Anda di halaman 1dari 13

1.

Summary
Manjulika Chakma - the first tribal woman entrepreneur in the country, an indigenous woman came forward to show how lifestyle can be improved through business by making handloom products. Presently, Manjulika's Bain Textile became a popular name in handloom. Bain Textile has three showrooms in Rangamati and one in Cox's Bazaar. The company has a long range of products such as tribal dress (pinon, khadi), shawls, bed covers, shalwar kameezes, shirts, panjabis, T-shirts, frocks, sleeping gowns, skirt-tops, side bags, purses, sofa covers, napkins and towels. These various clothing and household items are sold in selected outlets in Dhaka such as Aarong, Prabartana, Karika, Aranya and Kumudini. Born in 1943, Manjulika learnt weaving from her mother Panchalata Khisha. In early 60s many indigenous women in hill districts used to produce clothes for their own uses only, they never thought about starting any commercial venture. Manjulika took bold initiatives to develop traditional looms in her area and establish the first business concern of tribal handloom products. It was a real challenge for her to take such initiative. In 1961 Manjulika started her career as a high school teacher. After few years, in 1965, Manjulika purchased two traditional looms to apply new weaving techniques thus begin her life as an entrepreneur with a capital of only Tk 500. Due to insufficient capital and low number of buyer she had to stop producing for every now and then. Then she decided to open a showroom of her own. She tried to get loans from the banks but she didnt have any collateral to keep as mortgage against bank loans. Gradually Bain Textile began to spread; in 2000 and 2001 the company earned 4 lakhs and 6 lakhs from exports, engaging the more than 100 tribal women in four villages and around 80 weavers, experts in the hand loom business. Manjulika has inspired and encouraged others to start business, about 20 to 25 such handloom enterprises and showrooms have been set up creating a huge employment opportunity. Manjulika is very conscious about the Bain Textile, she still plays a key role in supervising the whole production process; her master in preparing vegetable dyes is a secret of her success in making her products popular. Bain Textile helped the indigenous people take part in economic activities and improve their lifestyle, providing them with employment opportunity. She wants establish another unit equipped with power looms to increase production volume. Though Manjulika came so far but she doesnt have capital open an outlet of her own in Dhaka city. Manjulika won Shilu Abed Award in 2001 and Best Successful Woman Entrepreneur Award in 2002 in recognition of her outstanding contribution in the field of business and craftsmanship. She participated in the International Industrial Fair in Kolkata in 2003 and 2004 and Chiang Mai Trade Fair in Thailand in 2003. She went to participate in the Australian trade fair beginning April 6, 2004. By taking part in these shows, Manjulika wants to popularize Bain Textile products abroad and increase export earnings.

2. Analyze the process of developing entrepreneurship of Ms. Manjulika Chakma from the stages Decide to be an entrepreneur, Identify and Evaluate business opportunities and Managing the growth.
Entrepreneurship is a key element for the economic development of a country. The essence of the term lies in the perception and exploration of new opportunities in the realm of business. Manjulika Chakma, the owner of Bain Textiles, is such an entrepreneur who has developed traditional looms in Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and established the first business concern of tribal handloom products. It is now playing a crucial part of increasing national income from local and foreign buyers. Developing Entrepreneurship is a series of 7 sequential steps which are inter-related and interdependant in their nature. We have analyzed the following three very important stages based on the case story of Ms. Manjulika Chakma. Decide to be an Entrepreneur Identify and Evaluate Business Opportunities Managing the growth. Stage: Decide to be an Entrepreneur For developing entrepreneurship, first of all, decision should be taken to become an entrepreneur. Potential entrepreneurs first decide and give mental judgment in favor of becoming entrepreneur. This is the yardstick of taking a series of decisions in future. Following are the factors based on which we will provide the essence of entrepreneurship of Ms. Manjulika Chakma. 1. Strengths of the Decision Following are the strengths of Manjulika Chakma showed while making her decision to become an entrepreneur of tribal handloom products.

Initiative
Manjulika Chakma took actions that go beyond her job requirements or the demand of the situation. Manjulika was a teacher in Shah Boys High School in 1961. There are no job requirements for her that triggered her decision to become an entrepreneur, rather she thought

of doing something for her fellow weavers and took the initiative of establishing a business concern of tribal handloom products.

Opportunity seeking
Ms. Manjulika was very quick to see and seize opportunities. She did a thing she was asked to work by people or forced by situation. She says during 1950s and early 60s many indigenous women in hill districts used to produce clothes for their own uses only. They never thought about starting any commercial venture. So, she thought of an opportunity to create a new market for where there is an employment opportunity of tribal people exists.

Persistence
Manjulika Chakma was never discouraged by difficulties and problems that come up in her business or personal life. It was very difficult for her as an indigenous and ultra-poor woman to start a business of her own in the hill district of Rangamati. But, with her commitment to the goals starting a new venture with a capital of only TK 500, she is now earning an average of TK 10 Lakh each year from exports.

Information seeking
Manjulika undertakes personal research on how to satisfy customers and solve problems. She seeks relevant information from his/her clients, suppliers, competitors and others. She always wants to learn things which will help the business to grow. She participated in the International Industrial Fair in Kolkata in 2003 and 2004 and Chiang Mai Trade Fair in Thailand in 2003. She went to participate in the Australian trade fair beginning April 6, 2004. She always feels that participating in a fair abroad is a good way of learning and also improving the quality of products.

Demand for quality and efficiency


Manjulika always know that tribal handloom products have a distinctive appeal to both the local and foreign customers. Thats why she decided to purchase two traditional looms in 1965 and started applying new weaving techniques for better quality and efficiency.

Risk taking
Manjulika Chakma is the first tribal woman entrepreneur in the country. She established the first business concern of tribal handloom products; meaning she has undertaken the risk of establishing a very new enterprise with a very new product ideas in 1965.

Goal setting
When Manjuika Chakma thought of becoming an entrepreneur she set meaningful and challenging goals for herself. She does not just dream. She thinks and plans what she does. She was certain and has hope about the future. She established the first Tribal Handloom Textiles named Bain Textiles and set goals for it to achieve. Her future plans include establishment of another unit equipped with power looms to increase production volume. She has not only set goals for herself or Bain Textiles but also goals for the whole tribal nation of Bangladesh.

Systematic planning and monitoring


With separate weaving, dyeing, design and tailoring units and exclusive showrooms, Bain Textile emerged as a complete business house. Manjulika still plays a key role in supervising the whole production process right from procuring raw materials like yarn and chemicals for dyeing, preparing them for use and controlling the quality. Thus she shows her systematic planning and monitoring capabilities to become a successful entrepreneur and support the base to be an Entrepreneur.

Persuasion and Networking


Manjulika acts to develop and maintain business contacts by establishing good working relationship. She uses deliberate strategies to influence others. She succeeded in attracting buyers and received huge appreciation while handloom products became a profitable business. She established three showrooms in Rangamati and one in Cox's Bazaar. Besides, her products including various clothing and household items - are sold in selected outlets in Dhaka such as Aarong, Prabartana, Karika, Aranya and Kumudini. She took part in foreign exhibitions which added remarkable value in her networking capability.

Independence and Self Confidence


Manjulikas decision of becoming an entrepreneur gave her the independence of doing a business on her own. Not only that, as an indigenous women she regained the confidence and self-respect to think her not as a different community but as a whole representative of that community.

Builder
Ms. Manjulika has not only started a business, but also built a sole new trend line of commercial venture. She is the builder of Tribal dreams; she is the maker of tribal womens destiny. She has built a new era for tribal women, a new perspective builder of entrepreneurship and a designer of first business concern of tribal handloom products.

2. Product or Service Choice that Best Fit with Strengths The time was the 1960s when people in the hill tracts could not imagine starting a business and, especially for a woman, it was absolutely unthinkable. During such adverse circumstances, an indigenous woman, Manjulika Chakma, came forward to show how lifestyle can be improved through business. Manjulika took bold initiatives to develop traditional looms in her area and establish the first business concern of tribal handloom products. As an entrepreneur why she thought of such a business that best fit her entrepreneurial strengths? The answers are following: When I was growing up I saw people weaving their handlooms. I could see the dedication they devoted to making the quilts. Their very life depended on it. I am saddened by the loss of this tradition, which still exists in remote areas, breathing like a dying dog. This self-realization has made Manjulika to take the decisions of becoming an entrepreneur in the business concern of tribal handloom products. As she is an indigenous woman of Chakma tribal group, it is a very fine business area for her, where she can represent the whole tribal groups.

Manjulika having the entity of tribal has capabilities of understanding the product and its production technique which enhances her decisions of becoming an entrepreneur of almost an unknown field of tribal traditional looms.

3. Business Expansion Ms. Manjulika Chakma has not only introduced a new business segment but also shown the paths of expanding it. Eventually, Manjulika's Bain Textile became a popular name in handloom. Presently, Bain Textile has three showrooms in Rangamati and one in Cox's Bazaar. Besides, her products including various clothing and household items - are sold in selected outlets in Dhaka such as Aarong, Prabartana, Karika, Aranya and Kumudini. Products have been developed and diversified at Bain Textile considering the tastes and demands of buyers at home and abroad. The company has a long range of products such as tribal dress (pinon, khadi), shawls, bed covers, shalwar kameezes, shirts, panjabis, T-shirts, frocks, sleeping gowns, skirt-tops, side bags, purses, sofa covers, napkins and towels. Bain Textile earned Tk 4 lakh in 2000 and Tk 6 lakh in 2001 from exports. Around 80 weavers, experts and helpers are engaged in her handloom business, apart from the more than 100 tribal women in four villages who produce handloom products for sale. Her future plans include establishment of another unit equipped with power looms to increase production volume. All these support her decisions of becoming an entrepreneur, an idol.

Stage: Identify and Evaluate Business Opportunities An entrepreneur has to proceed to identify and evaluate business opportunities. These are the potential positive factors that may exist at present or may exist in future. Following are the business opportunities for Manjuilka Chakma and Bain Textiles. 1. Unknown Field of Tribal Traditional Looms Traditionally, agriculture had been the main occupation in the hill tracts region dominated by tribal people. The art of weaving was taught to women as part of regular household chores. In her very childhood, Manjulika learnt weaving from her mother Panchalata Khisha. They had such looms in their family, locally called 'komor tant'. They used to produce traditional loom products in 1950s. Manjulika came forward to show how this art of weaving can be improved through business. 2. Market for Ethnic Handloom Products We often send large quantity of handloom items of good quality to different aristocratic fashion houses in the capital city Dhaka in accordance with their demands, said Manjulika Chakma. The quotation supports the fact that there is a huge market opportunity exists for handloom items. Of the handloom items produced in these factories, pinon-khadi (dress for indigenous women), three-pieces, punjabi, frock, orna, fatoa, shirt, bed cover, floor mat, dining mat and cushion cover are very popular to the tourists. It has therefore, created such a growing market which could be flourished under proper supporting and sustaining activities. 3. Popularity of Indigenous Tastes and Appeal The handloom products are gaining popularity among the tourists from home and abroad in the hill district of Rangamati. The products are attractive because of their unique color and designs that demonstrate the rich heritage of tribal community. 4. Employment Generation The handloom industry in Rangamati has long been playing a pivotal role in creating jobs for the ultra-poor women and the indigenous people. According to sources at least 2000 ultra-poor women have taken weaving at different handloom factories as profession to earn their bread

and butter along with the males in their families. They are engaged in wide range of work, including weaving, dying of cloths and processing yarn. I have been working here for the last three years. When I was an apprentice I used to get Tk 1,200. But today, I'm receiving Tk 2,000, said Lalita Chakma, a young female worker at Bain Textile. 5. In-House Production A study shows that, overall, a large percentage of 62 percent own one or more handloom machines, which creates an opportunity to provide In and Each House production which may significantly contribute to the nations economy as well as household income. 6. Unique Production Technique In Katachhori, Rangamati, the Chakmas moisten the strands of the yarn fringe using their saliva. The strands of yarn are then twisted by rolling them down their shins. The Chakmas create a dazzling array of woven pieces, including a bag to keep pan with separate compartments, with motifs that include pineapples, flowers and starfruit. They even produce stitched chessboards. This type of unique production technique has made this business concern a fascinating outlook with outstanding business opportunites.

Stage: Managing the Growth This is the last step of the process of developing entrepreneurship of the enterprise. At this stage, the enterpriser has to sustain the growth of the enterprise and manage the growth. Based on the case story of Manjulika Chakma following are the factors she undertakes to manage the growth of Bain Textiles. Evaluation of Growth Opportunities Manjulika's bold initiative created new entrepreneurs also. Her tireless efforts encouraged others to start business of handloom products in the hill districts. Over the years, about 20 to 25 such handloom enterprises have been set up and showrooms opened where several thousand indigenous women are working. Of them nine handloom textiles are in Rangamati,

including Bain Textile, Nakshi Textile, Banalata Textile, Banani Textile, Tantuz Textile, Craft and Fashion Textile, Bayan Textile, Majunder Textile and Rakhain Textile. Bain Textile earned Tk 4 lakh in 2000 and Tk 6 lakh in 2001 from exports. Around 80 weavers, experts and helpers are engaged in her handloom business, apart from the more than 100 tribal women in four villages who produce handloom products for sale.

Strategy for Managing the Growth Separate weaving, dyeing, design and tailoring units of Bain Textile Exclusive showrooms Manjulika supervises the whole production process right from procuring raw materials like yarn and chemicals for dyeing, preparing them for use and controlling the quality. Manjulika is a master in preparing vegetable dyes. It's a secret of her success in making her products popular and sustains the business growth. Traditional tribal looms have been transformed into modern ones. She participated in the International Industrial Fair in Kolkata in 2003 and 2004 and Chiang Mai Trade Fair in Thailand in 2003. She went to participate in the Australian trade fair beginning April 6, 2004. By taking part in these shows, Manjulika wants to popularize Bain Textile products abroad and increase export earnings.

Strategy for Further Improvement Manjulika has future plans include establishment of another unit equipped with power looms to increase production volume. Outlet will be commenced in Dhaka after arranging a significant portion of capital. Empowering more women with the creation of apprenticeships under master weavers. Holding regular competitions to bestow prestige on the most skilled craftspeople

3. Identify the difficulties of the business of Ms. Manjulika Chakma that could be avoided with proper Supporting and Sustaining Activities
As Manjulika Chakma is the first tribal woman entrepreneur in the country and she started her journey by marketing a totally new product to market, she faced many difficulties like Startup Capital Unknown field of tribal traditional looms Difficulty in gaining a bank loan Inadequate Raw Materials Marketing Entrepreneurs play very vital role in the development of micro enterprise. Development of the entrepreneur can be better explained through EDC (Entrepreneurs Development Cycle). EDC has following three activities:

1. Stimulatory activities 2. 3. Supporting activities Sustaining activities

In this given case of Manjulika Chakma, two activities of EDC have been asked to identify by which the difficulties of the business of Ms. Manjulika Chakma could be avoided. These activities are given below.

Supporting Activities In this phase the entire infrastructure of an area should be reviewed firstly. Entrepreneurs require a variety of assistance and support for registration of their unit, issuing licenses, arranging finance, plant & machinery, land, ready-made sheds, power, raw materials and finally information related to enterprise. The various support activities may provide nurturing and help Manjulika to grow her business and survive. I. Knowledge about arranging finance:

If there were any support which provides knowledge about arranging finance Manjulika may expand her business rapidly in many regions of Bangladesh. II. Providing Land, shed, power, water etc.

If supporting activity like providing land, shed, power, water etc were available for entrepreneurs Manjulika may attain her required growth by expanding her business within a few years after starting her business. III. Guidance for selecting & obtaining machinery:

Guidance for selecting & obtaining machinery may help Manjulika to establish another unit equipped with power looms to increase production volume. IV. Supply of scarce raw material:

As art of weaving was taught to women as part of regular household chores, when Manjulika started business to reach it to the general market she faced scarcity of raw materials. If supply of raw materials were provided regularly she had not to stop production. V. Granting tax relief or other subsidy:

Manjulika Chakma is the first tribal woman entrepreneur in the country. She was the entrepreneur and faced lack of capital and resources for many years. If she granted tax relief or other subsidy for taking such an initiative, she may not suffer hurdles in early stage.

VI.

Offering management consultancy:

If proper & experienced management consultancy were given in the initial stage as per Manjulikas business added new dimension to the Bangladeshi entrepreneurs, she may give more concern to the marketing sector. VII. Providing information & help marketing product:

Marketing was another problem Manjulika faced at the initial stages as her products were unknown by the people outside the hill tracts. If necessary information about market demand were provided it would help her to market her product easily.

Sustaining Activities Various activities for sustaining entrepreneurial cycle may be additional financing for full capacity utilization, deferring repayment / interest, quality testing, improving services, diversification / expansion of product, product reservation, creating new avenues for marketing, creating center for need based common facilities etc. Entrepreneurs should exploit all the emerging opportunities in their respective fields for all-round development of their micro enterprise; I. Help in Modernization :

If Manjulika got any help to establish another unit equipped with power looms to increase production volume, she may sustain easily in the competitive market. II. Additional financing for full capacity utilization :

Additional financing may help Manjulika to expand her business as well as showrooms. Through this her capacity of selling may properly utilize. III. Help in diversification/ expansion of products :

Bain Textiles has a long range of products such as tribal dress (pinon, khadi), shawls, bed covers, shalwar kameezes, shirts, panjabis, T-shirts, frocks, sleeping gowns, skirt-tops, side

bags, purses, sofa covers, napkins and towels. If Manjulika got proper help she would diversify her product range into expanded products like handicrafts, ethnic jewelry, ethnic furnitures etc. IV. Deferring repayment / interest :

If Manjulika got any easy conditions loan she would take and open an outlet in Dhaka and many other divisions and districts of Bangladesh. V. Reinvestment of profits :

If there were any opportunity to reinvest profits into profitable sectors, Manjulika would earn more money and again invest in her own business to acquire the required growth. VI. Quality testing & improving services :

If any quality testing and improving service were provided for such entrepreneur like Manjulika, her cost for quality testing may be saved and products may be improved. VII. Product reservation:

If there were any product reservation or proper inventory management system including safety stock Manjulika may not face stop of production due to insufficient raw materials. VIII. Legislation Policy Change:

If legislation policy for such a business were easier Manjulika may expand her business as well as production in many other sectors.