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8 tayangan10 halamanIn this paper, a pass-band optimal reconstruction technique is adapted to the Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice. In order to perform the frequency-domain preprocessing, we derive a practical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for BCC-sampled data. In the discrete frequency domain our DFT provides a natural isotropic periodicity on a Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) pattern, unlike the previous method, which leads to periodicity on a sheared Cartesian pattern. One of the most important advantages of our approach is that no specialized FFT implementation is required, as basically the well-known traditional FFT libraries can be directly used for calculating the discrete frequency coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed DFT can be easily adapted to FCC-sampled data as well. We show that a prefiltered pass-band optimal reconstruction based on our DFT can capture the high-frequency details much better than the previously proposed generalized interpolation method.

Dec 21, 2011

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In this paper, a pass-band optimal reconstruction technique is adapted to the Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice. In order to perform the frequency-domain preprocessing, we derive a practical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for BCC-sampled data. In the discrete frequency domain our DFT provides a natural isotropic periodicity on a Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) pattern, unlike the previous method, which leads to periodicity on a sheared Cartesian pattern. One of the most important advantages of our approach is that no specialized FFT implementation is required, as basically the well-known traditional FFT libraries can be directly used for calculating the discrete frequency coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed DFT can be easily adapted to FCC-sampled data as well. We show that a prefiltered pass-band optimal reconstruction based on our DFT can capture the high-frequency details much better than the previously proposed generalized interpolation method.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

8 tayangan

In this paper, a pass-band optimal reconstruction technique is adapted to the Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice. In order to perform the frequency-domain preprocessing, we derive a practical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for BCC-sampled data. In the discrete frequency domain our DFT provides a natural isotropic periodicity on a Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) pattern, unlike the previous method, which leads to periodicity on a sheared Cartesian pattern. One of the most important advantages of our approach is that no specialized FFT implementation is required, as basically the well-known traditional FFT libraries can be directly used for calculating the discrete frequency coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed DFT can be easily adapted to FCC-sampled data as well. We show that a prefiltered pass-band optimal reconstruction based on our DFT can capture the high-frequency details much better than the previously proposed generalized interpolation method.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Bal zs Cs bfalvi, Bal zs Domonkos a e a Department of Control Engineering and Information Technology Budapest University of Technology and Economics Email: cseb@iit.bme.hu

Abstract

In this paper, a pass-band optimal reconstruction technique is adapted to the Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice. In order to perform the frequencydomain preprocessing, we derive a practical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for BCC-sampled data. In the discrete frequency domain our DFT provides a natural isotropic periodicity on a FaceCentered Cubic (FCC) pattern, unlike the previous method, which leads to periodicity on a sheared Cartesian pattern. One of the most important advantages of our approach is that no specialized FFT implementation is required, as basically the well-known traditional FFT libraries can be directly used for calculating the discrete frequency coefcients. Furthermore, the proposed DFT can be easily adapted to FCC-sampled data as well. We show that a preltered pass-band optimal reconstruction based on our DFT can capture the high-frequency details much better than the previously proposed generalized interpolation method.

that of equivalent separable lters designed for the CC lattice [11]. Despite these obvious advantages of BCC sampling, the CC-sampled representation is still a de facto standard in practical applications.

3/2 2 1 2

CC lattice

BCC lattice

Figure 1: Equivalent CC and BCC lattices. Currently, the popularity of BCC sampling cannot be fairly compared to that of CC sampling. So far the volume-processing or visualization techniques have been developed mainly for CC-sampled data. However, the application of BCC sampling in volume modeling is relatively new, therefore even some elementary tools are still missing from the BCC toolbox. The lack of these tools prohibits the adaptation of high-quality reconstruction techniques or even a proper data acquisition with certain scanning technologies. To overcome these obstacles, in this paper, we take another step towards a wide-spread acceptance of BCC sampling by extending the BCC toolbox with a practical DFT and high-quality preltered reconstruction schemes. In Section 2, the previous work on optimal regular volume sampling is reviewed. We introduce our DFT for the BCC lattice in Section 3. In Section 4, the extension to the FCC lattice is presented. In Section 5 we demonstrate that our DFT can be applied not just for generalized interpolation but for pass-band optimal reconstruction of BCC-sampled data as well. Finally, in Section 6, the contribution of this work is summarized. O. Deussen, D. Keim, D. Saupe (Editors)

Introduction

Sampling volumetric data on an optimal BCC lattice rather than on an equivalent Cartesian Cubic (CC) lattice (see Figure 1) requires almost 30% fewer samples per unit volume to achieve the same reconstruction quality [20]. If the same number of voxels is assumed, the BCC-sampled volume representation provides signicantly higher quality of reconstruction than the CC-sampled representation does. In the last couple of years, it has been shown that the theoretical advantages of BCC sampling can be utilized also in practice by applying appropriate ltering schemes [10, 3, 6]. Moreover, nonseparable lters designed especially for the BCC lattice can potentially be more efcient to evaluate as their support covers fewer lattice points than VMV 2008

2 Previous Work

The BCC lattice, which is optimal for sampling spherically band-limited signals, was rst recommended for use in volume rendering by Theul et al. [20]. One of the most important aspects of rendering BCC-sampled data is how to perform proper and efcient resampling. For the CC lattice, reconstruction lters are usually designed in 1D, and extended to 3D by either a separable tensor-product extension [16] or a spherical extension [14]. However, the BCC lattice is not separable itself, therefore the advantageous properties of a 1D lter are not necessarily inherited in 3D by using a separable extension. The application of spherically extended lters is also problematic, as it is difcult to guarantee zero crossings in the frequency domain at the lattice points of the dual FCC lattice. These zero crossings play an important role in designing lters of high approximation power [18]. Although there have been attempts to still use separable or spherically symmetric lters also for BCC-sampled data [20, 19, 15], the results did not live up to the expectations. The separable sheared trilinear interpolation [19, 15] led to a non-isotropic solution, while the spherical lters [20] resulted in blurry images. The rst non-separable lters, which take the special geometry of the BCC lattice into account, were derived by Entezari et al. [10] justifying the theoretical advantages of BCC sampling also in practice. Applying a recently published fast evaluation scheme [11], their linear and quintic boxspline lters turned out to be more efcient to evaluate than the theoretically equivalent lters for the CC lattice, which are the trilinear and tricubic Bspline lters respectively. Another family of nonseparable lters is represented by the BCC-splines [4], which generalize the Hex-splines for the BCC lattice. The Hex-splines were proposed by Van de Ville et al. [23] for the hexagonal lattice, which is optimal for sampling circularly band-limited 2D signals. The idea is to take the indicator function of the Voronoi cell corresponding to the given lattice as a generating function. The successive convolutions of this generating function with itself yield lters of higher and higher approximation orders. According to the reported experiments, the rst-order BCC-spline is superior over the theoretically equivalent linear box spline, while the third-order BCCspline provides similar quality as the quintic box

spline of the same approximation power. Cs bfalvi e recommended a preltered reconstruction scheme [3], adapting the concept of generalized interpolation [1] to the BCC lattice. According to this approach, rst a non-separable discrete preltering is performed as a preprocessing, and afterwards a fast separable Gaussian ltering is used for a continuous resampling on the y. The resultant impulse response is non-separable and not even spherically symmetric. This method was extended also to the B-spline family of lters [6], and utilizing the separable postltering, a fast hardware implementation was proposed. In the discrete preltering scheme, it is exploited that the BCC lattice consists of two overlapping CC lattices. Therefore, by traditional DFT operations, the corresponding discrete functions can be separately transformed into the frequency domain, where the discrete deconvolution is performed taking also the interaction between the two CC lattices into account. In this paper, we present a more general and robust tool for the discrete preltering, which is a DFT for the BCC lattice. Unlike the previous preltering scheme [3], our transform can be used not just for generalized interpolation, but also for pass-band optimal reconstruction of BCC-sampled data. Furthermore, it is easy to adapt our DFT to the FCC lattice as well, while the adaptation of the preltering scheme described in [3] would be cumbersome. The generalization of the DFT for arbitrary sampling geometries is not new. Previous methods [7, 22, 8] exploit that an arbitrary lattice can be dened as a linear transformation of Cartesian lattice points. The transformation matrix is referred to as a generator matrix M, which is not unique for a given lattice. In the spatial domain the original signal is assumed to be periodic, where the pattern of periodicity is determined by the vectors of M and the number of samples along the different directions. For example, the BCC lattice can be interpreted as a sheared Cartesian lattice, thus a BCC-sampled volume can be considered as a parallelepiped-shaped region, which periodically tiles the 3D space. The centers of the periods also form a lattice P, which is different from the sampling lattice S. The assumed periodicity in the spatial domain implies that the Fourier transform is discrete on the dual lattice of P, which is also a sheared Cartesian lattice. As a consequence, the previous generalized DFT for the BCC lattice anisotropically samples the frequency

(a)

(b)

Now let us assume that fBCC (x, y, z) is periodic, that is, fBCC (x, y, z) = fBCC (x + lNx , y + mNy , z + nNz ), where l, m, n Z. Additionally we restrict Nx , Ny , and Nz to be even integers. In this case, it is easy to see that FBCC (x , y , z ) is discrete taking potentially u v non-zero values at frequencies x = Nx , y = Ny , w and z = Nz , where u, v, w Z. Furthermore u v w FBCC is periodic, that is, FBCC ( Nx , Ny , Nz ) =

v+mN

BCC Figure 2: (a): The fundamental period of Fu,v,w is a rhombic dodecahedron, which is the Voronoi cell of the FCC lattice. (b): The fundamental period F CC of Fu,v,w is a truncated octahedron, which is the Voronoi cell of the BCC lattice.

FBCC ( u+lNx , Ny y , w+nNz ), where l, m, n Nx Nz Z. Thus, analogously to the derivation of the traditional DFT, the Fourier transform FBCC is completely determined by the discrete samples in one BCC period. More precisely, we dene the DFT Fu,v,w for the BCC lattice as follows:

Fu,v,w =

BCC BCC Nx /21 Ny /21 Nz /21 r=0 s=0 t=0

domain, depending on the choice of the generator matrix M. In contrast, our DFT assumes a periodicity on a Cartesian pattern (the BCC-sampled volume data is considered to be a box-shaped period) in the spatial domain, therefore the discrete frequency coefcients represent the Cartesian samples of the frequency domain. This is reminiscent of the hexagonal FFT proposed by Ehrhardt [9], which also produces a rectangular output, but from hexagonally sampled 2D signals. However, as it will be shown, our DFT does not require a specialized FFT implementation, since the discrete frequency coefcients can be calculated by the traditional FFT libraries.

(3)

f2r,2s,2t E

BCC

f2r+1,2s+1,2t+1 E

where

FBCC (x , y , z ) =

Nx /21 Ny /21 Nz /21 l,m,nZ r=0 s=0 t=0

[ +

f (2r + 1, 2s + 1, 2t + 1)

[(2r+1+lNx )x +(2s+1+mNy )y +(2t+1+nNz )z ] Nx /21 Ny /21 Nz /21 r=0 s=0 t=0

[ + ] =

Assume that a continuous function f (x, y, z) is sampled on a BCC lattice yielding function fBCC (x, y, z):

fBCC (x, y, z) = [f (2r, 2s, 2t)(2r x, 2s y, 2t z)+

r,s,tZ

l,m,nZ BCC

(1)

u,v,wZ

Fu,v,w (

u v w x , y , z ), Nx Ny Nz

Note that fBCC (x, y, z) can be non-zero only if x, y, and z are either all even or all odd integers. The Fourier transform FBCC (x , y , z ) of fBCC (x, y, z) is obtained as1 :

FBCC (x , y , z ) = [f (2r, 2s, 2t)E

r,s,tZ (2rx +2sy +2tz )

BCC and the transformed discrete function fi,j,k is dened by the BCC samples of function f (x, y, z):

fi,j,k =

BCC

(2) + ].

1

Theorem 3.1 If Nx , Ny , and Nz are assumed to BCC be even integers, fi,j,k can be reproduced from its BCC DFT Fu,v,w by the following inverse transform:

fi,j,k = 1 Nx Ny Nz

Nx 1 Ny 1 Nz 1 u=0 v=0 w=0

BCC

(4)

vj ( ui + + wk ) Nx Ny Nz .

Fu,v,w E

BCC

Theorem 3.2 If Nx , Ny , and Nz are asBCC sumed to be even integers, Fu,v,w = BCC Fu+lNx /2,v+mNy /2,w+nNz /2 , where l, m, n Z and l + m + n is even. We call this pattern of periodicity FCC pattern as it is analogous to the chessboard-like property of the FCC lattice. Proof:

Fu+lNx /2,v+mNy /2,w+nNz /2 =

Nx /21 Ny /21 Nz /21 r=0 s=0 t=0 BCC

1 Nx Ny Nz

(8)

BCC f2r,2s,2t

(5) f2r,2s,2t E

BCC

(u BCC +f2r+1,2s+1,2t+1 E

(u 2r +v 2s +w 2t ) (lr+ms+nt) Nx Ny Nz E

+f2r+1,2s+1,2t+1 E =

(u 2r+1 +v 2s+1 +w 2t+1 ) (l 2r+1 +m 2s+1 +n 2t+1 ) Nx Ny Nz 2 2 2 E ]

BCC

[f2r,2s,2t 2ri,2sj,2tk

BCC

BCC

[f2r,2s,2t E

BCC

(u 2r +v 2s +w 2t ) Nx Ny Nz

BCC In fact, Fu,v,w is the same as the traditional DFT BCC of the discrete function fi,j,k :

+f2r+1,2s+1,2t+1 E

= Fu,v,w .

BCC

Nx 1 Ny 1 Nz 1 i=0 j=0 k=0 ui + vj + wk ) BCC ( fi,j,k E Nx Ny Nz .

BCC

BCC

E

(l 2r+1 +m 2s+1 +n 2t+1 ) 2 2 2

(lr+ms+nt)

(6) =e

i(l+m+n)

BCC According to Theorem 3.2, Fu,v,w contains each coefcient four times, thus it is effectively dened by Nx Ny Nz /4 samples just as the discrete funcBCC tion fi,j,k . Due to the periodicity on an FCC patBCC tern, the shape of the fundamental period in Fu,v,w is a rhombic dodecahedron, just like the Voronoi cell of the FCC lattice [10] (see Figure 2). Despite the 4-fold redundancy, from the practical point of view, additional implementation effort is not required, since the well-optimized traditional FFT liBCC braries can be used to calculate Fu,v,w or its inverse.

However, note that is effectively dened by Nx Ny Nz /4 samples, whereas Nx Ny Nz samples BCC BCC have to be taken from Fu,v,w to reproduce fi,j,k BCC by an inverse transform. Thus Fu,v,w is a redundant representation of the original discrete function. BCC On the other hand, Fu,v,w inherits all the advantageous properties of the traditional DFT. For example, it can be exploited that a convolution of two discrete functions obtained by BCC sampling can be efciently evaluated as a multiplication in the frequency domain:

hi,j,k =

BCC Nx 1 Ny 1 Nz 1 l=0 m=0 BCC n=0

BCC fi,j,k

fl,m,n gil,jm,kn

BCC

BCC

BCC

(7)

BCC BCC

Now assume that function f (x, y, z) is sampled on an FCC lattice, which yields function fF CC (x, y, z):

fF CC (x, y, z) = [f (2r, 2s, 2t)(2r x, 2s y, 2t z)

r,s,tZ

It is easy to see that the result of the convolution hBCC can be non-zero only if the indices i, j, k are i,j,k either all even or all odd. Thus hBCC can also be i,j,k interpreted as a discrete function constructed from the BCC samples of a continuous signal. BCC It is interesting to note that Fu,v,w is periodic not just on a Cartesian pattern but on an FCC pattern as well:

(9)

f(x,y,z)

BCC sampling

(x,y,z)

BCC sampling

f(x,y,z)

BCC sampling

(x,y,z)

FT

f i,j,k

DFT

BCC

i,j,k

DFT

BCC

f i,j,k

DFT

BCC

(x,y,z)

CC sampling

BCC u,v,w

BCC u,v,w

BCC u,v,w

/

C

BCC u,v,w

/

C

BCC u,v,w

(u/Nx,v/Ny,w/Nz)

performed only inside the central fundamental period

Inverse DFT

Inverse DFT

BCC i,j,k

(x,y,z)

~ f(x,y,z)

(x,y,z)

c i,j,k

BCC

~ f(x,y,z)

BCC Similarly to the derivation of Fu,v,w , we again assume that fF CC (x, y, z) is periodic, that is, fF CC (x, y, z) = fF CC (x + lNx , y + mNy , z + nNz ), where l, m, n Z and Nx , Ny , and Nz are even integers. In this case, the Fourier transform FF CC (x , y , z ) of fF CC (x, y, z) is discrete and F CC periodic, thus the DFT Fu,v,w can be dened analBCC ogously to Fu,v,w :

F CC Fu,v,w

Figure 4: The premultiplied reconstruction pipeline for BCC-sampled volumetric data. Theorem 4.1 If Nx , Ny , and Nz are assumed to F CC be even integers, fi,j,k can be reproduced from its F CC DFT Fu,v,w by the following inverse transform:

fi,j,k = 1 Nx Ny Nz

Nx 1 Ny 1 Nz 1 u=0 v=0 w=0 F CC

(12)

vj + wk ) ( ui + Nx Ny Nz .

Fu,v,w E

F CC

(10)

f2r,2s,2t

F CC

F CC

+f2r,2s+1,2t+1

F CC

1 Nx Ny Nz

+f2r+1,2s,2t+1 E +f2r+1,2s+1,2t E

F CC

(u 2r+1 +v 2s+1 +w 2t ) Nx Ny Nz ],

f2r,2s,2t E

F CC

(13)

where

FF CC (x , y , z ) = (11) u v w F CC Fu,v,w ( x , y , z ), Nx Ny Nz u,v,wZ

F CC and the transformed discrete function fi,j,k is dened by the FCC samples of function f (x, y, z):

F CC F CC

(u 2r+1i +v Nx

[f2r,2s,2t 2ri,2sj,2tk

F CC

fi,j,k =

F CC

f (2r, 2s, 2t) if i = 2r, j = 2s, k = 2t f (2r, 2s + 1, 2t + 1) if i = 2r, j = 2s + 1, k = 2t + 1 f (2r + 1, 2s, 2t + 1) if i = 2r + 1, j = 2s, k = 2t + 1 f (2r + 1, 2s + 1, 2t) if i = 2r + 1, j = 2s + 1, k = 2t 0 otherwise.

+f2r,2s+1,2t+1 2ri,2s+1j,2t+1k

F CC +f2r+1,2s,2t+1 2r+1i,2sj,2t+1k F CC F CC

F CC Practically, Fu,v,w can be evaluated by a traditional F CC DFT of the discrete function fi,j,k :

Nx 1 Ny 1 Nz 1 i=0 j=0 k=0

F CC

F CC

(14)

fi,j,k E

F CC

vj ( ui + + wk ) Nx Ny Nz .

F CC Note that, Fu,v,w is just 2-fold redundant as Nx Ny Nz coefcients have to be taken into account F CC to reproduce fi,j,k , which is effectively dened by F CC Nx Ny Nz /2 FCC samples. Nevertheless, Fu,v,w is periodic on a BCC pattern, thus it contains each coefcient twice:

Table 1: Periodicity of the DFT pairs for the BCC and FCC lattices. As a consequence of Theorem 4.2, the shape of the F CC fundamental period in Fu,v,w is a truncated octahedron, just like the Voronoi cell of the BCC lattice [10] (see Figure 2). Table 1 summarizes the patterns of periodicity for the DFT pairs corresponding to the BCC and FCC lattices.

Theorem 4.2 If Nx , Ny , and Nz are asF CC sumed to be even integers, Fu,v,w = F CC Fu+lNx /2,v+mNy /2,w+nNz /2 , where l, m, n are either all odd or all even. We call this pattern of periodicity BCC pattern as it is analogous to the indexing of the BCC lattice points. Proof:

F CC Fu+lNx /2,v+mNy /2,w+nNz /2 Nx /21 Ny /21 Nz /21 r=0 s=0 t=0

5 Frequency-domain Preltering

= (15)

f2r,2s,2t E

F CC

(u 2r +v 2s +w 2t ) (lr+ms+nt) Nx Ny Nz E

In this section we demonstrate that, applying our DFT, preltered reconstruction on the BCC lattice can be easily implemented. The presented applications can be analogously adapted to FCC-sampled data as well.

+f2r,2s+1,2t+1 E

(u 2r +v 2s+1 +w 2t+1 ) (lr+m 2s+1 +n 2t+1 ) Nx Ny Nz 2 2 E

F CC

5.1

Generalized Interpolation

+f2r+1,2s,2t+1

(u 2r+1 +v 2s +w 2t+1 ) (l 2r+1 +ms+n 2t+1 ) Nx Ny Nz 2 2 E E F CC

F CC

+f2r+1,2s+1,2t

(u 2r+1 +v 2s+1 +w 2t ) (l 2r+1 +m 2s+1 +nt) Nx Ny Nz 2 2 E E ]

f2r,2s,2t E

F CC

F CC

F CC F CC

(u 2r+1 +v 2s+1 +w 2t ) Nx Ny Nz ]

= Fu,v,w .

F CC

E

(lr+m 2s+1 +n 2t+1 ) 2 2

=e

i(m+n) i(l+n)

=e

=e

i(l+m)

are all equal to one, if l, m, n are either all odd or all even.

The concept of generalized interpolation was introduced by Blu et al. [1]. This scheme is applicable for any multidimensional lattice. The idea is to sample a non-interpolating continuous reconstruction kernel (x, y, z) on the given lattice, and to perform a discrete preltering of the input volume data with the inverse of the obtained discrete lter. This operation is basically a deconvolution with the sampled kernel. The continuous ltering of the preltered discrete data results in an interpolation. Assume that the approximation order of the continuous kernel is L. In this case, the generalized interpolation scheme is additionally a quasiinterpolation of order L, therefore it perfectly reconstructs a polynomial of L 1 or lower degree [2]. For example, the quintic box spline derived for the BCC lattice by Entezari et al. [11], is a noninterpolating lter of approximation order L = 4. In order to make it interpolating and fully exploit its approximation power at the same time, applying the generalized interpolation scheme, a discrete preltering on the BCC lattice is necessary. The inverse of the BCC-sampled quintic box spline is of

innite impulse response, therefore it is worthwhile to perform the preltering in the frequency domain. Using our DFT, the BCC-sampled volume data BCC (function fi,j,k ) and the BCC-sampled lter kernel BCC are transformed into the frequency domain i,j,k (see Figure 3), where the deconvolution is replaced BCC BCC by a simple division (Cu,v,w = Fu,v,w /BCC ). u,v,w BCC The result Cu,v,w is then transformed by our inverse transform back into the spatial domain yielding the discrete function cBCC . The potentially non-zero i,j,k values of cBCC correspond to the BCC sample poi,j,k sitions, where the parities of indices i, j, k are the same. Finally, using the efcient evaluation described in [11], the continuous reconstruction is performed by convolving the preltered BCC samples with the continuous quintic box spline:

f (x, y, z) = [c2r,2s,2t (2r x, 2s y, 2t z)+

r,s,tZ

Thus, after the preprocessing, the computational cost of the resampling on the y is exactly the same as for the non-preltered reconstruction. In order to empirically evaluate the generalized interpolation of BCC-sampled volume data, we implemented a high-quality ray caster and rendered articial and real-world measured data sets. First we sampled the classical Marschner-Lobb signal on the BCC lattice, and performed the discrete preltering for the quintic box spline in the frequency domain BCC by applying our DFT. To calculate Fu,v,w and its inverse, we used the well-known FFTW library [12]. Figure 5 shows the rendering results for the nonpreltered and the preltered data as well. Note that, without preltering, the quintic box spline leads to severe oversmoothing blurring the highfrequency details. Although the preltered quintic box spline introduces some aliasing, it much better preserves the depth and height of the waves. The superiority of the preltered reconstruction is also justied by the error images (see Figure 6), which show the angular error of the gradients estimated by central differencing on the reconstructed function. By decreasing the sampling distance T between the BCC samples, the preltered reconstruction ensures a faster convergence than the non-preltered reconstruction does. This is conrmed by the error images generated from the higher-resolution representation of the test signal. Due to the quasiinterpolation of order four, the reconstructed function tends to the original one as O(T 4 ) [1].

We tested generalized interpolation also on measured CT data originally available on a CC lattice, but downsampled on a BCC sublattice. Note that such a downsampling is lossy as the original data contains four times more CC samples than the number of the resulting BCC samples. In order to obtain the BCC-sampled representation, we transformed the data into the frequency domain by using a traditional DFT. In the frequency-domain the ideal downsampling for a BCC sublattice can be performed by multiplying the frequency coefcients with the indicator function of the Voronoi cell corresponding to the dual FCC lattice, which is a rhombic dodecahedron (see Figure 2). The indicator function actually deletes all the frequency coefcients that are outside this rhombic dodecahedron. The rest of the coefcients represent exactly the fundamental period of our DFT for the BCC lattice, thus replicating this fundamental period on an BCC FCC pattern, we obtain the DFT Fu,v,w of the disBCC crete function fi,j,k to be calculated. The deconvoBCC lution can be directly performed by dividing Fu,v,w with the DFT of the BCC-sampled reconstruction kernel. Transforming the result back into the spatial domain yields the discrete function cBCC , which i,j,k can be non-zero only at the points corresponding to the BCC samples. Figure 7 shows the skeleton of a carp reconstructed from 128 128 256 2 BCC samples using the quintic box spline. Note that, without preltering, the quintic box spline removes the high-frequency details, therefore some ribs are either disconnected or missing. In contrast, when the samples are preltered for generalized interpolation, the ne structures are much better preserved.

5.2

Malzbender proposed an originally spatial-domain premultiplication technique in order to improve the quality of Fourier volume rendering [13, 21]. Using this method, the 3D Fourier transform of the volume has to be resampled along a slice perpendicular to the viewing direction. According to the Fourier projection-slice theorem, the inverse Fourier transform of the 2D reconstructed slice is theoretically equivalent to the projection of the volume along the viewing direction. Practical lters, however, only approximate the ideal low-pass lter, therefore the central part of the volume is usually overemphasized in the rendered images. To remedy this

32 32 32 2 BCC samples.

64 64 64 2 BCC samples.

the reciprocal frequency response of the reconstruction lter. In case of BCC sampling, however, the fundamental period of the Fourier transform is a BCC rhombic dodecahedron. Thus, in Fu,v,w only those coefcients have to be premultiplied which are inside this rhombic dodecahedron. The rest of the coefcients are simply lled according to the FCC pattern of periodicity taking the premultiplied values from the central fundamental period. Transforming the data back into the spatial domain (see the premultiplied reconstruction pipeline in Figure 4), we obtain a discrete function cBCC , which contains i,j,k potentially non-zero values at only the BCC sample positions, where the indices i, j, k are either all odd or all even. Such a BCC-sampled volume representation can be resampled similarly to the previous application by simply convolving the BCC samples with the continuous reconstruction kernel (x, y, z). Note that the frequency-domain premultiplication can only be used if the frequency response (x , y , z ) of the reconstruction lter is analytically known. The most important advantage of premultiplication is the pass-band optimal reconstruction, since the resultant frequency response equals to one inside the pass-band, which is the Voronoi cell of the FCC lattice. We tested also the premultiplied reconstruction on our BCC-sampled test data sets. Since the frequency response of the quintic box spline is analytically known and efcient to evaluate [11], it can be directly combined with premultiplication applying our DFT for the BCC lattice. The reconstructions of the Marschner-Lobb signal in Figure 5 show that, using premultiplication, the high-frequency details are not blurred at all. Nevertheless, this technique optimizes the pass-band behavior at the cost of a higher postaliasing. On the other hand, similarly to the generalized interpolation, the asymptotic error behavior of the premultiplied quintic box-spline reconstruction is much better than that of the nonpreltered quintic box-spline reconstruction (see Figure 6). In order to test premultiplication on real-world data as well, we took the same BCC-sampled representation of the carp that was used for the evaluation of generalized interpolation. Figure 7 clearly demonstrates that the premultiplied quintic boxspline reconstruction can reproduce the ne details even better than the interpolating preltered quintic box-spline reconstruction.

Premultiplied quintic box spline. Figure 5: Reconstruction of the Marschner-Lobb signal using the quintic box-spline lter with and without preltering.

problem, the spatial-domain representation can be premultiplied by the reciprocal frequency response (which is, in fact, a spatial response in this context) of the lter applied for the slice reconstruction in the frequency domain. This technique can be used the other way around as well to improve the quality of spatial-domain resampling as it was demonstrated by Cs bfalvi [5]. e In this case, the discrete Fourier transform of the volume can be premultiplied and transformed back into the spatial domain, where the continuous reconstruction ltering is performed. In fact, the traditional DFT represents the fundamental period of the Discrete Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) [17], which is a box. Therefore, using the classical premultiplication, the coefcients inside each fundamental period are multiplied with

Pass-band optimal premultiplied quintic box-spline reconstruction. Figure 7: Reconstructing the skeleton of a carp from 128 128 256 2 BCC samples. The BCCsampled representation was obtained by downsampling a CT scan of resolution 256 256 512 (courtesy of http://www9.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/External/vollib) using a frequency-domain ideal low-pass ltering.

Conclusion

In this paper, we have introduced a practical and robust DFT for implementing preltered reconstruction schemes on the BCC lattice. Unlike the previous methods, our DFT assumes a periodicity on a Cartesian pattern in the spatial domain, therefore the discrete frequency coefcients represent Cartesian samples of the spectrum. Additionally, the BCC sampling in the spatial domain implies a periodicity on an FCC pattern in the frequency domain. Due to this natural periodicity, the frequencydomain preltering yields an isotropic solution. Furthermore, the extension of our DFT to the FCC lattice can be easily applied for preltering FCC-

sampled data as well. According to our best knowledge, pass-band optimal reconstruction has been adapted to the BCC lattice for the rst time in this paper. We have demonstrated that this reconstruction technique can capture the ne details even better than the high-quality generalized interpolation scheme previously proposed for reconstruction on the BCC lattice.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the J nos Bolyai Rea search Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, OTKA (F68945), the Hungarian National Ofce for Research and Technology, and Hewlett-

32 32 32 2 BCC samples.

64 64 64 2 BCC samples.

[5] B. Cs bfalvi. An evaluation of preltered reconstruction e schemes for volume rendering. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 14(2):289301, 2008. [6] B. Cs bfalvi and M. Hadwiger. Preltered B-spline recone struction for hardware-accelerated rendering of optimally sampled volumetric data. In Proceedings of Vision, Modeling, and Visualization, pages 325332, 2006. [7] A. Dornhofer. A discrete Fourier transform pair for arbitrary sampling geometries with applications to frequency domain volume rendering on the body-centered cubic lattice. Masters Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, 2003.

[8] D. Dudgeon and R. M. Mersereau. Multidimensional Digital Signal Processing. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1984. [9] J. C. Ehrhardt. Hexagonal fast Fourier transform with rectangular output. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 41(3):14691472, 1993. [10] A. Entezari, R. Dyer, and T. M ller. Linear and cubic box o splines for the body centered cubic lattice. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization, pages 1118, 2004.

[11] A. Entezari, D. Van De Ville, and T. M ller. Practical box o splines for reconstruction on the body centered cubic lattice. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 14(2):313328, 2008. [12] M. Frigo and S. G. Johnson. FFTW: An adaptive software architecture for the FFT. In Proceedings of ICASSP, pages 13811384, 1998. [13] T. Malzbender. Fourier volume rendering. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 12(3):233250, 1993. [14] S. Marschner and R. Lobb. An evaluation of reconstruction lters for volume rendering. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization, pages 100107, 1994.

Premultiplied quintic box spline. Figure 6: Angular error of the Marschner-Lobb signal reconstructed by the quintic box-spline lter with and without preltering. The error of zero degree is mapped to black, whereas the error of 30 degrees is mapped to white. Packard. The rst author of this paper is a grantee of the J nos Bolyai Scholarship. a

[15] O. Mattausch. Practical reconstruction schemes and hardware-accelerated direct volume rendering on bodycentered cubic grids. Masters Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, 2003. [16] T. M ller, K. Mueller, Y. Kurzion, R. Machiraju, and o R. Yagel. Design of accurate and smooth lters for function and derivative reconstruction. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization, pages 143151, 1998. [17] A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer. Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 2nd edition, 1989. [18] G. Strang and G. Fix. A Fourier analysis of the nite element variational method. In Constructive Aspects of Functional Analysis, pages 796830, 1971. [19] T. Theul, O. Mattausch, T. M ller, and M. E. Gr ller. Reo o construction schemes for high quality raycasting of the bodycentered cubic grid. TR-186-2-02-11, Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology, 2002. [20] T. Theul, T. M ller, and M. E. Gr ller. Optimal regular volo o ume sampling. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization, pages 9198, 2001. [21] T. Totsuka and M. Levoy. Frequency domain volume rendering. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pages 271278, 1993. [22] P. P. Vaidyanathan. Fundamentals of multidimensional multirate digital signal processing. Sadhana, 15(3):157176, 1990. [23] D. Van De Ville, T. Blu, and M. Unser. Hex-splines: A novel spline family for hexagonal lattices. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 13(6):758772, 2004.

References

[1] T. Blu, P. Th venaz, and M. Unser. Generalized interpolae tion: Higher quality at no additional cost. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pages 667671, 1999. [2] L. Condat and D. Van De Ville. Quasi-interpolating spline models for hexagonally-sampled data. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 16(5):11951206, 2007. [3] B. Cs bfalvi. Preltered Gaussian reconstruction for highe quality rendering of volumetric data sampled on a bodycentered cubic grid. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization, pages 311318, 2005. [4] B. Cs bfalvi. BCC-splines: Generalization of B-splines for e the body-centered cubic lattice. Journal of WSCG, 16(1 3):8188, 2008.

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