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Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

Chapter 5
Discrete Distributions

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The overall learning objective of Chapter 5 is to help you understand a category of probability
distributions that produces only discrete outcomes, thereby enabling you to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Distinguish between discrete random variables and continuous random variables.


Know how to determine the mean and variance of a discrete distribution.
Identify the type of statistical experiments that can be described by the binomial
distribution and know how to work such problems.
Decide when to use the Poisson distribution in analyzing statistical experiments and
know how to work such problems.
Decide when binomial distribution problems can be approximated by the Poisson
distribution and know how to work such problems.
Decide when to use the hypergeometric distribution and know how to work such
problems

CHAPTER TEACHING STRATEGY


Chapters 5 and 6 introduce the student to several statistical distributions. It is important
to differentiate between the discrete distributions of chapter 5 and the continuous distributions of
chapter 6.
The approach taken in presenting the binomial distribution is to build on techniques
presented in chapter 4. It can be helpful to take the time to apply the law of multiplication for
independent events to a problem and demonstrate to students that sequence is important. From
there, the student will more easily understand that by using combinations, one can more quickly
determine the number of sequences and weigh the probability of obtaining a single sequence by
that number. In a sense, we are developing the binomial formula through an inductive process.
Thus, the binomial formula becomes more of a summary device than a statistical "trick". The
binomial tables presented in this text are non cumulative. This makes it easier for the student to
recognize that the table is but a listing of a series of binomial formula computations. In addition,
it lends itself more readily to the graphing of a binomial distribution.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

It is important to differentiate applications of the Poisson distribution from binomial


distribution problems. It is often difficult for students to determine which type of distribution to
apply to a problem. The Poisson distribution applies to rare occurrences over some interval. The
parameters involved in the binomial distribution (n and p) are different from the parameter
(Lambda) of a Poisson distribution.
It is sometimes difficult for students to know how to handle Poisson problems in which
the interval for the problem is different than the stated interval for Lambda. Note that in such
problems, it is always the value of Lambda that is adjusted not the value of x. Lambda is a
long-run average that can be appropriately adjusted for various intervals. For example, if a store
is averaging customers in 5 minutes, then it will also be averaging 2 customers in 10
minutes. On the other hand, x is a one-time observation and just because x customers arrive in 5
minutes does not mean that 2x customers will arrive in 10 minutes.
Solving for the mean and standard deviation of binomial distributions prepares the
students for chapter 6 where the normal distribution is sometimes used to approximate binomial
distribution problems. Graphing binomial and Poisson distributions affords the student the
opportunity to visualize the meaning and impact of a particular set of parameters for a
distribution. In addition, it is possible to visualize how the binomial distribution approaches the
normal curve as p gets nearer to .50 and as n gets larger for other values of p. It can be useful to
demonstrate this in class along with showing how the graphs of Poisson distributions also
approach the normal curve as gets larger.
In this text (as in most) because of the number of variables used in its computation, only
exact probabilities are determined for hypergeometric distribution. This, combined with the fact
that there are no hypergeometric tables given in the text, makes it cumbersome to determine
cumulative probabilities for the hypergeometric distribution. Thus, the hypergeometric
distribution can be presented as a fall-back position to be used only when the binomial
distribution should not be applied because of the non independence of trials and size of sample.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

CHAPTER OUTLINE
5.1

Discrete Versus Continuous Distributions

5.2

Describing a Discrete Distribution


Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation of Discrete Distributions
Mean or Expected Value
Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Distribution

5.3

Binomial Distribution
Solving a Binomial Problem
Using the Binomial Table
Using the Computer to Produce a Binomial Distribution
Mean and Standard Deviation of the Binomial Distribution
Graphing Binomial Distributions

5.4

Poisson Distribution
Working Poisson Problems by Formula
Using the Poisson Tables
Mean and Standard Deviation of a Poisson Distribution
Graphing Poisson Distributions
Using the Computer to Generate Poisson Distributions
Approximating Binomial Problems by the Poisson Distribution

5.5

Hypergeometric Distribution
Using the Computer to Solve for Hypergeometric Distribution
Probabilities

KEY TERMS
Binomial Distribution
Continuous Distributions
Continuous Random Variables
Discrete Distributions
Discrete Random Variables

Hypergeometric Distribution
Lambda ( )
Mean, or Expected Value
Poisson Distribution
Random Variable

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN CHAPTER 5


P(x)
xP(x)
.238
.238
.290
.580
.177
.531
.158
.632
.137
.685
= [xP(x)] = 2.666
= 1.836444

(x-)2
2.775556
0.443556
0.111556
1.779556
5.447556

(x-)2P(x)
0.6605823
0.1286312
0.0197454
0.2811700
0.7463152
2
2
= [(x-) P(x)] = 1.836444
= 1.355155

5.1

x
1
2
3
4
5

5.2

x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

P(x)
.103
.118
.246
.229
.138
.094
.071
.001

xP(x)
.000
.118
.492
.687
.552
.470
.426
.007
= [xP(x)] = 2.752
=

(x-)2
(x-)2P(x)
7.573504
0.780071
3.069504
0.362201
0.565504
0.139114
0.061504
0.014084
1.557504
0.214936
5.053504
0.475029
10.549500
0.749015
18.045500
0.018046
2
2
= [(x-) P(x)] = 2.752496
2.752496
= 1.6591

5.3

x
0
1
2
3
4

P(x)
xP(x)
.461
.000
.285
.285
.129
.258
.087
.261
.038
.152
E(x) = = [xP(x)]= 0.956
=

(x-)2
(x-)2P(x)
0.913936
0.421324
0.001936
0.000552
1.089936
0.140602
4.177936
0.363480
9.265936
0.352106
2
2
= [(x-) P(x)] = 1.278064
1.278064
= 1.1305

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.4

x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

5.5

a)

P(x)
.262
.393
.246
.082
.015
.002
.000

xP(x)
.000
.393
.492
.246
.060
.010
.000
= [xP(x)] = 1.201
.96260
=

n=4
P(x=3) =

b)

n=7

p = .10

(x-)2
(x-)2P(x)
1.4424
0.37791
0.0404
0.01588
0.6384
0.15705
3.2364
0.26538
7.8344
0.11752
14.4324
0.02886
23.0304
0.00000
2
2
= [(x-) P(x)] = 0.96260
= .98112

q = .90

C3(.10)3(.90)1 = 4(.001)(.90) = .0036

p = .80

q = .20

P(x=4) = 7C4(.80)4(.20)3 = 35(.4096)(.008) = .1147


c)

n = 10

p = .60

q = .40

P(x > 7) = P(x=7) + P(x=8) + P(x=9) + P(x=10) =


C7(.60)7(.40)3 + 10C8(.60)8(.40)2 + 10C9(.60)9(.40)1 +10C10(.60)10(.40)0 =

10

120(.0280)(.064) + 45(.0168)(.16) + 10(.0101)(.40) + 1(.0060)(1) =


.2150 + .1209 + .0403 + .0060 = .3822
d)

n = 12

p = .45

q = .55

P(5 < x < 7) = P(x=5) + P(x=6) + P(x=7) =


C5(.45)5(.55)7 + 12C6(.45)6(.55)6 + 12C7(.45)7(.55)5 =

12

792(.0185)(.0152) + 924(.0083)(.0277) + 792(.0037)(.0503) =


.2225 + .2124 + .1489 = .5838

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.6

By Table A.2:
a)

n = 20

p = .50

P(x=12) = .120
b)

n = 20

p = .30

P(x > 8) = P(x=9) + P(x=10) + P(x=11) + ...+ P(x=20) =


.065 + .031 + .012 + .004 + .001 + .000 = .113
c)

n = 20

p = .70

P(x < 12) =

P(x=11) + P(x=10) + P(x=9) + ... + P(x=0) =

.065 + .031 + .012 + .004 + .001 + .000 = .113


d)

n = 20

p = .90

P(x < 16) = P(x=16) + P(x=15) + P(x=14) + ...+ P(x=0) =


.090 + .032 + .009 + .002 + .000 = .133
e)

n = 15

p = .40

P(4 < x < 9) =


P(x=4) + P(x=5) + P(x=6) + P(x=7) + P(x=8) + P(x=9) =
.127 + .186 + .207 + .177 + .118 + .061 = .876
f)

n = 10

p = .60

P(x > 7) = P(x=7) + P(x=8) + P(x=9) + P(x=10) =


.215 + .121 + .040 + .006 = .382

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.7

a)

n = 20

p = .70

q = .30

= n p = 20(.70) = 14

=
b)

n p q =

n = 70

20 (. 70 )(. 30 ) =

p = .35

4 .2

= 2.05

q = .65

= n p = 70(.35) = 24.5

=
c)

n p q =

n = 100

70 (. 35 )(. 65 ) = 15 .925

p = .50

= 3.99

q = .50

= n p = 100(.50) = 50

5.8

a)

n=6

b)

n = 20

n p q = 100 (. 50 )(. 50 ) =

p = .70

p = .50

25

= 5

x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Prob
.001
.010
.060
.185
.324
.303
.118

Prob

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

.000
.000
.000
.001
.005
.015
.037
.074
.120
.160
.176
.160
.120
.074
.037
.015
.005
.001
.000
.000
.000

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.9

c)

n=8

a)

n = 20

p = .80

x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

p = .78

Prob
.000
.000
.001
.009
.046
.147
.294
.336
.168

x = 14

C14 (.78)14(.22)6 = 38,760(.030855)(.00011338) = .1356

20

b)

n = 20

p = .75

x = 20

C20 (.75)20(.25)0 = (1)(.0031712)(1) = .0032

20

c)

n = 20

p = .70

x < 12

Use table A.2:


P(x=0) + P(x=1) + . . . + P(x=11)=
.000 + .000 + .000 + .000 + .000 + .000 + .000 +
.001 + .004 + .012 + .031 + .065 = .113

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.10

n = 16

10

p = .40

P(x > 9): from Table A.2:


x
9
10
11
12
13

Prob
.084
.039
.014
.004
.001
.142

P(3 < x < 6):


x
3
4
5
6

Prob
.047
.101
.162
.198
.508

n = 13

p = .88

P(x = 10) = 13C10(.88)10(.12)3 = 286(.278500976)(.001728) = .1376


P(x = 13) = 13C13(.88)13(.12)0 = (1)(.1897906171)(1) = .1898
Expected Value = = n p = 13(.88) = 11.44

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.11

n = 25

11

p = .60

a) x > 15
P(x > 15) = P(x = 15) + P(x = 16) + + P(x = 25)
Using Table A.2 n = 25, p = .60
x
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Prob
.161
.151
.120
.080
.044
.020
.007
.002
.585

b) x > 20
P(x > 20) = P(x = 21) + P(x = 22) + P(x = 23) + P(x = 24) + P(x = 25) =
Using Table A.2 n = 25, p = .60
.007 + .002 + .000 + .000 + .000 = .009
c) P(x < 10)
Using Table A.2 n = 25, p = .60 and x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
x
9
8
7
<6

Prob.
.009
.003
.001
.000
.013

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.12

n = 16

p = .50

12

x > 10

Using Table A.2, n = 16 and p = .50, P(x=11) + P(x=12) + . . . + P(x=16) =


x
11
12
13
14
15
16
For n = 10

p = .87

Prob.
.067
.028
.009
.002
.000
.000
.106

x=6

C6 (.87)6(.13)4 = 210(.433626)(.00028561) = .0260

10

5.13

n = 15
a) P(x = 5) =

p = .20
C5(.20)5(.80)10 = 3003(.00032)(.1073742) = .1032

15

b) P(x > 9): Using Table A.2


P(x = 10) + P(x = 11) + . . . + P(x = 15) = .000 + .000 + . . . + .000 = .000
c) P(x = 0) =

C0(.20)0(.80)15 = (1)(1)(.035184) = .0352

15

d) P(4 < x < 7): Using Table A.2


P(x = 4) + P(x = 5) + P(x = 6) + P(x = 7) = .188 + .103 + .043 + .014 = .348
e)

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.14

13

n = 18
a)

p =.30

= 18(.30) = 5.4

p = .34

= 18(.34) = 6.12

P(x > 8)

n = 18

b)

p = .30

from Table A.2


x
8
9
10
11
12
c) n = 18

Prob
.081
.039
.015
.005
.001
.141
p = .34

P(2 < x < 4) = P(x = 2) + P(x = 3) + P(x = 4) =


C2(.34)2(.66)16 +

18

C3(.34)3(.66)15 +

18

C4(.34)4(.66)14 =

18

.0229 + .0630 + .1217 = .2076


d) n = 18

p = .30

x=0

C0(.30)0(.70)18 = .00163

18

n = 18

p = .34

x=0

C0(.34)0(.66)18 = .00056

18

Since only 30% (compared to 34%) fall in the $500,000 to $1,000,000 category, it is
more likely that none of the CPA financial advisors would fall in this category.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.15

2 .3 5 e
a) P(x=5 = 2.3) =
5!

2 .3

3 .9 2 e
b) P(x=2 = 3.9) =
2!

( 6 . 34 6

3 .9

14

)3 1( 4 . 0 3 0 ) 2 5 9
= .0538
1 2 0

( 1 . 25 ) 1 (0 . 2
2

0) 2

4 2
= .1539

c) P(x < 3 = 4.1) = P(x=3) + P(x=2) + P(x=1) + P(x=0) =


4 .1 3 e
3!

4 .1

4 .1 2 e
2!

4 .1

4 .1 1 e
1!

4 .1

( 6 . 98 2) (01 . 1
6

( 1 . 86 ) 1 (0 . 1
2

( 4 . 1 ) (0 . 1
1

6) 5 7 3
= .1904
6) 5

6) 5

4 .1 0 e 4 . 1
( 1 ) (0 . 1
=
0 !
1

6) 5

7 3
= .1393

7 3
= .0679

7 3
= .0166

.1904 + .1393 + .0679 + .0166 = .4142


d) P(x=0 = 2.7) =
2 .7 0 e 2 .7
( 1 ) (0 . 6 )7 2 1
= .0672
=
0 !
1
e) P(x=1 = 5.4)=
5 .4 1 e
1!

5 .4

( 5 . 4 ) (0 . 0
1

f) P(4 < x < 8 = 4.4):


4 .4 5 e
5!
(1

4 .4

4 )5

1 6 6
= .0244

P(x=5 = 4.4) + P(x=6 = 4.4) + P(x=7 = 4.4)=

4 .4 6 e 4 .4
4 .4 7 e
+
6 !
7!

6 . 1 4 6 9 ) 2 (0 .2 1
1 2 0

4 .4

2 ) 7 ( 77 23 . 3 54 1 6 ) 3 (0 .9 1
+
7 2 0

= .1687 + .1237 + .0778 = .3702

2 ) 7 ( 37 , 913 24. 7 7 8) (01 . 1 2


+
5 0 4 0

2) 7

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.16

a) P(x=6 = 3.8) = .0936


b) P(x>7 = 2.9):
x
8
9
10
11
12

Prob
.0068
.0022
.0006
.0002
.0000
.0098

c) P(3 < x < 9 = 4.2)=


x
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Prob
.1852
.1944
.1633
.1143
.0686
.0360
.0168
.7786

d) P(x=0 = 1.9) = .1496


e) P(x < 6 = 2.9)=
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Prob
.0550
.1596
.2314
.2237
.1622
.0940
.0455
.9714

f) P(5 < x < 8 = 5.7) =


x
6
7
8

Prob
.1594
.1298
.0925
.3817

15

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.17 a) = 6.3

mean = 6.3
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Standard deviation =
Prob
.0018
.0116
.0364
.0765
.1205
.1519
.1595
.1435
.1130
.0791
.0498
.0285
.0150
.0073
.0033
.0014
.0005
.0002
.0001
.0000

16

6 .3

= 2.51

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

b) = 1.3

mean = 1.3
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

17

standard deviation =
Prob
.2725
.3542
.2303
.0998
.0324
.0084
.0018
.0003
.0001
.0000

1.3

= 1.14

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

c) = 8.9

mean = 8.9
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

18

standard deviation =
Prob
.0001
.0012
.0054
.0160
.0357
.0635
.0941
.1197
.1332
.1317
.1172
.0948
.0703
.0481
.0306
.0182
.0101
.0053
.0026
.0012
.0005
.0002
.0001

8.9

= 2.98

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

d) = 0.6

mean = 0.6
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

19

standard deviation =
Prob
.5488
.3293
.0988
.0198
.0030
.0004
.0000

0.6

= .775

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.18

20

= 2.84 minutes
a) P(x=6 = 2.8)
from Table A.3 .0407
b) P(x=0 = 2.8) =
from Table A.3 .0608
c) Unable to meet demand if x > 44 minutes:
x
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Prob.
.0872
.0407
.0163
.0057
.0018
.0005
.0001
.1523

There is a .1523 probability of being unable to meet the demand.


Probability of meeting the demand = 1 - (.1523) = .8477
15.23% of the time a second window will need to be opened.
d) = 2.8 arrivals4 minutes
P(x=3) arrivals2 minutes = ??
Lambda must be changed to the same interval ( the size)
New lambda=1.4 arrivals2 minutes
P(x=3) =1.4) = from Table A.3 = .1128
P(x > 58 minutes) = ??
Lambda must be changed to the same interval(twice the size):
New lambda = 5.6 arrivals8 minutes

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

21

P(x > 5 = 5.6):


From Table A.3:

5.19

x
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Prob.
.1697
.1584
.1267
.0887
.0552
.0309
.0157
.0073
.0032
.0013
.0005
.0002
.0001
.6579

= x/n = 126/36 = 3.5


Using Table A.3
a) P(x = 0) = .0302
b) P(x > 6) = P(x = 6) + P(x = 7) + . . . =
.0771 + .0385 + .0169 + .0066 + .0023 +
.0007 + .0002 + .0001 = .1424
c) P(x < 4 10 minutes)
Double Lambda to = 7.010 minutes
P(x < 4) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 3) =
.0009 + .0064 + .0223 + .0521 = .0817
d) P(3 < x < 610 minutes)
= 7.0 10 minutes
P(3 < x < 6) = P(x = 3) + P(x = 4) + P(x = 5) + P(x = 6)
= .0521 + .0912 + .1277 + .1490 = .42

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

22

e) P(x = 8 15 minutes)
Change Lambda for a 15 minute interval by multiplying the original Lambda by 3.
= 10.5 15 minutes
P(x = 815 minutes) =

5.20

x e
x!

(10 .58 )( e 10 .5 )
8!

= .1009

= 5.6 days3 weeks


a) P(x=0 = 5.6):
from Table A.3 = .0037
b) P(x=6 = 5.6):
from Table A.3 = .1584
c) P(x > 15 = 5.6):
x
15
16
17

Prob.
.0005
.0002
.0001
.0008

Because this probability is so low, if it actually occurred, the researcher would


question the Lambda value as too low for this period. Perhaps the value of
Lambda has changed because of an overall increase in pollution.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.21

23

= 0.6 trips1 year


a) P(x=0 = 0.6):
from Table A.3 = .5488
b) P(x=1 = 0.6):
from Table A.3 = .3293
c) P(x > 2 = 0.6):
from Table A.3

x
2
3
4
5
6

Prob.
.0988
.0198
.0030
.0004
.0000
.1220

d) P(x < 3 3 year period):


The interval length has been increased (3 times)
New Lambda = = 1.8 trips3 years
P(x < 3 = 1.8):
from Table A.3

x
0
1
2
3

e) P(x=46 years):
The interval has been increased (6 times)
New Lambda = = 3.6 trips6 years
P(x=4 = 3.6):
from Table A.3 = .1912

Prob.
.1653
.2975
.2678
.1607
.8913

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.22

24

= 1.2 collisions4 months


a) P(x=0 = 1.2):
from Table A.3 = .3012
b) P(x=22 months):
The interval has been decreased (by )
New Lambda = = 0.6 collisions2 months
P(x=2 = 0.6):
from Table A.3 = .0988
c) P(x < 1 collision6 months):
The interval length has been increased (by 1.5)
New Lambda = = 1.8 collisions6 months
P(x < 1 = 1.8):
from Table A.3

x
0
1

Prob.
.1653
.2975
.4628

The result is likely to happen almost half the time (46.26%). Ship channel and
weather conditions are about normal for this period. Safety awareness is
about normal for this period. There is no compelling reason to reject the
lambda value of 0.6 collisions per 4 months based on an outcome of 0 or 1
collisions per 6 months.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.23

25

= 1.2 penscarton
a) P(x=0 = 1.2):
from Table A.3 = .3012
b) P(x > 8 = 1.2):
from Table A.3 = .0000
c) P(x > 3 = 1.2):
from Table A.3

x
4
5
6
7
8

Prob.
.0260
.0062
.0012
.0002
.0000
.0336

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.24

n = 100,000

26

p = .00004

P(x > 7n = 100,000 p = .00004):


= = n p = 100,000(.00004) = 4.0
Since n > 20 and n p < 7, the Poisson approximation to this binomial problem is
close enough.
P(x > 7 = 4):
Using Table A.3

x
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Prob.
.0595
.0298
.0132
.0053
.0019
.0006
.0002
.0001
.1106

x
11
12
13
14

Prob.
.0019
.0006
.0002
.0001
.0028

P(x >10 = 4):


Using Table A.3

Since getting more than 10 is a rare occurrence, this particular geographic region
appears to have a higher average rate than other regions. An investigation of
particular characteristics of this region might be warranted.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.25

p = .009

27

n = 200

Use the Poisson Distribution:


= n p = 200(.009) = 1.8
a) P(x > 6) from Table A.3 =
P(x = 6) + P(x = 7) + P(x = 8) + P(x = 9) + . . . =
.0078 + .0020 + .0005 + .0001 = .0104
b) P(x > 10) = .0000
c) P(x = 0) = .1653
d) P(x < 5) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 2) + P( x = 3) + P(x = 4) =
.1653 + .2975 + .2678 + .1607 + .0723 = .9636

5.26

If 99% see a doctor, then 1% do not see a doctor. Thus, p = .01 for this problem.
n = 300,

p = .01,

= n(p) = 300(.01) = 3

a) P(x = 5):
Using = 3 and Table A.3 = .1008
b) P(x < 4) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 3) =
.0498 + .1494 + .2240 + .2240 = .6472
c) The expected number = = = 3

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.27

28

a) P(x = 3 N = 11, A = 8, n = 4)
8

C 3 3 C1 (56 )(3)
=
= .5091
330
11 C 4

b) P(x < 2)N = 15, A = 5, n = 6)


P(x = 1) + P (x = 0) =
5

C1 10 C 5
+
15 C 6

C 0 10 C 6
(5)( 252 ) (1)( 210 )
+
=
5005
5005
15 C 6

.2517 + .0420 = .2937


c) P(x=0 N = 9, A = 2, n = 3)
2

C 0 7 C 3 (1)(35)
=
= .4167
84
9 C3

d) P(x > 4 N = 20, A = 5, n = 7) =


P(x = 5) + P(x = 6) + P(x = 7) =
5

C5 15 C 2
+
20 C 7

C 6 15 C1
+
20 C 7

C 7 15 C 0
=
20 C 7

(1)(105 )
+ 5C6 (impossible) + 5C7(impossible) = .0014
77520

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.28

N = 19 n = 6
a) P(x = 1 private)
11

A = 11

C1 8 C 5
(11)( 56 )
=
= .0227
27 ,132
19 C 6

b) P(x = 4 private)
11

C 4 8 C 2
(330 )( 28 )
=
= .3406
27 ,132
19 C 6

c) P(x = 6 private)
11

C 6 8 C 0
(462 )(1)
=
= .0170
27 ,132
19 C 6

d) P(x = 0 private)
11

C 0 8 C 6
(1)( 28 )
=
= .0010
27 ,132
19 C 6

29

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.29

N = 17

A=8
8

a) P(x = 0) =

b) P(x = 4) =

n=4

C 0 9 C 4
(1)(126 )
=
= .0529
C
2380
17 4

C 4 9 C 0
(70 )(1)
=
= .0294
2380
17 C 4

c) P(x = 2 non computer) =

5.30

N = 20

30

A = 16 white

a) P(x = 4 white) =

b) P(x = 4 red) =

16

C 2 8 C 2
(36 )( 28 )
=
= .4235
2380
17 C 4

N - A = 4 red

n=5

C 4 4 C1
(1820 )( 4)
=
15504
20 C 5

= .4696

C 4 16 C1
(1)(16 )
=
= .0010
15504
20 C 5

C 5 16 C 0
= .0000 because 4C5 is impossible to determine
20 C 5
The participant cannot draw 5 red beads if there are only 4 to draw from.

c) P(x = 5 red) =

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.31

N = 10

31

n=4

a) A = 3 x = 2
3

P(x = 2) =

C 2 7 C 2 (3)( 21)
=
= .30
210
10 C 4

b) A = 5 x = 0
P(x = 0) =

C 0 5 C 4 (1)(5)
=
= .0238
210
10 C 4

c) A = 5 x = 3
P(x = 3) =

5.32

N = 16
a) P(x = 0) =

C 3 5 C1 (10 )(5)
=
= .2381
210
10 C 4

A = 4 defective
4

n=3

C 0 12 C 3 (1)( 220 )
=
= .3929
560
16 C 3

C 3 12 C 0 ( 4)(1)
=
= .0071
560
16 C 3
4 C 2 12 C1
c) P(x > 2) = P(x=2) + P(x=3) =
+ .0071 (from part b.) =
16 C 3
(6)(12 )
560
+ .0071 = .1286 + .0071 = .1357

b) P(x = 3) =

d) P(x < 1) = P(x=1) + P(x=0) =


4

C1 12 C 2
( 4)( 66 )
+ .3929 (from part a.) =
+ .3929 = .4714 + .3929 = .8643
560
16 C 3

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.33

N = 18

A = 11 Hispanic

32

n=5

P(x < 1) = P(1) + P(0) =


11

C1 7 C 4
+
18 C 5

11

C 0 7 C 5
=
18 C 5

(11 )( 35 ) (1)( 21 )
+
= .0449 + .0025 = .0474
8568
8568

It is fairly unlikely that these results occur by chance. A researcher might want to
further investigate this result to determine causes. Were officers selected based on
leadership, years of service, dedication, prejudice, or some other reason?

5.34

a) P(x=4 n = 11 and p = .23)


C4(.23)4(.77)7 = 330(.0028)(.1605) = .1482

11

b) P(x > 1n = 6 and p = .50) =


1 - P(x < 1) = 1 - P(x = 0) =
1 [6C0(.50)0(.50)6] = 1 [(1)(1)(.0156)] = .9844
c) P(x > 7 n = 9 and p = .85) = P(x = 8) + P(x = 9) =
C8(.85)8(.15)1 + 9C9(.85)9(.15)0 =

(9)(.2725)(.15) + (1)(.2316)(1) = .3679 + .2316 = .5995


d) P(x < 3 n = 14 and p = .70) =
P(x = 3) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 0) =
C3(.70)3(.30)11 + 14C2(.70)2(.30)12 +

14

C1(.70)1(.30)13 + 14C0(.70)0(.30)14 =

14

(364)(.3430)(.00000177) + (91)(.49)(.000000531)=
(14)(.70)(.00000016) + (1)(1)(.000000048) =
.0002 + .0000 + .0000 + .0000 = .0002

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.35

33

a) P(x = 14 n = 20 and p = .60) = .124


b) P(x < 5 n = 10 and p =.30) =
P(x = 4) + P(x = 3) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 1) + P(x=0) =
x
0
1
2
3
4

Prob.
.028
.121
.233
.267
.200
.849

c) P(x > 12 n = 15 and p = .60) =


P(x = 12) + P(x = 13) + P(x = 14) + P(x = 15)
x
12
13
14
15

Prob.
.063
.022
.005
.000
.090

d) P(x > 20 n = 25 and p = .40) = P(x = 21) + P(x = 22) +


P(x = 23) + P(x = 24) + P(x=25) =
x
21
22
23
24
25

Prob.
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

34

5.36
a) P(x = 4 = 1.25)
( 1 .2

5) e( 1 . 2 )5 ( 2 . 4
=
4!

4 ) 1 (2 .4 8 ) 6 5
= .0291
2 4

b) P(x < 1 = 6.37) = P(x = 1) + P(x = 0) =


( 6 . 3 ) 71 ( e
1!

6 .3

( 6 .3

7 ) e( 6 . 3 7) ( 6 . 3 ) 7 (0 . 0 ) 1 ( 71 ) (0 . 0 ) 1
=
+
0 !
1
1

.0109 + .0017 = .0126


c) P(x > 5 = 2.4) = P(x = 6) + P(x = 7) + ... =
( 2 . 4 6 ) e( 2 . 4 ) ( 2 . 4 7 ) e( 2 . 4 ) ( 2 . 4 8 ) e( 2 . 4 ) ( 2 . 4 9 ) e( 2 . 4 ) ( 2 . 4 1 0) e( 2 . 4 )
+
+
+
+
+
6 !
7!
8 !
9!
1 0 !
.0241 + .0083 + .0025 + .0007 + .0002 = .0358
for values x > 11 the probabilities are each .0000 when rounded off to 4
decimal places.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.37

35

a) P(x = 3 = 1.8) = .1607


b) P(x < 5 = 3.3) =
P(x = 4) + P(x = 3) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 0) =
x
0
1
2
3
4

Prob.
.0369
.1217
.2008
.2209
.1823
.7626

c) P(x > 3 = 2.1) =


x
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Prob.
.1890
.0992
.0417
.0146
.0044
.0011
.0003
.0001
.0000
.3504

d) P(2 < x < 5 = 4.2):


P(x=3) + P(x=4) + P(x=5) =
x
3
4
5

Prob.
.1852
.1944
.1633
.5429

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.38

a) P(x = 3N = 6, n = 4, A = 5) =

36

C 3 1 C1 (10 )(1)
=
= .6667
15
6 C4

b) P(x < 1N = 10, n = 3, A = 5):


P(x = 1) + P(x = 0) =

C1 5 C 2
+
10 C 3

C 0 5 C3
(5)(10 ) (1)(10 )
+
=
120
120
10 C 3

= .4167 + .0833 = .5000


c) P(x > 2 N = 13, n = 5, A = 3):
P(x=2) + P(x=3) Note: only 3 x's in population
3

5.39

C 2 10 C 3
+
13 C 5

C 3 10 C 2
(3)(120 ) (1)( 45 )
+
=
= .2797 + .0350 = .3147
C
1287
1287
13
5

n = 25 p = .20 retired
from Table A.2: P(x = 7) = .111
P(x > 10): P(x = 10) + P(x = 11) + . . . + P(x = 25) = .012 + .004 + .001 = .017
Expected Value = = n p = 25(.20) = 5
n = 20 p = .40 mutual funds
P(x = 8) = .180
P(x < 6) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + . . . + P(x = 5) =
.000 + .000 + .003 +.012 + .035 + .075 = .125
P(x = 0) = .000
P(x > 12) = P(x = 12) + P(x = 13) + . . . + P(x = 20) = .035 + .015 + .005 + .001 = .056
x=8
Expected Number = = n p = 20(.40) = 8

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.40

37

= 3.2 cars2 hours


a)

P(x=3) cars per 1 hour) = ??


The interval has been decreased by .
The new = 1.6 cars1 hour.
P(x = 3 = 1.6) = (from Table A.3) .1378

b) P(x = 0cars per hour) = ??


The interval has been decreased by the original amount.
The new = 0.8 cars hour.
P(x = 0 = 0.8) = (from Table A.3) .4493
c) P(x > 5 = 1.6) = (from Table A.3)
x
5
6
7
8

Prob.
.0176
.0047
.0011
.0002
.0236

Either a rare event occurred or perhaps the long-run average, , has changed
(increased).

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.41

N = 32

A = 10

a) P(x = 3) =

10

b) P(x = 6) =

10

c) P(x = 0) =

10

38

n = 12
C 3 22 C 9
(120 )( 497 ,420 )
=
= .2644
225 ,792 ,840
32 C12
C 6 22 C 6
( 210 )( 74 ,613 )
=
= .0694
225 ,792 ,840
32 C12
C 0 22 C12
(1)( 646 ,646 )
=
= .0029
225 ,792 ,840
32 C12

d) A = 22
P(7 < x < 9) =

22

C 7 10 C 5
+
32 C12

22

C8 10 C 4
+
32 C12

22

C 9 10 C 3
32 C12

(170 ,544 )( 252 ) (319 ,770 )( 210 ) ( 497 ,420 )(120 )


+
+
225 ,792 ,840
225 ,792 ,840
225 ,792 ,840

= .1903 + .2974 + .2644 = .7521

5.42

= 1.4 defects1 lot

If x > 3, buyer rejects

If x < 3, buyer accepts

P(x < 3 = 1.4) = (from Table A.3)


x
0
1
2
3

Prob.
.2466
.3452
.2417
.1128
.9463

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.43

39

a) n = 20 and p = .25
The expected number = = n p = (20)(.25) = 5.00
b) P(x < 1n = 20 and p = .25) =
P(x = 1) + P(x = 0) =

C1(.25)1(.75)19 + 20C0(.25)0(.75)20

20

= (20)(.25)(.00423) + (1)(1)(.0032) = .0212 +. 0032 = .0244


Since the probability is so low, the population of your state may have a lower
percentage of chronic heart conditions than those of other states.

5.44

a) P(x > 7n = 10 and p = .70) = (from Table A.2):


x
8
9
10

Prob.
.233
.121
.028
.382

Expected number = = n p = 10(.70) = 7


b) n = 15 p = 1/3

Expected number = = n p = 15(1/3) = 5

P(x=0 n = 15 and p = 1/3) =


C0(1/3)0(2/3)15 = .0023

15

c) n = 7

p = .53

P(x = 7n = 7 and p = .53) = 7C7(.53)7(.47)0 = .0117


Probably the 53% figure is too low for this population since the probability of
this occurrence is so low (.0117).

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.45

40

n = 12
a.) P(x = 0 long hours):
C0(.20)0(.80)12 = .0687

p = .20

12

b.) P(x > 6) long hours):


p = .20
Using Table A.2: .016 + .003 + .001 = .020
c) P(x = 5 good financing):
p = .25,

C5(.25)5(.75)7 = .1032

12

d.) p = .19 (good plan), expected number = = n(p) = 12(.19) = 2.28

5.46

n = 100,000

p = .000014

Worked as a Poisson:

= n p = 100,000(.000014) = 1.4

a) P(x = 5):
from Table A.3 = .0111
b) P(x = 0):
from Table A.3 = .2466
c) P(x > 6):
x
7
8

Prob
.0005
.0001
.0006

(from Table A.3)

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.47

P(x < 3) n = 8 and p = .60):

41

From Table A.2:


x
0
1
2
3

Prob.
.001
.008
.041
.124
.174

17.4% of the time in a sample of eight, three or fewer customers are walk-ins by
chance. Other reasons for such a low number of walk-ins might be that she is
retaining more old customers than before or perhaps a new competitor is
attracting walk-ins away from her.

5.48

n = 25

p = .20

a) P(x = 8n = 25 and p = .20) = (from Table A.2)

.062

b) P(x > 10)n = 25 and p = .20) = (from Table A.2)


x
11
12
13

Prob.
.004
.001
.000
.005

c) Since such a result would only occur 0.5% of the time by chance, it is likely
that the analyst's list was not representative of the entire state of Idaho or the
20% figure for the Idaho census is not correct.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.49

42

= 0.6 flats2000 miles


P(x = 0 = 0.6) = (from Table A.3) .5488
P(x > 3 = 0.6) = (from Table A.3)
x
3
4
5

Prob.
.0198
.0030
.0004
.0232

Assume one trip is independent of the other. Let F = flat tire and NF = no flat tire
P(NF1 _ NF2) = P(NF1) P(NF2)
but P(NF) = .5488
P(NF1 _ NF2) = (.5488)(.5488) = .3012

5.50

N = 25

n=8

a) P(x = 1 in NY)
4

A=4

C1 21 C 7
( 4)(116 ,280 )
=
= .4300
1,081 ,575
25 C 8

b) P(x = 4 in top 10)


10

A = 10

C 4 15 C 4 (210 (1365 )
=
= .2650
1,081,575
25 C 8

c) P(x = 0 in California)
5

C 0 20 C 8 (1)(125 ,970 )
=
= .1165
1,081,575
25 C 8

d) P(x = 3 with M)
3

5.51

A=5

A=3

C 3 22 C 5
(1)( 26 ,334 )
=
= .0243
1,081,575
25 C 8

N = 24

n=6

A=8

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

a) P(x = 6) =

b) P(x = 0) =

43

C 6 16 C 0
(28)(1)
=
= .0002
134 ,596
24 C 6
8

C 0 16 C 6 (1)(8008 )
=
= .0595
134 ,596
24 C 6

d) A = 16 East Side
P(x = 3) =

5.52

n = 25 p = .20

16

C 3 8 C 3 (560 )(56)
=
= .2330
134 ,596
24 C 6

Expected Value = = n p = 25(.20) = 5

= 25(.20) = 5

P(x > 12) =

From Table A.2:

n p q =

25 (. 20 )(. 80 )

= 2

x Prob
13 .0000

The values for x > 12 are so far away from the expected value that they are very
unlikely to occur.
P(x = 14) = 25C14(.20)14(.80)11 = .000063 which is very unlikely.
If this value (x = 14) actually occurred, one would doubt the validity of the
p = .20 figure or one would have experienced a very rare event.

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.53

44

= 2.4 calls1 minute


a) P(x = 0 = 2.4) = (from Table A.3) .0907
b) Can handle x < 5 calls

Cannot handle x > 5 calls

P(x > 5 = 2.4) = (from Table A.3)


x
6
7
8
9
10
11

c) P(x = 3 calls2 minutes)


The interval has been increased 2 times.
New Lambda: = 4.8 calls2 minutes.
from Table A.3: .1517
d) P(x < 1 calls15 seconds):
The interval has been decreased by .
New Lambda = = 0.6 calls15 seconds.
P(x < 1 = 0.6) = (from Table A.3)
P(x = 1) =
P(x = 0) =

.3293
.5488
.8781

Prob.
.0241
.0083
.0025
.0007
.0002
.0000
.0358

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.54

n = 160

45

p = .01

Working this problem as a Poisson problem:


a) Expected number = = n(p) = 160(.01) = 1.6
b) P(x > 8):
Using Table A.3:

x
8
9

Prob.
.0002
.0000
.0002

x
2
3
4
5
6

Prob.
.2584
.1378
.0551
.0176
.0047
.4736

c) P(2 < x < 6):


Using Table A.3:

5.55

p = .005

n = 1,000

= n p = (1,000)(.005) = 5
a) P(x < 4) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 3) =
.0067 + .0337 + .0842 + .1404 = .265
b) P(x > 10) = P(x = 11) + P(x = 12) + . . . =
.0082 + .0034 + .0013 + .0005 + .0002 = .0136
c) P(x = 0) = .0067

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.56

n=8

p = .36

46

x = 0 women

C0(.36)0(.64)8 = (1)(1)(.0281475) = .0281

It is unlikely that a company would randomly hire 8 physicians from the U.S. pool
and none of them would be female. If this actually happened, figures similar to these
might be used as evidence in a lawsuit.

5.57

N = 34
a) n = 5
13

x=3

A = 13

C 3 21 C 2 (286 )( 210 )
=
= .2158
278 ,256
34 C 5

b) n = 8 x < 2
5

C 0 29 C8
+
34 C 8

A=5
5

C1 29 C 7
+
34 C 8

C 2 29 C 6
=
34 C 8

(1)( 4,292 ,145 ) (5)(1,560 ,780 ) (10 )( 475 ,020 )


+
+
= .2364 + .4298 + .2616 = .9278
18 ,156 ,204
18 ,156 ,204
18 ,156 ,204

c) n = 5

x=2

A=3

C2(3/34)2(31/34)3 = (10)(.0077855)(.7579636) = .0590

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.58

47

N = 14 n = 4
a) P(x = 4N = 14, n = 4, A = 10 north side)
10

C 4 4 C 0 ( 210 ((1)
=
= .2098
1001
14 C 4

b) P(x = 4N = 14, n = 4, A = 4 west)


4

C 4 10 C 0
(1)(1)
=
= .0010
1001
14 C 4

c) P(x = 2N = 14, n = 4, A = 4 west)


4

5.59

C 2 10 C 2 (6)( 45)
=
= .2697
1001
14 C 4

a) = 3.841,000
P(x = 0) =

3.84 0 e 3.84
0!

= .0215

b) = 7.682,000
7.68 6 e 7.68
(205 ,195 .258 )(. 000461975 )
=
P(x = 6) =
= .1317
6!
720

c) = 1.61,000 and = 4.83,000


from Table A.3:
P(x < 7) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + . . . + P(x = 6) =
.0082 + .0395 + .0948 + .1517 + .1820 + .1747 + .1398 = .7907

Chapter 5: Discrete Distributions

5.60

48

This is a binomial distribution with n = 15 and p = .36.

= n p = 15(.36) = 5.4
=

15 (. 36 )(. 64 )

= 1.86

The most likely values are near the mean, 5.4. Note from the printout that the
most probable values are at x = 5 and x = 6 which are near the mean.

5.61

This printout contains the probabilities for various values of x from zero to eleven from a
Poisson distribution with = 2.78. Note that the highest probabilities are at x = 2 and
x = 3 which are near the mean. The probability is slightly higher at x = 2 than at x = 3
even though x = 3 is nearer to the mean because of the piling up effect of x = 0.

5.62

This is a binomial distribution with n = 22 and p = .64.


The mean is n p = 22(.64) = 14.08 and the standard deviation is:

n p q =

22 (. 64 )(. 36 )

= 2.25

The x value with the highest peak on the graph is at x = 14 followed by x = 15


and x = 13 which are nearest to the mean.

5.63

This is the graph of a Poisson Distribution with = 1.784. Note the high
probabilities at x = 1 and x = 2 which are nearest to the mean. Note also that the
probabilities for values of x > 8 are near to zero because they are so far away
from the mean or expected value.