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Logarithms A Logarithm is just another way of writing an index or power!

log 3 8

is read as log of 8 to base 3

is read as log of 6 to base 10. If the base is not written, it can be assumed that it is base 10. e.g.
log 10 6

is read as log of 4 to base 10. If it is any other base it must be written in.
lo 4 g

It is important to remember the following law:


If
log a n = x

then

a x =n

e.g.

log 10 100 = 2

i.e. 10 2 =100

log 10 10000 = 4

i.e. 10 4 =10000

25 = 32

then

log 2 32 = 5

Example 1 Express the following in index form: (a) log 9 = 2 (b) log
3

q =r

NB: If no base is written in, assume base 10.

Example 2 Rewrite as a logarithm or in index form: (a) 10 3 =1000 (b) 210 =1024 The properties of logarithms (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
log a xy = log a x + log a y

x log a = log a x log a y y


log a x n = n log a x

log a 1 = 0 log a a = 1

Example 3 Evaluate: (a) log63

(b) log1000

(c) log3.7

Example 4 Solve for x (a) Log x = 2.1

(b) log x = -1.7

Example 3 Evaluate without using a calculator (1) log10000 (2) log 310 (3) log 100 10 (4) log 100 310

Example 4 Find the value of : 1.) log 3 81 = 3.)


log 0.5 4 =

2.)

log 4 0.25 =

Example 5 Express the following in terms of loga, log b and log c (1) log(abc) (2) log(a/bc) (3) log(abc) (4) log(a/bc) (5) log(10a2bc3)

Example 6 Given log2 =0.3010 and log 3 = 0.4771, find, without the use of the log function on your calculator, the value of (a) log8 (b) log(30)1/3 (c) log24

PPQ 2009 (a) Write 3 log p + 4 log q as a sing logarithm. (b) Write log c d

PPQ 2007 (b) If log 6 = p and log 4 = q express log 36 in terms of p and hence log 9 in terms of p and q. (3)

PPQ If (b) If
(a)
log 3 81 = a
log 3

what is the value of a? 2 = b express log 18 in terms of b?


3

PPQ 2010 (c) If log 5 = and log of a and b. (1) log 1.6 = (2) log 120 =
3 3 3

8=

express the following in terms

Solving Equations using logarithms

These equations are normally solved by taking logs of both sides, using are knowledge of algebra and the rules of logs. Examples Solve for x (1) 2x = 9

(2) 83x = 256

(3) 32x + 3 = 76

(4)4x 1 = 3x 2

(5) 55x-1 = 31-2x

PPQ 2002 Solve the equation

3(2x - 1) = 8 Giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places (2 marks, now you get 4 marks for solving something like this)

PPQ 2003 Solve the equation

0.1(1 - x) = 7 Giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places (2 marks, now you get 4 marks for solving something like this)

Reduction of a law of the form P = kln to linear form using logarithms

Suppose a table of values of quantity P is available at various values of quantity l. It is thought that P is related to l via the law P = kln, where k and n are to be determined. How can it be confirmed that the law holds and what are the values of k and n? Taking Logs of both sides gives us Log P = Log (kln) And using are rules of Logs gives us Log P = Log k + Log ln Log P = Log k + n Log l If the table of values is reconstructed in terms of Log P and Log l and the tabulated pairs plotted, the straight line Y = mX + c results Log P = n Log l + Log k Y =m X + c

So if we plot Log P against Log l, we should get a straight line, where m (which is the gradient) will be are n value and c which is the intercept on the y-axis will be are Log k value, hence we will be able to find k. PPQ 2002

A small landing aircraft leaves a main space station orbiting Mars and descends to the surface of the planet. The table below shows the altitude a metres at which at which the craft should be when it is travelling at velocity v m/s. Velocity v (m/s) Altitude a (m) 3500 154060 2500 129770 2000 115810 1500 100000 1000 81320 It is believed that a relationship of the form a = kvn exists between a and v, where k and n are constants. (a) Verify this relationship by drawing a suitable straight line graph, using values correct to 3 decimal places. Label the axes clearly(6) (b) Hence, or otherwise, obtain values for k and n. (4) n (c) Using the formula a = kv with your values for k and n, calculate the altitude of the craft when its velocity is 2800 m/s. (2) (d) The craft is due to reach subsonic speed at an altitude of 39000m. Calculate the velocity of the craft when it is at this height. State the assumption which you have made.(3)

PPQ 2003

An ornithologist measured the weights of birds eggs and compared these with the body weights of adult birds. The table below shows the body weight b grams and the egg weight e grams for several birds. Bird Bird weight b Egg weight e (grams) (grams) Sparrow 30 18.4 Thrush 70 26.9 Tern 130 35.6 Puffin 400 59.0 Heron 1600 110.1 Stork 3400 154.5 It is believed that a relationship of the form e = kbn exists between e and b, where k and n are constants. (a) Verify this relationship by drawing a suitable straight line graph, using values correct to 3 decimal places. Label the axes clearly(6) (b) Hence, or otherwise, obtain values for k and n. (4) n (c) Using the formula e = kb with your values for k and n, calculate the egg weight for an oystercatcher, whose body weight is 600 grams (2) n (d) Using the formula e = kb with your values for k and n, calculate the body weight of an owl whose egg weight is 53.4 grams. (3)

PPQ 2008

Cepheid variables are stars whose brightness fluctuates regularly with time. An astronomer measured the period P and the average luminosity (intrinsic brightness relative to the sun) L of several stars and the results are given in the table Period P (days) 5.32 11.61 25.18 38.49 51.42 Average luminosity L (suns) 2017 4947 12050 19630 27390

It is believed that a relationship of the form L = kPn Exists between L and P, where k and n are constants. Verify this relationship by drawing a suitable straight line graph, using values correct to two decimal places. Label the axes clearly. (6) (2) Hence, or otherwise, obtain values for k and n. (4) (3) Use the formula L = kPn with the values you obtained for k and n to calculate the average luminosity of the star X-Cygni, which has a period of 16.39 days. (1) (4) Use the formula L = kPn to calculate the period of the star Y-Cygni, whose average luminosity is 1394 suns. State any assumptions about the formula which you make. (3)
(1)