organic matter: O Highly organic soils &other miscellaneous soil materials.

These contain large particles of fibrous Organic matter such as peat and the particles of decomposed vegetations. In addition certain soils containing shells, concretions. Cinders & other non soil. Materials in sufficient quantities are also grouped in this division. 3.4 Cement Cement means a binding material. Cement is available in various types, each having different chemical composition & used for specific application. Cement is obtained by burning the mixture of calcareous of about 1400c. The calcined product is known as clinkers. The fine powder obtained by grinding of the clinker with a small quantity of gypsum is known as cement. On setting, the colour of cement ressembler the variety of sandstones found in portland. It was invented by a mason, joseph aspdin leeds in England in 1824. The most commonly used cement used cement is the ordinary portland cement. For civil engineering works which sets well under water, hardens quickly and attains strength. Setting Action of cement When water is added to cement, The ingredients of cement react chemically with water and forms various complicated chemical compounds which impart strength to the cement. This phenomenon is called as hardening of cement or setting action of cement. 3.4.2 Properties of ordinary Portland cement The colour of cement should be uniform. Cement should be free from lumps. The cement should feel smooth when touched or rubbed in between fingers.

If a small quantity of cement is thrown into a bucket of water, it should sink and should not float on the surface. Average compressive strength of cement mortar should not be less than 11.5N/mm2 at the age of 7days. Average tensile strength of cement mortar should not be less than 2N/mm2 at the age of 3days & 2.5N/mm2 at the age of 7days. The intial setting time should not be less than 30 minutes and final setting time should not be more than 600 minutes. (10 hrs) When ignited, cement should not loose more than 4% of its weight. The specific surface of cement should not be less than 2250cm2/gm. Weight of magnesia in cement should not exceed 5%. The expansion of cement should not be greater than 20mm when soundness test is conducted. Cement is used for constructing engineering structures. Where great strength is required. Such as dams, bridges, storage reservoirs etc. Cement is used for making joints for pipes, drains etc. Cement is used for preparation of foundations, footh paths etc. Cement is used for manufacture of precast pipes, piles, fencing posts etc. Cement mortar is used for masonry work, plastering, pointing etc. Cement concrete is used for laying floors, roofs & constructing lintels, pillars, stairs, beams, water tanks, wells, septic tanks, runways etc. Cement mortar plastering is used for protecting outer faces of structures from weather. 6. Acid resistant cement 7. Sulphate resisting cement 8. White cement 9. Coloured cement

3.4.3 Uses of cement

3.4.4 Types of cement 1. Quick setting cement. 2. Low heat cement. 3. High alumina cement. 4. Expanding cement. 5. Rapid hardening cement. 1. Quick setting cement This cement is produced by adding a small percentage of aluminum sulphate and by finely grinding the cement. Percentage of Gypsum is also reduced.The setting action of this cement starts within few minutes after addition of water and it becomes hard within 30 min or so. Uses:-This cement is used to lay concrete under water. 2. Low heat cement This cement contains lower percentage tricalcium aluminate &higher percentage of dicalcium silicate.

Property:-The heat generated during the setting of this cement is very less. Use:-In the case of mass concreting of dams etc., The heats generation during the setting of cement is enormous and it takes a larger time for dissipation. But in the case of low heat cement the heat during setting is very useful for such work. 3. High alumina cement The cement is produced by grinding clinkers by calcing bauxites &lime. Bauxite is an aluminum ore. Properties 1. Initial setting time of this cement is more than three &half hours. Final setting time is about 5 hrs. 2. It can stand high Temperatures. 3. It evolves great heat during setting. It is therefore not affected by frost. 4. It resists the action of acids. 5. It attains higher ultimate strength in a short period. Uses:1. It is used for special purpose as it is highly impervious to water and corrosion resistant. 2. It is used for making refractory concrete with crushed fire brick as aggregate. 3. It is used for furnace insulation. 4. Expanding cement:This cement is produced by adding an expanding medium like Sulpho-aluminate & stabling agent to ordinary cement. Property:This cement expands during curing whereas other cement shrink. Uses This is used for repairing concrete surfaces. 5. Rapid hardening cement This cement is obtained by burning the ingredients at high temperatures & by increasing lime cement. Property This cement attains high strength in short period. Use As it sets quickly the construction may be carried out speedly. 6. Acid Resistant cement To increase the property of acid-resistance, ingredients such as quartz, sodium silicate and sodium fluosilicate are added to the cement. Use

This is used for acid resistant & heat resistant coatings of installation of chemical industry. 7. Sulphate resisting cement In this cement the percentage of tricalcium aluminates is less than 5%. Property This cement has good resisting power against sulphates. 8. White cement This cement is white in colour & it free from colouring ingredients such as iron oxide, magnese oxide, or chromium oxide. This cement is burned by oil. It is very costlier. Uses: 1. It is used for floor finish & plaster work. 2. For external rough coating of walls, pointing of brick & stone masonry. 3. Used in the manufacture of percast stones & tiles and colour cement. 4. It is used for bridge rails,traffic kerbs & aerodrome making. 9. Coloured cement Cement of desired colour may be obtained by intimately mixing colouring material with ordinary cement.chromium oxide gives green colour.cobalt gives blue colour.Iron oxide gives brown colour.The amount of colouring material should not exceed 10%. Uses: 1. These are widely used for finishing of floors,external surfaces etc. 2. For plastering walls. 3. Used in the manufacture of tiles & cast stones. 4. Uesd for Terrazzo floor finish,swimming pools,garden paths & tennis courts.

3.5 Concrete
3.5.1Definition Cement concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, crushed rock & water which when placed in the skeleton of forms & allowed to cure, becomes hard such as stone. 3.5.2 Properties of Concrete It has a high Compressive strength and its strength depends on the proportion in which cement, sand, stones & water are mixed. It is free from corrosion & there is no appreciable effect of atmospheric agents on it. It hardens with age & the process of hardening continues for a long time after the concrete has attained sufficient strength. As it is weak in tension, steel reinforcement is placed in it to take up the tensile stresses. This is termed as Reinforced Cement Concrete.

It shrinks in the initial stage due to loss of water through forms. The shrinkage of cement concrete occurs as it hardens. It has a tendency to be porous. This is due to the presence of voids which are formed during and after its placing. It forms a hard surface, capable of resisting abrasion. Concrete can be made impermeable by using hydrophobic cement. This is used for the construction of R.C.C flat roof slabs. Coloured Concrete is used for ornamental finishes in buildings , park lanes, separating lines of road surfaces, underground pedestrian crossings, etc. Light-weight concrete is used in multi-storeyed constructions. No-fines concrete is one in which sand is eliminated. This can be used for cast-in-situ external load bearing walls of single & multi storey houses, retaining walls, damp proofing material, etc. Concrete is mainly used in floors, roof slabs, columns, beams, lintels, foundations and in Precast constructions. It is used in massive structures such as dams & bridges. Concrete is used in the construction of roads, runways, playground, water tanks & chimneys. It is used in the construction of sleepers in railways. Prestressed concrete is a relatively new type of concrete which is used in many constructions particularly in the construction of bridges. Concrete is used in the construction of bunkers, silos etc.,

3.5.3 Uses of Concrete

3.5.4 Constituents of Concrete 1) Cement 2) Aggregates a) Coarse Aggregates 3) Water 3.5.5. Water Cement Ratio The ratio of weight of water used to that of cement is termed as water cement ratio.Water Cement Ratio depends upon the strength & workability desired & method of compaction. The lower the water cement ratio, greater is the strength of the mix but lesser will be workability. The water required for an ordinary concrete mix is generally 5% by weight of aggregate plus 30% by weight of cement. Necessary variation being made for the required workability. The exact quantity of water required can be determined by conducting the slump test in the field. b) Fine Aggregates

3.5.6 Workability Workability of concrete is defined as the ease with which it can be mixed, transported & placed in position so that the concrete remains homogeneous. Wet concrete are more workable than dry concrete. 3.5.7 Factors affecting workability Water content. Mix proportions. Size & shape of aggregates. Grading of aggregates. Use of admixtures.

3.5.8 Slump Test Slump test is used to measure the workability of concrete and also to decide the required amount of water. A standard slump cone, as given in figure is used for this test. For testing the workability of concrete, the slump cone is placed on the ground. It is then filled with concrete about 1/4th portion & it is then rammed with a rod which is provided with bullet nose at the lower end. The strokes to be given for ramming vary from 20 to 30. The remaining portion of the cone is filled in with similar layers & then, the top of concrete surface is struck off so that the cone is completely full of concrete. Then the cone is removed gradually. The concrete is allowed to subside & then height of concrete is measured. Slump of concrete is obtained by deducting the height of concrete from height of the cone. Table shows the recommended slumps of concrete for various types of concrete works.

Fig 3.1 Slump Test

Table 3.1: Recommended slumps of concrete S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. Type of concrete Normal R.C.C work Concrete for canal lining Mass concrete Concrete for road construction Slump 80 to 150 mm 70 to 80 mm 25 to 50 mm 20 to 40 mm

Table 3.2: classification of concrete mixes on the basis of slump S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. No slump From 10mm to 30mm From 40mm to 150mm Over 150mm Slump Nature of concrete mix Stiff and extra stiff mix Poorly mobile mix Mobile mix Cast mix

Table 3.3: Compressive Strength of Concrete Grade of concrete Approximate mix proportion Compressive strength after 28 days Used for the following Types of construction Mass concreting relating in foundations,



10 N/mm

Walls, bridge piers, culverts, etc. M15 M20 M25 1 :2 :4 1 :1.5 :3 1 :1 :2 15 N/mm2 20 N/mm2 25 N/mm2 Castings of slabs, beams, lintels, staircases, bridges, etc... Columns , water tanks, front facing of dams, etc., Piles in foundations, heavily loaded columns

3.5.9 Types of Concrete The following are the various types of concrete in use. Plain cement concrete. Reinforced cement Concrete.

Prestressed Concrete. Light-Weight Concrete. No-fines Concrete. Pre-cast Concrete. Fibre reinforced Concrete.

1. Plain Cement Concrete(PCC) It is a mixture of cement, sand, pebbles or crushed rock & water. It possess the following It is free from corrosion. It has a high compressive strength. It binds rapidly with steel. It has a tendency to shrink. It can be minimised by curing.

2. Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Plain cement concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension. To increase the tensile strength of concrete steel bars known as reinforcement are embedded in concrete. This is known as reinforced cement concrete. 3. Pre-stressed Concrete In this type of concrete, high tensile steel wires are used as reinforcement instead of mild steel bars. There are two types of prestressing namely Pre-tensioning & Post tensioning. In Pre-tensioning method, the wires are initially stressed & the concrete is cast in the moulds builts around the wires. The wires released after the concrete attain its strength. The tendency of the wires to return to their original length sets up a compression in concrete, which helps the concrete to resist more tensile stress. In Post-tensioning method, the wires are placed inside the concrete & then stressed. The use of prestressed concrete results in saving of concrete & steel to the extent of 50% & 80% respectively compared to R.C.C. 4. Light weight Concrete They are produced from a wide variety of both natural earth substance & fly ash. It mainly consists of cement , aggregates of loose porosity, steel & water. The bulk density of this concrete varies from 500 to 1800 kg/m3 whereas the bulk density of ordinary concrete is about 2300 kg/m3. Advantage of light weight concrete: 1) Its weight is less. 2) It has better insulating & fire resisting properties. 3) It saves the cost of material handling because of its lightness. 4) It has a high water absorption property.

5. No- fines Concrete It consists of cement, coarse aggregate & water. Thus fine aggregate or sand is eliminated. This concrete has been adopted for cast-in-situ external load bearing walls of single & multi storey houses, small retaining wall etc. Advantages are: 1) It possess better insulating properties. 2) The unit weight of no- fines concrete is about 2/3 of the unit weight of conventional concrete. 3) On drying, shrinkage is low. 6. Pre-cast Concrete Pre-cast concrete is manufactured in a factory and the transmitted to the site. The advantages are: 1) The pre-cast articles may be given the desired shape & finish with accuracy. 2) The labour required in the manufacturing process of Pre-cast units can be easily trained. 3) Concrete of superior quality is produced. 4) The Pre-cast structures can be dismantled when required & they are then be suitably used elsewhere. 7. Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) It mainly consists of cement, fibre, sand & water. Asbestos, glass, nylon or coconut have been tried as alternative to steel. The advantages are: 1) It has thin sections. 2) Production rate is less. 3) More durable. 4) Less Maintenance Cost.

3.6 Steel Sections

Steel is very ductile & has elastic properties. Mild Steel having a carbon content of 0.1-0.25% is used for structural work. To be used in construction works steel must be available in certain form. These are called market forms & are discussed below. 3.6.1 Commercial forms of steel Following are the various forms in which steel is available in market. 1) Round Bars 2) Square bars 3) Torsteel 4) Plates 5) Flat bars 1. Round Bars These Bars are the common form of steel in building construction. These bars are available in lengths varying from 10-12m. The common round bars vary from 6-32mm in 6) Angle Sections 7) Channel Sections 8) I Sections 9) T Sections

diameter. These round bars are used in reinforced concrete & reinforced brick work constructions. 2. Square Bars These bars are square in cross section.square sections of size 5-32mm are commonly used in building works.These square bars are used as rallings in buildings and for grillwork. 3. Torsteel Torsteel rods are twisted deformed bars.Torsteel rods are used as reinforcement in concrete for roof slabs,beams,columns,staircases etc.Torsteel bars have longitudinal ribs(small projections) in the form of continous or discontinous helix &transverse ribs spaced at uniform intervals.The yield strength of torsteel is 415N/mm2 which is about 40% higher than that of plain steel bars, hence by using torsteel there is about 40% saving in steel. 4. Plates Rolled plates have a maximum area of 30m2.The thickness of the plates varies from 528mm.plates thinner than 5mm are called as sheets.These plates are used as webs&Flanges for deep beams,column flanges,column bases etc. 5. Flat bars These are much longer than plates but have shorter width. The width varies from 18500mm and the thickness varies from 3-80mm.These are also used in grill works & railings. 6. Angle Sections Angle sections may be of equal or unequal legs as shown in fig. Equal angle sections are available in sizes varying from 20mm20mm3mm to 200mm200mm25mm.Unequal angle sections are available from 30mm20mm3mm to 200mm150mm18mm. Angle sections are used in the constructions of steel roof trusses. Steel columns, steel beams and as stiffeners in huge girders. It is mainly used in the construction of steel bridges. 7. Channel Sections A channel section consists of a web with two equal flanges. Typically a channel section is designated by the height of web & the width of flange. These sections are available from 100mm45mm to 400mm100mm. Channel sections are widely used as structural members of the steel-framed structures. These are used in the construction of built-in columns, crane griders, beams & steel bridges. 8. I-sections These are popularly known as rolled steel joists (R.S.joists) or beams. An I-sections consists of two flanges connected by a web as shown in fig.It is designated by overall depth, width of flange & weight per metre length. These are available in various sizes from 75mm50mm at 61N/mm2 to 6000mm210mm at 995N/mm.R.Sjoists are economical in material and are suitable for floor beams, lintels, columns etc. 9. T-sections T-sections consists of a web and a flange. It is designated by its overall dimensions & thickness. The sections are available in sizes varying from 20mm20mm3mm to 150mm150mm10mm.T-sections are widely used as members of steel roof trusses and to

form built-up sections. These are also used in chimneys, steel bridges, T-connections in steel water tanks etc

Fig 3.2 Commercial Forms Of Steel

3.6.2 Steel as a Reinforcing Material

Reasons for steel to be considered as a good reinforcing material 1. It develops a good bind with concrete & hence the stresses are transformed from one material to another. 2. It has high tensile strength. 3. It has high modulus of elasticity. 4. Its temperature coefficient of expansion & contraction is same as that of concrete & so thermal stresses do not develop. 5. It is cheap & readily available. 3.6.3 Choice of Reinforcing Steel (a) Reinforcing steel should be chosen such that it can be incorporated in the concrete to form a monolithic structure. (b) The reinforcing steel should be of the smaller section to avoid stress concentration. 3.6.4 Form of reinforcing steel Round bars Flat bars Mild steel Tor steel (or) high yield strength deformed bars. Square bars Reinforcement in the form of fabric.

3.6.5 Types of reinforcing steel

1. Mild Steel Stress-strain curve From the tension test on mild steel,load Vs extension or stress-strain diagram is plotted as in fig.3.3.

Fig 3.3 stress-strain curve for Mild Steel a. Elastic stage (a to c) Load is increased gradually in the region (a to b) where the stress is directly proportional to strain. That is material obeys Hookes law works up to b which is known as the limit of proportionality. Beyond the limit of proportionality material obey Hooks law,i.e. the curve falls away from straight line ab produced. However material remains elastic up to c which is called limit through for all practical purposes b and c are the same. b. Yield Sstage (d to e) Beyond the elastic limit load on the specimen increases with strain till the point d is reached.Beyond d there is a sudden drop in load from d to e.d is known as upper yield point and e is denoted as lower yield point.Large deformation with no increase in load occurs in ef which is called plastic limit. c. Ductile Stage (f tog) Beyond f, the material offers resistance to further straining up to the point g and fg is called ductile stage. d. Plastic yielding stage (g to h) Specimen extends almost at constant load. From g to h, the deformation is called plastic yielding. h being ultimate load point where the load is the highest & corresponding stress is called ultimate stress. e. Load extension stage (h to i) Final stage hi occurs very rapidly. In this stage specimen extends under decreasing load. At the breaking point I, the neck forms & it breaks down into two pieces.

Properties of Mild steel Usage It is observed that steel is required for the existence of the heavy and light engineering industries, ship building, railways & rolling stock, automobiles, sheet metal industries, power generation & electrical industries, etc.It should also be noted that the entire range of electrical engineering industry depends upon the property of magnetism of steel. 2. Tor steel Definition To increase the resistance to slipping between steel bars and the concrete, the surface of the bars is sometimes roughened. Such bars are known as deformed bars or ribbed tor steel or HYSD bars. Manufacturing It is manufactured by controlled cold twisting of hot rolled deformed bars. Grades Tor 40 with a yield strength-415N/mm2 Tor 50 with a yield strength-500N/mm2 Properties: 1. Tor steel is weldable. 2. Ultimate strength is 55000N/mm2 3. Elongation is 12% Usage Tor steel is a safe, efficient, economical reinforcement suitable for all types of RCC construction such as buildings, roads, bridges, reservoirs, irrigation projects, hydroelectric, It can be magnetized permanently. It can be readily forged & welded. It can be easily hardened & tempered. It has fibrous structure. It is malleable & ductile. It is not easily attacked by salt water. It is tougher & more elastic than wrought iron. It is used for all types of structural works. It rusts easily & rapidly. Its melting point is about 1400c. Its specific gravity is 7.8 Compressive strength 80-120 KN/cm2 Tensile strength & shear strength 60-80KN/cm2

thermal & nuclear power projects, docksand harbours, marine structures, pile foundations, public health engineering works, precast concrete, etc. Advantages It has 65% greater yield strength. It has 100% greater bond strength. It has highest fatigue strength. It has high bendability. It has satisfactory & easy weld ability. It gives lesser crack width. It provides 20% more factor of safety due to hyper resistance. It is suitable for both tension & compression reinforcement. It does not need end hooks. Net economy is achieved in cost of reinforcing steel unto 40% in tension & unto 30% in compression.

Fig 3.4 Stress Strain curve for Tor Steel

4.1 Foundations
Foundations are the lowest artificially prepared parts of the structures which are in direct contact with the ground &which transmit the loads of super structure to the ground. 4.1.1 Functions of foundations 1. Distribution of load 2. Minimization of differential settlement 3. Safety against sliding & Over turning 4. Safety against undermining 5. Provision of level surface 4.2 Bearing Capacity of the soil The dead load &live load of the structure is finally transmitted to the soil and hence, it is important to know the strength and behavior of the soil. Dead load Self weight of the various components of buildings. Live load Moveable load on the floor. 4.2.1 Ultimate bearing capacity It is defined as the gross pressure intensity at the base of the foundations at which the soil fails in the shear. 4.2.2 Safe bearing capacity It is the maximum Pressure which the soil can carry safely without risk of shear failure. It is obtained by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity of soil by a factor of safety.
Ultimate bearing capaciyty Factor of safety

Safe bearing capacity =

Usual factor of safety adopted is 2 to 3. 4.2.3 Methods to Improve Bearing Capacity of Soil 1. Increasing the depth of foundations. 2. Compacting the soil 3. Draining the subsoil water. 4. Confining the soil mass 5. Grouting with cement 6. Chemical treatments like injecting silicates etc.,

4.3 Requirements of a good foundation The following are the essential requirements of a good foundation. 1. The foundations should be so located that it is able resist any unexpected future influence which may adversely affect its performance. 2. The foundations should be stable or safe against any possible failure. 3. The foundations should not settle or deflect to such an extent that will impair its usefulness. 4.4 Types of foundations Foundation

Shallow Foundation

Deep Foundation

Isolated Foundation

Combined Foundation

Strip Foundation

Pile Foundation

Under Reamed Foundation

Simple Footing

Stepped Footing

1. Shallow foundations 2. Deep foundations. 4.4.1 Shallow foundation When the depth of the foundation is less than or equal to its width. It is defined as shallow foundations. 1. Isolated footing In framed structures where several columns involved can be provided with masonry or concrete footing. If masonry footing is provided, steps are given and the foundations area is thus increased so that the stresses developed at the base is within the limit. Concrete can be moulded to any shape and hence a concrete footing may be a sloping one to provide sufficient spread. In case of masonry footing the projection of each step must be1/2

brick thick &each step is made of 1 or 2 bricks put together. Masonry footing and RCC footing are given in figure.4.1.

Fig 4.1 Isolated Footing 2. Combined Footing This type of footing is adopted when the space between two columns is so small that the foundations for individual columns will overlap. Combined footings are proportioned in such a way that the centre of gravity of the foundation. Hence these footings have either a trapezoidal or a rectangular shape. The plan of a combined footing is given in fig 4.2.

. Fig 4.2 Combined Footing 3. Strip footing Strip footing is one of the different types of shallow foundation. This is used where soil of good bearing capacity is available at a depth of less than 3m from the ground level. Since the footing is provided throughout the length of the wall in case of load bearing walls, it is also called as wall footing. Strip footing are classified as a. Simple footing b. Stepped footing

a. Simple footing Simple footing is provided in case of walls of very light structures like residential buildings. In simple footing, cement or lime concrete is used in foundation. The projection beyond the face of the wall (offset) of the concrete base is 15cm on either side as shown in fig.4.3.

Fig 4.3 Simple footing b. Stepped Footing Stepped footings are provided where the ground has a slope, otherwise it becomes uneconomical to provide foundations at the same level. It consists of two or more footing of brick or stone masonry and a concrete bed below the ground level as given in fig.4.4.

Fig 4.4.stepped footing:Width of footing:It is obtained by dividing the total load including dead loads, live loads and wind loads etc., by the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.

Total load per metre run in( N )

Width of footing = Depth of Footing The minimum depth of the footing is given by the Rankines formula

Safe bearing capacity of the soil in N


P 1 sin D= W 1 + sin

Where D-minimum Depth of footing P-Safe bearing capacity of the soil W-Unit weight of the soil in N/m3 -Angle of repose of the soil in degrees The minimum depth of footing for the load bearing wall is limited to 900mm for the stability criteria. 4.4.2 Deep Foundation Deep foundation consists of pile and pier foundations are rarely used for buildings. This consists in carrying down through the soil a huge masonry cylinder which may be supported on solid rock. 1. Pile Foundation Pile is an element of construction used as foundation. It may be driven in the ground vertically or with some inclination to transfer the load safely. Loads are supported in 2 ways, i.e. either by the effect of friction between soil and the pile skin or by resting the pile on a very hard stratum. Former is called friction pile and the latter one is load bearing pile. Friction piles may be made of cast iron, cement, concrete, timber, steel, wrought iron, and composite material load bearing piles are steel sheet piles, Concrete piles and timber piles. Piles may be cast-in-situ or precast. They may be cased or uncased. The details of a concrete pile are given in fig.4.5.

Fig 4.5 Concrete Pile 2. Under-reamed piles

Fig 4.6 under Reamed Pile

Structures built on expansive soils often crack due to the differential movement caused by alternate swelling and shrinking of soil. Under-reamed piles provide a satisfactory solution to the above problem. The above fig shows the details of an underreamed pile. The principle of this type of foundation is to transfer the load to a hard stratum which has sufficient capacity to take the load. Single and double under reamed piles may also be provided for foundations of structures in poor overlying firm soil strata. In such soils if double under-reamed piles are provided, both the under-reams shall rest within the firm soil strata.

Chapter 5
Superstructure The super structure consists mainly of walls, doors, windows and lintels. The purpose of the superstructure is to provide the necessary utility of the building .Structural safety, fire safety, sanitation and ventilation. The art of construction in stone or in brick is called masonry. Depending upon the type of building units used, masonry may be of the following types Brick masonry Stone masonry

5.1 Brick Masonry Masonry is made of brick units bonded together with mortar. Two Essential Components of brick masonry. 1. Brick 2. Mortar 5.2 Brick Bricks are manufactured by moulding clay in rectangular blocks of uniform size, drying them and burning them in kiln. There are two types of bricks used in masonry Traditional Bricks Modular bricks

5.2.1 Traditional Bricks These bricks do not have standard size. The Size of these bricks varies from place to place. The commonly adopted size is 23cm11.4cm7.6cm respectively.

Fig 5.1 Bricks 5.2.2 Modular bricks These bricks have standard dimension recommended by Indian Standard Institution. The actual size of this brick is 19cm9cm9cm with 1cm mortar thickness. The nominal size is 20cm10cm10cm. 5.3 Mortar Mortar is homogenous mixture of a binder and inert material (such as sand).Water is added to this mixture to make a paste of required consistency and is used to bind the masonry units. Following are the important types of mortar. 1. Lime mortar 2. Cement mortar 5.3.1 Lime Mortar In lime mortar, lime is used as binding material. The lime may be of a hydraulic or semi hydraulic. If fat lime is used it is essential to add puzzulana such as burnt clay puzzulana or fly ash. In lime mortar proportion of lime to sand by volume is about 1:15 Or 1:2 depending upon the item of work.

5.3.2 Cement mortar In this mortar, cement is used as binding material. The proportion of cement to sand by volume is about 1:2 to 1:6 depending upon the item of work. It is stronger than lime mortar. Hence it is commonly used in the construction of walls, pillars, Brick or stone masonry etc. 5.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN BRICK MANSONRY 1. Course A course is a horizontal layer of masonry unit. 2. Header A header is a full stone unit or brick which is so laid its length is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the wall. 3. Stretcher A stretcher is a full stone unit or brick which is so lay that its length is parallel to the longitudinal direction of the wall. 4. Header course A course of brick work showing only the headers on the exposed face of the wall is known as the header course. 5. Stretcher course A course of brick work showing only the stretchers on the exposed face of the wall is known as the Stretcher course. 6. Bed This is the lower surface of a brick or stone in each course. 7. Bond Bond is the arrangement of stone or bricks, Such that no continuous. Vertical joints are formed. An unbonded wall with continuous vertical joints will be less stable &weak. By bonding, individual units are getting tied up and concentrated loads will be distributed. 8. Lap Lap is the Horizontal distance between the vertical joints of a successive brick courses. 9. Perpend A perpend is an imaginary vertical line which includes the vertical joint separating two adjoining bricks. 10. Bat It is the portion of the brick cut across the width. Thus, a bat is smaller in length than the full bricks. If the length of the bat is equal to half the length of original brick, it is known as half bat. A three quarters bat is the one having its length equal to three quarters of the length of a full brick. If a bat has its width beveled, it is known as beveled bat.

11. Closer It is the portion of brick cut in such a manner that its one long face remains uncut. Thus a closer is a header of small width. 12. Queen closer It is the portion of a brick obtained by cutting a brick length-wise into 2 portions. 13. King Closer It is the portion of a brick which is so cut that width of one of its end is half that of a full brick. While the width at the other end is equal to the full width. It is thus obtained by cutting of the triangular piece between the centre of one end and the centre of the other (longer) side. 14. Quoin It is a corner or the external angle on the face side of a wall. Generally, Quoins are at right angles. But in some cases. They may be at angles greater than 90 degrees also. 15. Frog It is a depression on the top face of a brick. It is used as a key for the mortar.

Fig 5.2 Definition of Terms used in Masonry 5.5 Bonds in brick Masonry The bricks are of uniform size they may be arranged conveniently in a variety of forms. Bond is the method of arranging the bricks in courses so that individual joints of the successive courses do not lie in same vertical line. 5.5.1 Rule for bonding For getting a fairly good bond. The following rules should be observed. 1. The amount of lap should be minimum brick along the length of the wall and brick across the thickness of the wall. 2. Use of brick bats should be minimum. 3. The vertical joints in the alternate courses should be along the same perpend. 4. The stretchers should be used only in the facing and should not be used in headers only. 5.5.2 TYPES OF BONDS IN BRICK MASONRY Following are the types of bonds in brick work.

1. Stretcher Bond 2. Header bond 3. English bond 4. Flemish bond 5. Ranking bond 6. zigzag bond 7. Garden wall bond. 1. Stretcher bond In this type of bond, all the bricks are laid with their length parallel to the longitudinal direction of the wall. Since stretchers alone are visible in elevation, it is known as stretcher bond.

Fig 5.3 Stretcher bond 2. Header bond

Header bond

In this type of bond, all the bricks are laid their lengths perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the wall. This is suitable for one-brick walls and also used for the construction of curved walls. 3. English Bond This is the most commonly used bond for all wall thickness. This bond is considered to be the strongest. Following are the features of an English bond.

Fig 5.4 English Bond a. This bond consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers. b. The queen closer is placed next to the quoin header to break the continuity of the vertical joints. c. Each alternate header is centrally placed of the wall is an even number of half brick, the wall presents the same appearance on both the faces. d. If the thickness of the wall is an even number of half brick, the wall presents the same appearance on the faces. e. If the thickness of the wall is an odd number of half brick, the same course will present stretchers on one face and header on the other. 4. Flemish bond In this type of bond, alternately stretchers and headers are laid in each coarses. Appearance of this bond is better than the English bond. Following are the special features of this bond. a. In each course, stretchers and headers are alternately placed in both the facing and backing. b. The queen closer is placed next to the quoin header in alternate courses, to break the continuity of the vertical joints. c. Every header is centrally supported over a stretcher below it. d. This bond presents the same appearance both in the facing and backing. e. Bats are used for walls equal to odd number of half bricks.

Table 5.1 Comparison of the English bond and Flemish bond

S. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

English bond

Flemish bond

Stretcher and header courses alternate each Each course will be a combination of other headers and stretchers. For walls thicker than 1 bricks English bond For thicker walls it is comparatively is more compact and stronger. weak. Appearance is not pleasing In this bond, greater skill is not required. Mortar requirement is less Gives a pleasing appearance for exposed faces. This bond requires more skill and experience More mortar is necessary since brick bats are used.

Fig 5.5 Flemish Bond 5. Raking bond In this type of bond, the bonding bricks are kept at an inclination to the direction of the wall. The raking course is generally provided between the two stretcher courses. This bond is used in thick walls. Raking bond is of two types: a. Diagonal bond. b. Herring- bone bond. a. Diagonal bond In this bond, the bricks are laid diagonally the angle of inclination is so selected that there is minimum breaking of the bricks. The triangular pieces of bricks are required near the sides. b. Herring-bone bond In this bond, the bricks are laid at an angle of 45 from the centre in both the directions.

Fig 5.6 Raking Bond 6. Zigzag bond This bond is similar to herring-bone bond, except that the bricks are laid in zigzag fashion as given in fig. This bond is commonly used for making ornamental panels in the brick flooring.

Fig 5.7 Zigzag Bond Garden wall bond This type of bond is used for the construction of garden walls, boundary walls, and Compound walls, where the thickness of the wall is one brick and the height does not exceed two meters. Garden wall bonds are of two types: a. Garden wall English bond. b. Garden wall Flemish bond.

Fig 5.8 Garden Wall Bond

a. Garden wall English bond In this bond, the header course is provided only after three to five stretcher courses. b. Garden wall Flemish bond In this bond each course contains one header after three to five stretchers continuously placed throughout the length of the course. 5.5.3 Points to be observed in the construction of brick masonry The following are the points to be kept in mind during the construction of brick masonry. 1. The bricks should be soaked in water before use. 2. The beds of courses shall be perpendicular to the line of pressure. 3. Bricks should be laid on their beds in the proper position. 4. A good bond should be maintained throughout the work avoiding continuous vertical joints anywhere in the work. 5. Use of brick bats should be minimum. 6. As far as possible the brick work should be raised uniformly throughout the length. 7. The height of masonry constructed in a day should be restricted to 1m. 8. After construction, the brick work should be kept wet for one for two weeks. 5.6 Stone Masonry Stone masonry is made of stone units bonded together with mortar.

5.6.1classification of stone masonry Stone Masonry

Rubble Masonry

Ashlar Masonry

Random Rubble Masonry Coarsed uncorsed Square Rubble Masonry Coarsed uncorsed Polygonal Rubble Masonry Flint Rubble Masonry Dry Rubble Masonry

Ashlar Fine Masonry Ashlar Rough Tooled Rock (or) Quarry Faced Ashlar Chamfered Ashlar Block in Course

Rubble Masonry In this type of masonry, stones of irregular sizes and shapes are used. The stones, as obtained from quarry, are taken in use in the same form or they are broken and shaped in suitable sizes by means of hammer as the work proceeds. 1. Random rubble Masonry In this type of masonry, the stones used are of widely different sizes. This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone masonry. In coarsed random rubble masonry, the masonry work is carried out in courses such that the stones in a particular course are of equal height as shown in fig.5.9. In uncoarsed random rubble masonry, the coarses are not maintained regularly. The larger stones are laid first and the spaces between them are then filled up by means of spalls or snecks are given in fig.5.9.

Fig 5.9 Random Ruble Masonry 2. Square Rubble Masonry In this type of masonry stones having straight bed and sides are used. The stones are usually squared and brought to a hammer dressed or straight cut finish. In the coarsed square rubble masonry, the work is carried out in courses of varying depth as given in fig.5.10. In the uncoarsed square rubble masonry, the different sizes of stones having straight edges and sides are arranged on face in several irregular patterns as shown in fig.5.10

Fig 5.10 Square Rubble Masonry

3. Polygonal rubble Masonry In this type of rubble masonry, the stones are hammer dressed. The stones Used for face work are dressed in an irregular polygonal shape. Thus the face joints are seen running in an irregular fashion in all directions.

Fig 5.11 Polygonal rubble Masonry 4. Flint rubble Masonry In this type of rubble masonry, stones used are flints or cobbles. There are irregularly shaped nodules of silica. The stones are extremely hard. But they are brittle and therefore they break easily. The face arrangement may be either coarsed or uncoarsed.

Fig 5.12 Flint rubble Masonry 5. Dry rubble Masonry In this type of masonry, mortar is not used in the joints. This type of construction is the cheapest and requires more skill in construction. This may be used for non-load bearing walls such as compound walls etc. 5.6.3 Ashlar Masonry In this type of construction, no irregular stones are used. The stones used in this masonry are rectangular blocks and are all dressed finely with chisel. The coarses are not necessarily of the same height. It may vary from 25 to 30 cm. Following are the different types of ashlar masonry. 1. Ashlar fine masonry In this type of ashlar masonry, each stone is cut to uniform size and Shape with all sides rectangular, so that the stone gives perfectly horizontal and vertical joints with adjoining stone. This type of Ashlar masonry is very costly.

2. Ashlar rough tooled masonry In this type of ashlar masonry, the beds and sides are finely chisel-dressed. But the face is made rough by means of tools. A strip, about 25mm wide & made by means of chisel is provided around the perimeter of the rough dressed face of each stone.

3. Ashlar rock or quarry faced masonry

In this type of ashlar masonry, a strip about 25mm wide and made by means of chisel is provided around the perimeter of every stone as in case of rough tooled ashlar masonry. But the remaining portion of the face is left in the same form as received from quarry. 4. Ashlar Chamfered masonry In this type of ashlar masonry, the strip is provided as below. But it is chamfered or beveled at an angle of 45 degrees by means of chisel for a depth of about 25mm.

Fig 5.13 Ashlar Masonry 5. Ashlar block in coarse masonry This is combination of rubble masonry and ashlar masonry. In this type of masonry, the face work is provided with rough tooled or hammer dressed stones and backing of the wall may be made in rubble masonry. Points to be observed in the construction of stone masonry The following points should be kept in mind during the construction Stone masonry. 1. 2. use. 3. Stones should be strong, tough & hard. Each stone block should be well watered before All the stone should be laid on their natural bed.

4. Proper bond should be maintained, formation of vertical joints should be avoided. 5. Small stone pieces should be used for facing.

6. its length. 7. the type of masonry. 8.

The wall should be raised uniformly throughout Stones should be dressed properly according to Mortar should be in proper proportion.

9. After the construction is over, the whole work should be kept wet for at least 2 to 4 weeks. Table 5.1 Comparison between Stone Masonry and Brick Masonry S. NO 1 2 Stone Masonry Brick Masonry

Cost of stone masonary work is more Cost of brick masonry is comparatively because it requires more skilled labor. low Due to various sizes and shapes of stone Bricks having regular shape and uniform complicated lifting devices are required size. It can be moved easily by manual labor. Hence no complicated lifting devices are required In case of stone masonry mortars other In case of brick masonry any mortar can be than cement will not be having any bond used width the stone surface. The dead weight is more. The dead weight is less.

4 5 6 7

Stone masonry is stronger than brick Brick masonry is weaker than stone masonry. masonry. Thinner walls are not possible. Thinner walls are possible.

The mortar joints are thick hence Mortar joints are thin and uniform due to pointing is necessary. uniform size and shape, and hence the structure becomes more durable. Stones are more water tight. Plastering is not necessary Brick work is less water tight than stone work. Bricks absorb moisture from atmosphere and dampness can enter the building and hence plastering is essential, it is an extra expenditure to brick

8 9


By stone masonry architectural and Bricks are used due to their light weight, in massive effects can be developed, hence residential and commercial building works it is used for constructing temples, monumental works, bridges etc.

5.8 Beams Beams are the horizontal parts of a structure which transfers the entire load including its self weight to the vertical members of the structures. 5.8.1 Types of Beams The beams are classified based on the support 1) Simply Supported Beam 2) Cantilever Beam 3) Fixed Beam 4) Continuous Beam 5) Overhanging Beam 1. Simply Supported Beam If the ends of a beam are supported freely by columns or walls then it is called simply supported beam. In such cases, the moment is not included at supports because it allows rotation.

2. Cantilever Beam If a beam is fixed in one end and the other end is free then it is called cantilever beam. In such cases, the moment is induced in fixed end only

. 3. Fixed Beam If the two ends of the beam are rigidly fixed in walls then it is called fixed beam. In such cases, the moment is introduced at supports because it will not allow rotation.

4. Continuous Beam If beam is supported on more than two supports, then it is known as continuous beam. They may or may not be an overhanging beam.

5. Overhanging Beam If a beam having its end portion extended beyond the support, it is called over hanging beam.

5.8.2 Types of Load 1) Concentrated Load 2) Uniformly Distributed Load (UDL) 3) Uniformly Varying Load (UVL)

1. Concentrated Load The load acting on concentrated i.e.) particular point only so it is called as concentrated load.

2. Uniformly Distributed Load (UDL) The loads are applied over a considerable portion of the beam at uniform rate.

3. Uniformly Varying Load (UVL) When the rate of loading increases or decreases at a uniform rate over the length of the beam, it is known as uniformly varying load.

5.9 Column Column is a vertical structural member used to support compressive load and bending moment. They may be constructed of timber, stone or brick masonry. RCC or steel section Failure of columns depends on the length of the column compared to the cross sectional dimensions. 5.9.1 Effective Length The effective length is not its actual length. It depends on the end conditions of the column. 5.9.2 Types of Column Based on effective length columns are classified as 1) Short Column 2) Long Column 1. Short Column The ratio of the effective least length to the least lateral dimension is less than or equal to 12 the column is known as short column


2. Long Column The ratio of the effective least length to the least lateral dimension is greater than 12 it is known as long column

> 12

R.C.C and steel columns are commonly used in construction R.C.C columns may be square, rectangular, circular or hexagonal in cross section. The following figure shows the cross section of a circular column with reinforcement details

Fig 5.14 Circular Column Main reinforcement (dia of steel rod varies from 12 to 40 mm) is provided to take up major load coming on the columns. Lateral reinforcement (dia of steel rod varies from 6 to 10 mm) is provided in the forms of individual ties or in the form of helix to give lateral support to the column. This also checks the buckling of the main bars. 5.9.3 Cover The cover is defined as the distance between the outer surface of the member and the nearest point of reinforcement. The minimum clear cover provided in column is 40mm. 5.9.4 Steel Columns Steel columns are used in industrial structures such steel columns are fabricated using rolled steel joists, channels, angles and plates

Fig 5.15 Steel column Cross Sections 5.10 Lintel A lintel is a horizontal structural member which is placed across the opening like doors, windows etc to support the structure over the openings. According to the materials used for construction lintels are classified into 1) Wooden Lintels 2) Stone Lintels 3) Brick Lintels 4) Steel Lintels 5) Reinforced Cement Concrete Lintels

1. Wooden Lintels Single piece of a timber can be used as lintels (or) three pieces bolted together along the thickness of the wall can be adopted. Wooden Lintels are liable to be destroyed by fire and decay. They are comparatively weak. 2. Stone Lintels Slabs of stones are placed across the openings. If stones are used as lintels, reliving arches are to be provided since stones have low tensile resistance. The depth of stone lintel should be at least one mm per one cm length of the opening.

3. Brick Lintels A temporary wood support knowing as turning piece is used to construct a brick lintel. The depth of the lintel must be some multiple of brick cources. Brick lintel is weak and hence used up to 1m span with light loading. 4. Steel Lintels This lintel consists of steel angles or rolled steel joists. The farmer is used for small spans and later for large spans. Tube separators are provided to keep the joists in position. Joists are embedded in concrete to protect steel from corrosion and fire 5. R.C.C Lintel R.C.C has replaced partially all other material for lintel. R.C.C lintels are fire proof, durable, strong and easy to construct. R.C.C lintels can be precast or cast in site.

Fig 5.16 Reinforced Concrete Lintel 5.11 Roofing A roof is defined as the uppermost part of the building provided as a structural covering to protect the building from rain, heat, snow, wind etc. The roof consists of structural elements and roof coverings. The structural elements which support roof coverings may be trusses, beams, slabs, shells are domes.

5.11.1 Types of Roof (classification) Roof

Flat Roof

Slopping Roof

Curved Roof

1. Madras Terrace Roof 2. Reinforced Concrete Roof

Trussed Roof King Post Roof Queen Post Roof Combination of King Post &Queen Post Trusses Steel Trusses Composite Trusses

Shell Roof Dome Roof

5.11.2 Requirements of a Roof 1. It should have adequate strength to carry the loads. 2. It should effectively protect the building from all weathering agencies (rain snow heat wind etc.) 3. It should be water proof. It should have proper drainage arrangement. 4. It should be fire resistant. 5. It should provide adequate thermal and sound insulation. 5.11.3 Flat Roofs Flat roofs are suitable for building in planes or in hot regions, where rainfall is moderate and where there is no snow fall. Flat roofs are applicable for buildings for any shape and size. Types of Flat Roofs 1. Madras Terrace Roof This type of roof construction is widely used in madras, it is known as Madras Terrace Roof 2. Reinforced Concrete Roof In this type of roof, steel bars and concrete are used to form a roof. This type of roof is commonly used. Before construction, the thickness of slab, beam and reinforcement are

designed based on the span and the loading conditions. R.C.C roofs are less costly, durable easy to construct and fire proof and also they are likely to transmit sound. 5.11.4. Pitched Roof (Sloping Roof) The roof which is having top sloping surface is known as pitched roof. It is suitable where rainfall/snow fall is very heavy. 1. Trussed Roof When the span of the roof exceeds 5m and where there are no inside walls to support the purlins,framed structures known as trusses are provided. A number of straight members connected in the shape of a triangle and form a frame is known as truss. 2. King Post Truss

Fig 5.17 King Post Truss The vertical central post which connect the ridge piece with a tie beam is known as king post, the inclined compression members known as struts, prevent the principle rafters from bending, this type of roof is suitable for span varying from 5 to 8 m 3. Queen Post Truss This type of truss will have two vertical posts. The vertical posts are known as queen post. The top of these posts are connected by a horizontal beam known as the straining beam. Struts are provided to join the queen posts to the principle rafter. The queen posts are tension members the straining beams will receive the thrust from the principle rafters and keep the junction in stable position. A straining sill is provided on the tie beam between the queen posts to contact the thrusts from inclined struts. Queen post trusses are suitable for spans between 8 to 12m.

Fig 5.18 Queen Post Truss 4. Combination of King Post &Queen Post Trusses For greater spans the queen post truss can be strengthened by one or more upright member called princess post to each side. These trusses are suitable up to 18m.

Fig 5.19 Combination of King Post &Queen Post Trusses 5. Steel Trusses When span exceeds 10m, timber trusses become heavy and uneconomical. Mild steel is easily available in rolled sections of standard shapes and sizes. Most of roof trusses are fabricated from angle sections because they can resist efficiency tension as well as compression and their jointing is easy. The roof truss is designed in such a way that the members carry only direct stress (i.e. compression or tension) and no bending stress is included. The principle rafter as well as the main tie is generally made up of two angle sections placed side by side, while the struts and ties are generally made of single angle sections. The members are joined together by using a gusset plate, either through rivets or by welding.

Fig 5.20 Steel Trusses 6. Composite Trusses These trusses are composed of wooden members and steel or wrought iron members. Steel is used to resist tensile stresses. A composite truss is light in weight and economical. 5.11.5 Curved Roof Curved roofs are modifications of pitched roofs. 1. Shell Roof This type of roofs is used frequently in these days for covering big structures. As the section needed is very thin a lot of material is saved for big buildings, reinforced concrete shells are used whereas in small types a catenary type, made either of brick or of plane concrete is used. 2. Domes A dome is a semi spherical or a semi elliptical shape and very thin structures. They are constructed of stone or brick or concrete and are supported on regular polygon shaped walls. They are used where architectural treatment is needed. This type of roof is most suitable for public buildings like libraries, theaters, recreation centers etc. 5.11.6 Roof Covering for Pitched Roofs The selection of proper roof covering depends on the climate of the locality, nature of the building, cost of roof coverings and resistance to fire and heat. Some of the commonly used roof coverings are discussed below a. Tatch b. Patent Tiles c. Shingles d. Asbestos Cement Corrugated Sheets

a. Thatch Thatch is very light and is the cheapest form of roof covering. It is combustible and absorbs moisture and is liable to decay. Tatch is used in rural areas at a pitch of 45 to have proper drainage. B.Patent Tiles Mangalore tiles are one of the patent tiles. They are red in color and special tiles are available for ridge. It is found that about 15 tiles are required to cover 1 m2 of roof area. c. Shingles Wood shingles are obtained from timber with length varying from 300 380 mm & width of 60- 250 mm. they are laid in the same manner as tiles and is useful in hilly areas where wood is cheap. d. Asbestos Cement Corrugated Sheets These sheets can be cut, nailed, sawn or screwed and they are light, non absorptive, strong and tough. These sheets can withstand extreme variation of temperature. 5.12 Plastering Plastering is the process of covering rough walls and uneven surfaces in the construction of houses and other structure with a plastic material called plaster. 5.12.1 Objects of Plastering 1. To provide an even, smooth, regular, clean, and durable finished surface and hence to improve the appearance. 2. To protect the surfaces from the effects of atmospheric agencies. 3. To provide a satisfactory base for white washing, color washing, painting or distempering. 4. To cover up the use of inferior quality and porous materials and joints formed in masonry work 5. To conceal the defective workman ship. 5.12.2 Types of Plaster (or) Mortar The types of mortar used for plastering are a. Cement Mortar b. Lime Mortar c. Cement-Lime Mortar d. Water-Proof Mortar The choice of a particular mortar depends upon several factors viz. availability of materials, location of plastering surfaces, economy, weather conditions etc.

a. Cement Mortar It consists of cement sand and water in definite proportion. The usual mix used for cement mortar for plastering varies from 1:4 to 1:6. Cement mortar is the best mortar for external plastering. b. Lime Mortar It consists of flat lime or hydraulic lime, sand and water in proper proposition. c. Cement-Lime Mortar It contains properties of both the lime as well as the cement mortar. Cement mortar as such does not posses sufficient plasticity. Addition of lime to it imparts plasticity resulting in smooth plastering surface. d. Water-Proof Mortar It consists of one part of cement and two parts of sand and pulverized alum in rate of 12 kg/m3 of sand. To this soap water containing about 75 gm of soft soap/liter of water is added 5.12.3 Plastering Procedure The surface to be plastered must be made clean and free from all dust, grease etc and be well wetted for a few hours. Plaster may be applied in one two or three coats. Two coats are usually sufficient three coats would be used only on wood or metal lathing or on a very rough and uneven back ground. The thickness of the first coat should be just sufficient to fill up all unevenness on the surface no single coat should exceed 12 mm in thickness, lower coats should be thicker than upper coats. Under coats are allowed to dry properly before subsequent coats are applied. When applying another coat of plaster the previous plastered surface should be scratched or roughened before it is fully hardened to form mechanical key. The method of application of the mix influences the adhesion, if thrown on, the mix will stick better than if applied by trowel. The surface is finished with a trowel. The plastered surface is then cured for about seven days. 5.13 Flooring Floors are the horizontal elements of a building structure which divide the building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation within a limited space. The floor consists of following two components. a. Sub floor (or) base course. b. Floor covering (or) Flooring. 5.13.1 A sub floor (or) base course The purpose of this component is to impart strength and stability to support floor covering and all other superimposed loads.

Floor covering (or) Flooring This is the covering over the sub floor and is meant to provide a hard, clean, smooth, impervious, durable and attractive surface to the floor. Selection of floorings Each type of floorings has its own merits and there is not even a single type which can be suitably provided under all circumstances. However, the selection of floorings can be made considering the following factors. Initial cost Durability Damp resistance Hardness Thermal insulation Fire resistance Appearance Cleanliness Sound insulation Smoothness Comfortability Maintenance

5.13.4 Materials used for flooring The flooring is laid over the base floor. The different materials used for flooring. a. Mud flooring b. Concrete flooring c. Mosaic flooring d. Tiles flooring e. Marble flooring f. Stones, bricks, wood or timber, terrazzo, Granolithic flooring, etc. a. Mud flooring The floor bed should be well prepared and 250 mm thick layer of selected moist earth is evenly spread out and is rammed well. So as to get a consolidated thickness of 150mm. No water is used during the process of ramming. In order to prevent formation of cracks after drying, chopped straw in small quantity is mixed with the moist earth before

ramming. Upon this bed, a thin coat of cement, cow dung Plaster (1cement: 4 cow dung) is applied evenly and wiped clean by hand. Mud floors are generally used for unimportant buildings particularly in villages. The Advantages are cheap, hard, fairly impervious and easy in construction and maintenance. b. Concrete Flooring This type of flooring is most commonly used in buildings of all types. The floor finish over the base course may be placed either monolithically i.e. topping is laid after laying the base layer, while the base is still in plastic state or non-monolithically. i.e. floor finish is placed after the base has hardened. The concrete flooring consists of a top layer of cement concrete 25 40mm thick laid in a 100-150mm base of suitable mix of concrete. It is suitable for residential, commercial, industrial and public buildings of all types. The advantages are cheap and durable, easy to maintain and it is fire resistant. c. Mosaic Flooring It consists of tiles available in a variety of patterns and colors. This is widely used in theatres, temples, bathrooms and superior type of buildings. A hard concrete base is made and when it is wet a 20mm layer of cement mortar (1:2) is laid. Upon this bed, small pieces of broken tiles are arranged in definite patterns. After this, ordinary cement or colored cement is sprinkled at the top and the surface is rolled using a light stone roller till the surface is even. This surface is dried and rubbed with pumice stone to get a polished surface. Now a day, mosaic tiles are laid on hardened concrete and rubbed with pumice stone to get a polished surface. This type of flooring is suitable for use in operation theatres, public buildings, etc. d. Tiles Flooring Tiles either of clay or cement concrete are manufactured in different shapes. These tiles are commonly used for high class hotels, offices, residential buildings, etc. The ground is leveled and 15cm thick layer of lime concrete or R.C.C is laid. Then 25cm thick layer of lime mortar (1:3) or cement mortar (1:1) is laid to receive tiles. The bedding mortar is allowed to harden and cement slurry is spread. Tiles are laid flat on this bed and a paste of cement is applied on to the sides. After 2 days, joints are rubbed with a carborundum stone. The entire surface is then polished. e. Marble Flooring This flooring is commonly used for superior type of floor construction. The construction is exactly the same as that of mosaic flooring except that marble pieces are used instead of mosaic, tiles. f. Stone Flooring This type of flooring is suitable for godown, sheds, stores, bus shelter, schools, hospitals, etc. where stones are available in plenty, this floor is economical. It is hard, durable, easy to construct and having good resistance to wear and tear.

A concrete bed of 10 to 15 cm thickness is laid and compacted over the leveled, rammed and watered earthen base at the required depth. The stone slabs are laid on mortar of thickness 2.5cm. Then the mortar in the joints is raked out to a depth of about 1 to 2 cm and the joints are pointed flush with cement mortar 1:3. Joints between the individual stone slabs should not exceed 0.5cm. A slope of l in 40 is to be given for proper drainage in this type of flooring. To give a final finish to the floor it is necessary to rub this floor with carborundum stone and to apply suitable wax polish 5.14 Mechanics Mechanics is a physical science dealing with forces and the effect of forces on bodies. Mechanics is divided into two main branches of study, statics & dynamics. Statics is the study of forces & the effect of forces acting upon bodies in a state of equilibrium .On the other hand, dynamics deals with motion and the effect of forces acting on bodies in motion. 5.14.1 External forces Forces which act on a body due to external causes are called external forces. These external forces constitute what is called the load on a structure or a machine. 5.14.2 Internal forces When external forces or loads act on a body or a material, the body or the material undergoes deformation, i.e. change in the dimension of the body. Force developed inside the body as a result of resistance offered by the material to withstand the external forces. 5.14.3 Stress When load (or) force applied on the material the body undergoes deformation. This resistance per unit area to deformation is known as stress.
Stress = Force Area

5.14.4 Strain Whenever a single force acts on a body it undergoes some deformation. This deformation per unit length is known as strain.
Strain = e= l l change in length orginal length

5.14.5 Type of stresses a. Tensile stress. b. Compressive stress. c. Shear stress.

Tensile stress When a section is subjected to two equal and opposite pulls, then the body tends to increase its length, the stress induced is called tensile stress, and the corresponding strain is called tensile strain. b. Compressive Stress When a section is subjected to two equal and opposite pushes to the body it tends to shorten its length, the stress induced is called compressive stress and the corresponding strain is called compressive strain. c. Shear stress When a body is subjected to two equal & opposite forces which are acting tangentially across the resisting section. The corresponding strain is called shear strain. 5.14.6 Elasticity The property of certain materials of returning back to their original position after removing the external forces is known elasticity 5.14.7 Hookes law When a material is loaded, within its elastic limit, the stress is directly proportional to the strain.
Stress = cons tan t Strain

5.14.8 Modulus of Rigidity or shear modulus The ratio of shear stress to shear strain is called modulus of rigidity. It is denoted by C (or) G (or) N.
Rigidity M odulus ,N = Shear stress Strain strain

5.14.9 Bulk Modulus When a body is subjected to three similar direct stresses of equal intensity in three mutually Perpendicular directions, the ratio of the direct stress to the volumetric strain (ev). It is denoted by K
D irect Stress V olum etric strain C hange inV olum e ev = O rginal volum e K = ev v = v =

5.14.10. Poissons Ratio The ratio of the lateral strain to the linear strain .It is denoted by (or) 1/m.
Lateral Linear Strain strain Strain strain =


Lateral Linear


change in breadth Orginal breadth change in length orginal length


lies between 0.25 0.33 for most of the materials. 5.14.11. Factor of safety It is defined as the ratio of ultimate stress and working stress. F.O.S for elastic material = 1.5 to 2. F.O.S for C.I, concrete = 2.5 to 3
F .O.S = U ate ltim W orking Stress stress

Types of Bridges & Dams

5.15 Bridges A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway pedestrian or a canal of a pipeline. The obstacle to be considered may be river, a road, a railway or a valley. 5.15.1 Types of bridges 1) Timber bridges. 2) Masonry bridges. 3) R.C.C bridges. 4) Steel bridges. 5.12.2. Timber bridges Timber bridges are classified as temporary bridges. These bridges are very common and are suitable for hills, because they can be constructed with local material and labor, very quickly and economically. The Cantilever and Suspension timber bridges are explained below. 1. Timber Cantilever bridge

Timber Cantilever bridges are suitable for light traffic. The construction of these bridges is very simple. Layers of timber logs are embedded in the side banks. Another layer of timber logs projecting between 2 to 3 m from the lower layers is laid on it. In this way, layers over layers are laid with projections from the bottom layers till 5 to 7 m gap is left in the middle. Road bearers are laid over this gap and the bridge is completed by leveling the surface by earth and stone- ballast and the top is given a smooth touch.

Fig 5.21 Timber Cantilever bridge 2. Timber suspension bridge In hilly areas, for crossing small valley or stream, timber suspension bridges are very useful. Sling Bridge is common type of temporary suspension bridge. It consists of cables or ropes which bear the load of the roadway through suspenders. The cables are securely anchored to the banks.

Fig 5.22 Sling Bridge 5.15.3 Masonry Bridges The super structure of masonry bridges consists of masonry arch over which the roadway is constructed. This arch rests on piers and abutments. The arches may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, parabolic & multi-centered types. Masonry arch bridges are suitable for small span bridges (up to 60 m span).

Fig 5.23 Masonry Bridges 5.15.4 R.C.C bridges R.C.C bridges are rigid, durable, economical & easy to construct. The various types of R.C.C bridges are. a. Slab bridges. b. Tee beam and slab bridges. c. Rigid Frame bridges. d. R.C.C Arch bridges. a. Slab Bridges This is the simplest type of R.C.C bridge and easy to construct. This consists of simply a slab of uniform thickness laid on two abutments. It is suitable for spans up to 8m.

Fig 5.24 R.C.C. Slab Bridges b.Tee beam and slab bridges This type of bridge consists of a concrete slab supported on rectangular beams. Here the beams and slabs are cast monolithically and the supported on abutments or

piers. These types of bridges are suitable for spans upto 20m.These bridges are commonly used for road bridges of canals and railway lines.

Fig 5.25 T-beam and slab bridges c. Rigid Frame Bridges In this type of bridge, the desk slab is made monolithic with the abutments. The portal frame has stability against lateral forces such as wind and earthquake. These bridges are suitable for spans up to 20m.

Fig 5.26. Rigid Frame Bridges d. R.C.C Arch bridges:These bridges are pleasing in appearance and can be economically used upto spans of about 200m.Some of the types of R.C.C arch bridges are explained below. 1. Filled Spandrel arch bridge This consists of a desk slab supported by an arch rib. The space between the arch & the deck slab (spandrel) is filled with earth.

Fig 5.27 Filled Spandrel arch bridge 2. Open spandrel ribbed Arch bridges In these types of bridges, the desk slab is supported on the columns which are in turn supported on arch rib.

Fig 5.28 Open spandrel ribbed Arch bridges 3. Bow string Grinder Girder Bridge This type of bridge consists of an arch rib from which the deck slab is hung by means of vertical members called suspenders. the horizontal thrust is resisted ties and the vertical reaction by suspenders and the abutment serves as the ground support .The main supporting system is known as bow string girder, because of the resemblance of the arch rib with a bow and the tie beam with a string bow string arches are c=economical when sufficient headroom is required under a bridge. This type of bridges is suitable for spans of 30m to 45m.

Fig 5.29 Bow string Grinder Girder Bridge 5.15.5 Steel Bridges Steel bridges are constructed to carry a highway, railway track, for support of water pipes, oil pipes, etc. Some of the types of steel bridges are explained below. 1. Plate girder bridges 2. Steel truss bridges 3. Steel arch bridges 1. Plate girder bridges:A Plate girder is a built-up beam to carry heavier load over longer spans. Box girder bridges have exceptional torsional rigidity and better transverse load distribution. These bridges can be used for urban highway structure like flyover. Generally girder bridges are used for simply spans less than 50m and for continuous span up to 26cm.

Fig 5.30 Plate girder bridges

2. Steel truss bridges Steel truss bridges are suitable for long railway bridges or for combined roadrail bridges. They can be used for spans up to 375m.The following are some of the most common type of steel trusses in general use.

Fig 5.31 Steel truss bridges 3. Steel arch bridges These consist of trusses or girders used in the form of curved beams called arch ribs. They may be fixed or hinged steel arch bridges are generally adopted for spans up to 250m.

Fig 5.32 Steel arch bridges

5.16 Dams
A Dam is a hydraulic structure constructed across a river to store water on its up-stream side. It I s an impervious barrier put across a natural stream so that a reservoir is formed. This water is then used as when needed. 5.16.1 Types of dams 1. According to use 2. According to hydraulic design

3. According to materials 5.16.2 According to use 1. Storage dam 2. Diversion dam 3. Detention dam 1. Storage dam Storage dam is constructed to impound water to its upstream side during the periods of excess supply in the river and is used in periods of deficient supply. E.g. Gravity dam, Earth dam, arch dam etc. 2. Diversion dam Diversion dam simply raises water level slightly in the river and thus provides head for carrying or diverting water into ditches, canals or other conveyance systems to the place of use. E.g. Weir, barrage. 3. Detention dam A detention dam is constructed to store to store water during floods and releases it safely at a safe rate, when the flood exceeds. E.g. Dike, water spreading dam, debris. 5.16.3 According to hydraulic design 1. Overflow dam 2. Non-over flow dam. 1. Over flow dam This type of dam is designed to carry surplus discharge over its crest. E.g. Spillways 2. Non-overflow dam In this type the top the dam is kept at a higher elevation than the maximum expected high flood level (H.F.L). E.g. Gravity dam, Earth dam. 5.16.4 According to materials 1. Rigid dams 2. Non-rigid dams Rigid dams This type of dam is constructed of rigid materials such as masonry, concrete, steel, timber. E.g. Solid masonry or concrete gravity dam, arched masonry or concrete dam, steel dam, timber dam. Non-rigid Dams

This type of dams is constructed of non-rigid materials such as earth and or rock fills. E.g. Earth dam, rock fill dam, combined earth and rock fill dam.

Fig 5.33 Basic profile of dam Gravity Dams A gravity dam can be defined as a structure which is designed in such a way that its own weight resists the external forces. This type of dam is more durable and has maximum rigidity It requires less maintenance when compared to other types. This type can be constructed of masonry or concrete. Nowadays, concrete gravity dams are prevalent in use. The dam section is massive as the self weight is the only force which is going to resist all other disturbing forces acting on the dam. Therefore it needs a good foundation soil, preferably rocky strata. A gravity dam may fail due to overturning, sliding, and crushing at the toe. Generally a gravity dam will be designed with a higher factor of safety and check will be made for the above possible failures.

Fig 5.34

5.17 Basics of interior design and landscaping

5.17.1 Introduction Interior design means successful renovation to make cosmetic improvements not structural improvements to a house. An interior designing is a practice concerned with anything that is found inside a spacewalls, windows, doors, finishes, textures, light, furnishings and furniture. All of these elements are used by interior designers to develop a functional, safe, and aesthetically pleasing space for a buildings user. 5.17.2 Basics of Interior Design There are 3 basic guidelines for successful interior design. A successful room in functional. A successful room expresses a mood. A successful room exhibits a sense of harmony.

5.17.3 Function A room must serve its intended function. No matter how beautifully you decorate a room, if your scheme cant fulfill all the functions you require the room to perform, then the room has failed. If the dining hall is not convenient to eat in, then it fails, if abed room is not convenient to sleep in then it fails.

5.17.4 Mood Mood refers to the general look or feeling you want the room to express. The color schemes furniture window treatments, floor treatments and lighting styles etc. Must all be consistent with this look and feeling? 5.17.5 Harmony All the separate elements in the room work together in harmony. Every element should be harmonious in mood, scale, quantity & color. No huge chairs in small rooms or small chairs in huge rooms. If you are using expensive high quality furniture then dont use them with cheap looking curtains etc. 5.17.6 Steps for Designing a Room 1) Sketching a Room 2) Drawing a Floor Plan 3) Furniture Layout 4) Lighting Plan 1. Sketching a Room At this stage you just need to do a rough sketch of your room and write down accurate measurements for length of the room, breadth of the room and the ceiling height. Height of ceiling and the dimensions of your doors and windows need to be measured and noted. Measure how far windows and doors are from the ceiling and floor. 2. Drawing a Floor plan Buy some graph paper from a stationary supply shop. Redraw your rough sketch to scale on the graph paper. You need an accurate floor plan so you can do a furniture plan later. Indicate on your floor plan which way is north this is important as it tells you where the sun will rise and set in relation to your rooms windows. 3. Furniture Layout There are four important terms when deciding to put your furniture a. Balance lines of the room b. Traffic patterns in the room c. Focus in the room d. Axis of the room a. Balance Lines The balance lines are easy to determine draw two faint lines across your floor plan dividing the room in half length wise and breadth wise. This will divide your room into 4 quadrants. This is important because you need to have an equal weight of furniture in each quadrant in order for the room to be balanced. b. Traffic patterns Traffic patterns tell you where not to put furniture, mark these on your floor plan.

c. Focus of the room Focal point means the area that demands attention as soon as someone enters a room. Plan your furniture layout to take advantage of this focus. d. Axis for the room You now want to draw an imaginary line up the middle of the wall from floor to ceiling through your focus. The idea is this; you want the focus balanced from floor to ceiling. Visually on you floor plan the room should look balanced. Draw representatives of your furniture on your floor plan to scale. 4. Lighting plan Firstly your lighting must permit people to perform the specific tasks of the room. For example using lamps for reading, playing cards etc. This is called task lighting. Lighting decorative objects with spot lighting is also a nice tough. Dont forget to take into account where the electrical outlets are you want to keep unsightly electrical cards as short as possible and hidden if you can. 5.18 Landscaping Landscaping is both science and art, and required good observation and design skills. A good landscaper understands the elements of nature and construction and blends them accordingly. Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of Land, including 1. Living elements, such as flora or fauna; Gardening the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape. 2. Natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation or bodies of water. 3. Human elements such as structure, buildings, fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans. 4. Abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions. 5.18.1 Basic element of landscaping a. Unity The idea of unity means that everything works together. It applies to colors shapes, heights and every other aspects of the design. Using consistency and repetition is a great way to ensure unity. Unity Simplicity Balance Focalization

b. Simplicity Simplicity does not have to mean the design is limited. It means the design should be limited in different color shades, types of plans and also keeping the design looking clean. An over helming design is confusing to the eye. c.Balance Balance is simply keeping the design proportions equal thought. One side should not be full and the other scarce. Balance includes colors and heights in addition to the overall look of the landscaping. d. Focalization This simply means the design should have some central element which catches the eye. Some landscapers use a special tree or a bush. While others use things like fountains and statues in a large scale landscaping design the focal point may be garden.