Anda di halaman 1dari 347

For snle by the Superintendent. Documents, U.S. Govenlment Print.

ing Office
Washington, D . ( ~ . 20402 - Price $1.75
For snle by the Superintendent. Documents, U.S. Govenlment Print.ing Office
Washington, D . ( ~ . 20402 - Price $1.75
GREEK
BASIC COURSE
Volun1e 1
*
****
, ***
**** /)



r
worlc compIIed pub.
Iished wlth the support of the
of of
United
of
S. OBOLENSKY, SAPOUNTZIS and SAPOUNTZIS
FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1967
D R F 5
GREEK
BASIC COURSE
Volun1e 1
*
****
, ***
**** /)



r
worlc compIIed pub.
Iished wlth the support of the
of of
United
of
S. OBOLENSKY, SAPOUNTZIS and SAPOUNTZIS
FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1967
D R F 5
GREEK BASIC COURSE
FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE
BASIC COURSE SERIES
Edited by
LLOYD . SWIFT
ii
GREEK BASIC COURSE
FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE
BASIC COURSE SERIES
Edited by
LLOYD . SWIFT
ii
GREEK BASIC COURSE
PREFACE
FS' 8o.Ic oI..me introdu.ctory
Greek working
cUl7'ently spoken by educated Greeks. style is entirely J_t/c
strictly Greek is used lrom so student
leamed
Subsequent volumes are carry
vocabulary Greek to introduce more spoken and
wriuen lorms QS used by educated -Greeks
and commonly encountered press.
linguist pro;ect is Serge Obolensky,
ment Near Alrican Languages. Greek been provided by
S. liki Sapountzis, instructors.
writing, testing, revision and recorrling
entire volume, Mrs. also typed. lomes C. reviewed
portions te"t IJtyle and cL4rity e"pression.
recorrJings were f'rodu.ced FSI t"e
direction Gary lley.
lames R.
Studies
Foreign Service Institute

111
".
GREEK BASIC COURSE
PREFACE
FS' 8o.Ic oI..me introdu.ctory
Greek working
cUl7'ently spoken by educated Greeks. style is entirely J_t/c
strictly Greek is used lrom so student
leamed
Subsequent volumes are carry
vocabulary Greek to introduce more spoken and
wriuen lorms QS used by educated -Greeks
and commonly encountered press.
linguist pro;ect is Serge Obolensky,
ment Near Alrican Languages. Greek been provided by
S. liki Sapountzis, instructors.
writing, testing, revision and recorrling
entire volume, Mrs. also typed. lomes C. reviewed
portions te"t IJtyle and cL4rity e"pression.
recorrJings were f'rodu.ced FSI t"e
direction Gary lley.
lames R.
Studies
Foreign Service Institute

111
".
G REEK BASIC COURSE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pref'ace
Introduct1on
Un:1t 1
Symbo18 UBed
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111
x:ii1
Ba8ic Dialogue 8. 2
Note 1.1 Transcr1ption used 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1 .3
1.4
1.5

Consonants
Wr1t1ng systell
Assimilat10n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
6
9
12
Unit 2
Basi c 1.3
8. 14
. . . . . .-. . . . . . . . . . . .-.. .. . . . . .
'18'. '1sn't'. 'are'. 'aren't' Note 2.1
Palatal1zat100
Def'1n1te Art1cle
AS81Jnilat1on
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Gender and agreement
. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . .. .. . .
Un1t 3
Bas1c D1alogue
Narrat1ve
3.1
3.2
3.3
Indef'1n1te article
Def'in1te art1cle-plural
4!1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
22
24
25
26
Personal prooouns
Verb classes
)0
32
34
35
35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
... . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
. . . . . . . . ....


Note 4.1
4.2
Ba8ic D1alogue
Narrat1ve
Un1t 4
i,v
G REEK BASIC COURSE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pref'ace
Introduct1on
Un:1t 1
Symbo18 UBed
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111
x:ii1
Ba8ic Dialogue 8. 2
Note 1.1 Transcr1ption used 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1 .3
1.4
1.5

Consonants
Wr1t1ng systell
Assimilat10n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
6
9
12
Unit 2
Basi c 1.3
8. 14
. . . . . .-. . . . . . . . . . . .-.. .. . . . . .
'18'. '1sn't'. 'are'. 'aren't' Note 2.1
Palatal1zat100
Def'1n1te Art1cle
AS81Jnilat1on
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Gender and agreement
. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . .. .. . .
Un1t 3
Bas1c D1alogue
Narrat1ve
3.1
3.2
3.3
Indef'1n1te article
Def'in1te art1cle-plural
4!1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
22
24
25
26
Personal prooouns
Verb classes
)0
32
34
35
35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
... . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
. . . . . . . . ....


Note 4.1
4.2
Ba8ic D1alogue
Narrat1ve
Un1t 4
i,v
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Imp. and Perf. stems
Pres. tense, Class verbs
Pres. tense verb 'be'
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
36
37
Assimilation of vowels
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjective: Accusative case
41
45
47
47
47
48
50
50
51
51
53
54
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accusative case Noun:
Class 11 verbs
Assimilation of /s/
Cases
Articles: Accusative
Plural
Stress
Declension
Narrative
Note 5.1
Unit 5
Basic Dialogue
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Review (Units 1-5)
Greek writing system
Review Drills
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
62
'Polite' expressions 64
Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Unit 6
Basic Dialogue
Narrative. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
69
Irregular perfective stem forms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
71
71
71
72
7?
73
74
74
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Class verbs: Perfective stem forms
Class verbs: Persona:.endings
Class verbs:
Notation.
Class verbs: Subjunctive
Class verbs: Future.
6.1.1 Class verbs: Future continuous
6.1.2 Class verbs: Simple Future
Note 6.1
v
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Imp. and Perf. stems
Pres. tense, Class verbs
Pres. tense verb 'be'
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
36
37
Assimilation of vowels
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjective: Accusative case
41
45
47
47
47
48
50
50
51
51
53
54
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accusative case Noun:
Class 11 verbs
Assimilation of /s/
Cases
Articles: Accusative
Plural
Stress
Declension
Narrative
Note 5.1
Unit 5
Basic Dialogue
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Review (Units 1-5)
Greek writing system
Review Drills
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
62
'Polite' expressions 64
Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Unit 6
Basic Dialogue
Narrative. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
69
Irregular perfective stem forms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
71
71
71
72
7?
73
74
74
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Class verbs: Perfective stem forms
Class verbs: Persona:.endings
Class verbs:
Notation.
Class verbs: Subjunctive
Class verbs: Future.
6.1.1 Class verbs: Future continuous
6.1.2 Class verbs: Simple Future
Note 6.1
v
GREEK BASIC COURSE
6.7 Impersonal verb /prepi/. 75
6.8 Verb . 75
6.8.1 ImpersOI1al use /bori/ 76
6.9 Use 76
6.11
Expressions of Time
Adjective /polis/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
76
Irregular declens ion.
81
84
85
86
87
87
90
90
92
92
93
93
94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Declension
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
uSB genitive case
Genitive case-articles.
Adjectives:
Adjectives: /aft6s/, .
Adjectives: /pOlis/
Use of Imalista/.
Use /pi
Use of /pueena/
Genitive case-nouns
1st and 2nd Declensions
7.1.2
7.1 .1
7.3
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
Note 7.1
Unit 7
Basic Dialogue.
Narrative
Unit 8
Basic Dialogue. 97
100
words.
Personal pronouns used as direct and indirect objects
Demonstrati pronouns.
Possessive prononns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
103
106
107
108
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /ekin05/
Note 8.1
of vero /180/ 109
Unit 9
Basic Dialogue. 8 113
Narrative
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,16
vi
GREEK BASIC COURSE
6.7 Impersonal verb /prepi/. 75
6.8 Verb . 75
6.8.1 ImpersOI1al use /bori/ 76
6.9 Use 76
6.11
Expressions of Time
Adjective /polis/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
76
Irregular declens ion.
81
84
85
86
87
87
90
90
92
92
93
93
94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Declension
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
uSB genitive case
Genitive case-articles.
Adjectives:
Adjectives: /aft6s/, .
Adjectives: /pOlis/
Use of Imalista/.
Use /pi
Use of /pueena/
Genitive case-nouns
1st and 2nd Declensions
7.1.2
7.1 .1
7.3
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
Note 7.1
Unit 7
Basic Dialogue.
Narrative
Unit 8
Basic Dialogue. 97
100
words.
Personal pronouns used as direct and indirect objects
Demonstrati pronouns.
Possessive prononns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
103
106
107
108
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /ekin05/
Note 8.1
of vero /180/ 109
Unit 9
Basic Dialogue. 8 113
Narrative
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,16
vi
GREEK BASIC COURSE
9.1 neuter nouns 1n /-ma/. 118
9.1 .1 declension nouns /to y6.1JJ./ and /to kreas/ 118
Un1t 1
Ba81c D1alogue ,a,
123
126
,27
127
1)0
1 )1
. . . . . . ....
. . .
. .. . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . .. . .
... . ... . . . . . . .
Past tense personal endings.
Past tense
. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
Verb 'be
Class verb:
. .. .
10.2
10.1
10.3 Past
10.4 Use verb
0.5 Use verb .. ..
6 - 1
Narrat1ve.
Dr:i1la.
Narrat1ve
.. . ... . . . . .. .... . . . ... . . .
. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,)4
'37
Un1t .1
Basic Dialog11e 140
Narrat1ve.
. . .
... .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . .. .
Note 1,., Clas s verb8 cont1nuous past 145
, .2 Past verb /iJxo/. .. .. ,46
11.3 Verb /erxOlM/ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... 146
Un1t ,2
Ba81c D1alogue .. 1S.
. . . .. . . .
. . . . .. . . . . . . .
Narrat1ve.
Note 12.1
. .. .
Vocative.
. .
. . . . . .
.. . . . . . . . . . .. . ...
. . . . . . . .
. . ...
'53
'SS
,2.2 Class verbs: ve. 156
12.2.1 Perfect1ve Imperat1ve .. 157
Cont1nu0U8 Imperat1V8
1JIIpersona1 verb
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
157
158
Un1t 1)
Ba81c
Narrat1w.
'3.'
Class verbs - Present
.. ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16,
163
16S
,).2 Future and .Bubjunct1ve continu0U8 166
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 166
vii
GREEK BASIC COURSE
9.1 neuter nouns 1n /-ma/. 118
9.1 .1 declension nouns /to y6.1JJ./ and /to kreas/ 118
Un1t 1
Ba81c D1alogue ,a,
123
126
,27
127
1)0
1 )1
. . . . . . ....
. . .
. .. . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . .. . .
... . ... . . . . . . .
Past tense personal endings.
Past tense
. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
Verb 'be
Class verb:
. .. .
10.2
10.1
10.3 Past
10.4 Use verb
0.5 Use verb .. ..
6 - 1
Narrat1ve.
Dr:i1la.
Narrat1ve
.. . ... . . . . .. .... . . . ... . . .
. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,)4
'37
Un1t .1
Basic Dialog11e 140
Narrat1ve.
. . .
... .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . .. .
Note 1,., Clas s verb8 cont1nuous past 145
, .2 Past verb /iJxo/. .. .. ,46
11.3 Verb /erxOlM/ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... 146
Un1t ,2
Ba81c D1alogue .. 1S.
. . . .. . . .
. . . . .. . . . . . . .
Narrat1ve.
Note 12.1
. .. .
Vocative.
. .
. . . . . .
.. . . . . . . . . . .. . ...
. . . . . . . .
. . ...
'53
'SS
,2.2 Class verbs: ve. 156
12.2.1 Perfect1ve Imperat1ve .. 157
Cont1nu0U8 Imperat1V8
1JIIpersona1 verb
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ...
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
157
158
Un1t 1)
Ba81c
Narrat1w.
'3.'
Class verbs - Present
.. ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16,
163
16S
,).2 Future and .Bubjunct1ve continu0U8 166
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 166
vii
G REEK BASIC COURSE
case

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
171
173
173
174
175
175
175
176
. .. . . . ..... ... ...
. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .- . . .
. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
. ...... . .... . ..... ..
. . . . . . . . ..... . . . . ...
i81
-4.oal
. . . . . . . Numerals
Feminine in
Feminine nouns in
Feminine noW1S in
Masculine nouns in -asl
14.1 .2
14.1.3
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.1
Unit 14
Basic
Narrative
Unit 15
Basic Dialogue. 181
Class 11 verbs: 5imple future and subjunct1ve 188
Class 11 verbs: 5imple Past
11 verbs: past 199
declension neuter nouns in I-on/
. . . .. . .... . . .... ... . ....
. .. . . .. . . ... . . . . .. . . 1-89
190
190
19C1'
191
185
187
. . . .. . . . . .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
... . .. . .. . .. ..
. . . . . . . . . ... .... .
... . . . . .. . .. .. . . .
Perfective stem fonn
Shitt stress Adjective:
Continuous Past in -ayal
Irregular verb
Class verbB:
.. . . . . . . . . .. . ....
Indeclinable
Review (Units 11 - 15)
Narrative
Note 15.1
15.1.1
15.2
15.3
15.).1
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
. 195
Narrat1ve. 200
Unit 16
Hasic Dialop:ue. 202
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adverb1als tiJne
Narrative
Note 16.1 Aaverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
205
208
208
16.3 .. 209
16.4 Superlative. 210
v111
G REEK BASIC COURSE
case

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
171
173
173
174
175
175
175
176
. .. . . . ..... ... ...
. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .- . . .
. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
. ...... . .... . ..... ..
. . . . . . . . ..... . . . . ...
i81
-4.oal
. . . . . . . Numerals
Feminine in
Feminine nouns in
Feminine noW1S in
Masculine nouns in -asl
14.1 .2
14.1.3
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.1
Unit 14
Basic
Narrative
Unit 15
Basic Dialogue. 181
Class 11 verbs: 5imple future and subjunct1ve 188
Class 11 verbs: 5imple Past
11 verbs: past 199
declension neuter nouns in I-on/
. . . .. . .... . . .... ... . ....
. .. . . .. . . ... . . . . .. . . 1-89
190
190
19C1'
191
185
187
. . . .. . . . . .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
... . .. . .. . .. ..
. . . . . . . . . ... .... .
... . . . . .. . .. .. . . .
Perfective stem fonn
Shitt stress Adjective:
Continuous Past in -ayal
Irregular verb
Class verbB:
.. . . . . . . . . .. . ....
Indeclinable
Review (Units 11 - 15)
Narrative
Note 15.1
15.1.1
15.2
15.3
15.).1
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
. 195
Narrat1ve. 200
Unit 16
Hasic Dialop:ue. 202
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adverb1als tiJne
Narrative
Note 16.1 Aaverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
205
208
208
16.3 .. 209
16.4 Superlative. 210
v111
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Cond1t1onal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 210
Adject1ve: katharewsa Muter iD /-
. . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Un1t 17
Ba81c D1alogue. 212

..
. ....
. ....
.. .. .. . .... . .. . .
Note 17.1 Clas8 11 verb8: ve 217
pertect1ve torm
17.2
17.3
Decl1nable . ... . .... . . .. .. . . . .. . .
. . . .
218
219
UD1t 18
220
. .. .... . . . . . .. ... . . . .. Rarrat1w
Note 18.1
. . .
Pre8ent Pertect
.
.. ... . . . . . .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. .
223
225
Verb8 v1th pret1xe. .. 226
18.3 tense /e-/ . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . 227
UD1t l'
Ba81c D1alogu.e . . . 230
.. ...... . . . ... ....... . .... ...


.---.--""
1 Clu8 111
235
236
235
233


. ...... ... ..
.. . .... Pre8ent
sutt1xe.
......
... ...
Past P8rtect.
Clu. 111
.
19.2.2 Clas.
Ilarrat1w
lote 19.1
ruture aad 8ubjunct1ve 237
19., C1a8. m wrb8 . ... .. .. . .... ...
Future and Subjunct1"
19.3.2
80
:B881c ,.
Fonnat1on pertect1ve
Nan-at1ve
Note .20.1
... .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .....
. . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ...
243
246
20.1.1 Cla8s 1 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. .... . 246
20.1.2 Class 11
20.1.3 Clus
.... . . ... . .. ... . .. .
. .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
246
a47

GREEK BASIC COURSE
Cond1t1onal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 210
Adject1ve: katharewsa Muter iD /-
. . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Un1t 17
Ba81c D1alogue. 212

..
. ....
. ....
.. .. .. . .... . .. . .
Note 17.1 Clas8 11 verb8: ve 217
pertect1ve torm
17.2
17.3
Decl1nable . ... . .... . . .. .. . . . .. . .
. . . .
218
219
UD1t 18
220
. .. .... . . . . . .. ... . . . .. Rarrat1w
Note 18.1
. . .
Pre8ent Pertect
.
.. ... . . . . . .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. .
223
225
Verb8 v1th pret1xe. .. 226
18.3 tense /e-/ . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . 227
UD1t l'
Ba81c D1alogu.e . . . 230
.. ...... . . . ... ....... . .... ...


.---.--""
1 Clu8 111
235
236
235
233


. ...... ... ..
.. . .... Pre8ent
sutt1xe.
......
... ...
Past P8rtect.
Clu. 111
.
19.2.2 Clas.
Ilarrat1w
lote 19.1
ruture aad 8ubjunct1ve 237
19., C1a8. m wrb8 . ... .. .. . .... ...
Future and Subjunct1"
19.3.2
80
:B881c ,.
Fonnat1on pertect1ve
Nan-at1ve
Note .20.1
... .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .....
. . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ...
243
246
20.1.1 Cla8s 1 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. .... . 246
20.1.2 Class 11
20.1.3 Clus
.... . . ... . .. ... . .. .
. .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
246
a47

GREEK BASIC COURSE
20.2 Cla8s 111 verbs - 5iJnple Paa't.
247
Reviev CUnits 16 - 20)
. ... . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . ...
Dri1l.s
Narrat1ve
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
2$0
257
Uni't. 21
Ba81c Dialogue. 2 S9
Narrat1ve . .. . 26t
3!2 neuter /-08/
US8 ". ..
Note 21.1
21.2
Class
Use
.. ......' "
. . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . .. . .
264

264
265
22
Ba81c Dialogue. 267
Narrati.... .' - .. -. "......' .. ...... _. 269
. . . . . .... ... ..
. . . . .... .. .. ..
271
. . . .....
..... -...
.. . . ....." .- .
. . ... . .. . . . . . . ..
. . . .
Adjective& in /-1&/
wrb8; Prab1bit.1ve
Verb /1p4.rxo/
word /rMJJdri!
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.1
Un1't. a)
Ba8ic Dialogus. .
'M1xed' conjugation .
Pa.st part1ciple -. _.
Class 111 verbs Irregular pertect.1ve _t.e8s.

23.1
. .. . .... . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . 276
278
280
280
Un1't. 24
Ba81c D1alogue. .aea
Narrative ae5
Presen't. active participle
Pret1x /uana-/
.... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .....


289
Un1't. 2$
Bas1c -. 291

GREEK BASIC COURSE


20.2 Cla8s 111 verbs - 5iJnple Paa't.
247
Reviev CUnits 16 - 20)
. ... . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . ...
Dri1l.s
Narrat1ve
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
2$0
257
Uni't. 21
Ba81c Dialogue. 2 S9
Narrat1ve . .. . 26t
3!2 neuter /-08/
US8 ". ..
Note 21.1
21.2
Class
Use
.. ......' "
. . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . .. . .
264

264
265
22
Ba81c Dialogue. 267
Narrati.... .' - .. -. "......' .. ...... _. 269
. . . . . .... ... ..
. . . . .... .. .. ..
271
. . . .....
..... -...
.. . . ....." .- .
. . ... . .. . . . . . . ..
. . . .
Adjective& in /-1&/
wrb8; Prab1bit.1ve
Verb /1p4.rxo/
word /rMJJdri!
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.1
Un1't. a)
Ba8ic Dialogus. .
'M1xed' conjugation .
Pa.st part1ciple -. _.
Class 111 verbs Irregular pertect.1ve _t.e8s.

23.1
. .. . .... . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . 276
278
280
280
Un1't. 24
Ba81c D1alogue. .aea
Narrative ae5
Presen't. active participle
Pret1x /uana-/
.... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .....


289
Un1't. 2$
Bas1c -. 291

Note 25.1 0rd1nal8.


R s v i e (Un1t8 21 - 25)
. .
GREEK BASIC COURSE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 297
.. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .... Dr1U8
Narrat1v8 . . . . . .. .. .. . . .... ... ... . . . .....
)01
)03
Tel1ing ~ 305
01088817' 306
1
Note 25.1 0rd1nal8.
R s v i e (Un1t8 21 - 25)
. .
GREEK BASIC COURSE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 297
.. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .... Dr1U8
Narrat1v8 . . . . . .. .. .. . . .... ... ... . . . .....
)01
)03
Tel1ing ~ 305
01088817' 306
1
GREEK BASIC COURSE
s
\
)
,/
/'
(
n
...
n
,.
.,.

'"
'"
GREECE
~ Ra.Iroad
Road
@

InIernalional boundary
IndefInile boundary
DhIamerisma (RegIon)
boundary
National capital
m s cenIer
J

40
40 80 MiIes
" i
80 Kilometers
xii
GREEK BASIC COURSE
s
\
)
,/
/'
(
n
...
n
,.
.,.

'"
'"
GREECE
~ Ra.Iroad
Road
@

InIernalional boundary
IndefInile boundary
DhIamerisma (RegIon)
boundary
National capital
m s cenIer
J

40
40 80 MiIes
" i
80 Kilometers
xii
G REEK BASIC COURSE
INTRODUCTION
Greek 1s the off1c1al language of the present day k1ngdom of Greece. More
than 95 percent of 1ts populat1on are nat1ve speakers of Greek. Other languages
spoken 1 Greece are those of small m1nor1t1es: Turk1sh. Bu1gar1an. Serb1an.
Sephard1c (spoken ma1n1y 1 Thessa1on1k1 by the descendents of Jews former1y
res1d1ng 1 Spa1n and Portuga1). A1ban1an and some others.
Outs1de the 11m1ts of Greece Greek 1s spoken 1 the ne1ghbor1ng 1s1ands.
such as Bozca Ada and Imbroz (Turkey). Cyprus. as we11 as 1 surround1ng coun-
tr1es. e.g. southern A1ban1a. southern Yugos1av1a. Bulgar1a and Turkey (Istanbu1).
It 18 a1so spoken by 1arge Greek commun1t1es 1 the Amer1cas (p.S.A Canada.
Argent1na. Braz11). 1 Europe. Afr1ca and Austra11a.
L1ke Eng11sh. Greek be10ngs to the 1arge Indo-H1tt1te (Indo-European)
fam11y ! 1anguages and spread over the Ba1kan pen1nsu1a somet1me dur1ng the
second m111en1um B.C.
Anc1ent Greek appears to have been d1v1ded 1nto four ma1n groups !
d1a1ects: Arcad1an-Cypr1ot1c. Dor1an. Aeo11an and Ion1an-Att1c. Beg1nn1ng 1
the 4th century B.C. the Ion1an-Att1c d1a1ect spread 1 1 over the Greek speak1ng
terr1tor1es wh11e other d1a1ects began to dec11ne and then d1sappeared com-
p1ete1y 1 the'f1rst centur1es ! the Chr1st1an era.
Modern Greek presents a rather comp1ex 11ngu1st1c p1cture. the one
hand th1s 1anguage 1s the r e 8 ~ 1 t ! a norma1 11ngu1st1c evo1ut1on from the
older Greek; the other hand. however. 1ntense nat1ona11st1c sent1ments
dur1ng certa1n per10ds of Greek h1story have preserved 1ntact many morpholog1cal,
syntact1c and 1ex1cal e1ements ! archa1c Greek. As a result there are two
broad types ! 1anguage used 1 modern Greece. the IpopularI,or dh1mot1k1. and
the Iforma1
I
or katharevusa. The former 1s the every-day 1anguag8 ! the
peop1e conta1n1ng 1oanwords from other languages wh1ch have been 1ncorporated
1nto the Greek 1anguage 1 the course ! 1ater Greek h1story. 'Dh1mot1k1' 18
pr1mar11y a 8poken language. that ! Greek songs and ba11ads. and does not have
a f1xed orthography. but 1s largely used by modern wr1ters ! poetry and flctlon.
The 1atter (katharevusa) 1s a consc1ous and art1f1c1a1 return to older
Greek. and 1s taught 1 schoo1s and used for off1c1a1 purposes and 1 a more or
1ess Ipure
I
form by newspapers.
S1nce the 2nd century B.C. the Greeks have d1sputed among ,themselves about
the1r 1anguage. At that t1me 11terary men scorned colloqu1al usage. consc1ously
1m1tat1ng the c1ass1cal style 1 the1r works. The sch1sm has cont1nued to Our
days.
1
G REEK BASIC COURSE
INTRODUCTION
Greek 1s the off1c1al language of the present day k1ngdom of Greece. More
than 95 percent of 1ts populat1on are nat1ve speakers of Greek. Other languages
spoken 1 Greece are those of small m1nor1t1es: Turk1sh. Bu1gar1an. Serb1an.
Sephard1c (spoken ma1n1y 1 Thessa1on1k1 by the descendents of Jews former1y
res1d1ng 1 Spa1n and Portuga1). A1ban1an and some others.
Outs1de the 11m1ts of Greece Greek 1s spoken 1 the ne1ghbor1ng 1s1ands.
such as Bozca Ada and Imbroz (Turkey). Cyprus. as we11 as 1 surround1ng coun-
tr1es. e.g. southern A1ban1a. southern Yugos1av1a. Bulgar1a and Turkey (Istanbu1).
It 18 a1so spoken by 1arge Greek commun1t1es 1 the Amer1cas (p.S.A Canada.
Argent1na. Braz11). 1 Europe. Afr1ca and Austra11a.
L1ke Eng11sh. Greek be10ngs to the 1arge Indo-H1tt1te (Indo-European)
fam11y ! 1anguages and spread over the Ba1kan pen1nsu1a somet1me dur1ng the
second m111en1um B.C.
Anc1ent Greek appears to have been d1v1ded 1nto four ma1n groups !
d1a1ects: Arcad1an-Cypr1ot1c. Dor1an. Aeo11an and Ion1an-Att1c. Beg1nn1ng 1
the 4th century B.C. the Ion1an-Att1c d1a1ect spread 1 1 over the Greek speak1ng
terr1tor1es wh11e other d1a1ects began to dec11ne and then d1sappeared com-
p1ete1y 1 the'f1rst centur1es ! the Chr1st1an era.
Modern Greek presents a rather comp1ex 11ngu1st1c p1cture. the one
hand th1s 1anguage 1s the r e 8 ~ 1 t ! a norma1 11ngu1st1c evo1ut1on from the
older Greek; the other hand. however. 1ntense nat1ona11st1c sent1ments
dur1ng certa1n per10ds of Greek h1story have preserved 1ntact many morpholog1cal,
syntact1c and 1ex1cal e1ements ! archa1c Greek. As a result there are two
broad types ! 1anguage used 1 modern Greece. the IpopularI,or dh1mot1k1. and
the Iforma1
I
or katharevusa. The former 1s the every-day 1anguag8 ! the
peop1e conta1n1ng 1oanwords from other languages wh1ch have been 1ncorporated
1nto the Greek 1anguage 1 the course ! 1ater Greek h1story. 'Dh1mot1k1' 18
pr1mar11y a 8poken language. that ! Greek songs and ba11ads. and does not have
a f1xed orthography. but 1s largely used by modern wr1ters ! poetry and flctlon.
The 1atter (katharevusa) 1s a consc1ous and art1f1c1a1 return to older
Greek. and 1s taught 1 schoo1s and used for off1c1a1 purposes and 1 a more or
1ess Ipure
I
form by newspapers.
S1nce the 2nd century B.C. the Greeks have d1sputed among ,themselves about
the1r 1anguage. At that t1me 11terary men scorned colloqu1al usage. consc1ously
1m1tat1ng the c1ass1cal style 1 the1r works. The sch1sm has cont1nued to Our
days.
1
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Flna11y. a klnd of compromlse form. drawlng unsystematlca11y from both
Idhlmot1k1
'
and 'katharevusa
'
has evo1ved. Thls of the two. ca11ed
thls Course 'kathom11umenl
I
1.e. Ievery-day 1anguage
I
has now become the
standard speech of Greece.
Not a11 standard speakers of modern Greek. however. can be assumed to use
the same m1xture of katharevusa dhimotlk1 e1ements the1r speech. The
ratl0 may vary not on1y from speaker to speaker. but a1so may depend the
sltuat10n whlch the speaker uses the 1anguage. Thus the same speaker may
use the extreme var1ety of dh1mot1k1 whl1e buy1ng th1ngs at a market p1ace and
then sw1tch to the extreme katharevusa when address1ng a un1verslty professor.
The genera1 trend 1s toward dh1mot1k1 wh1ch 1s the normal 'lnforma1
'
1anguage. but 1ts var10us degrees Ipur1ty' cont1nues to be
used as the off1c1al 1anguage government work (Para11ment. Courts. Rad10
broadcasts. etc.).
The spoken Greek may be represented graph1ca11y as fo11ows:
,-

L U
- -- - -- - - - .-

D1fferences of sty1e are even more consplcuous the wrltten 1anguage. Bes1des
Govgrnment other publlc announcements. documents. off1clal
etc. al1 publlc slgns and v111ages are wr1tten 1n katharevusa. Thus.
for example. the word for f1sh1ng shop every-day language 1s 'pSaradhlko
I

but the slgn"over the store sayR I1khth1opolfon


I
; the word grocery store
1s Ibakallko
I
but the s1gn says Ipandopo1ion
I
etc.
As far a8 the press ls concerned the newspapers are wrltten
katharevusa;'those or1ented towards the center. kathoml1umen1; and those
the extreme left. the extreme and sometlmes even 80mewhat art1f1c1a1
dh1mot1k1.
x1v
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Flna11y. a klnd of compromlse form. drawlng unsystematlca11y from both
Idhlmot1k1
'
and 'katharevusa
'
has evo1ved. Thls of the two. ca11ed
thls Course 'kathom11umenl
I
1.e. Ievery-day 1anguage
I
has now become the
standard speech of Greece.
Not a11 standard speakers of modern Greek. however. can be assumed to use
the same m1xture of katharevusa dhimotlk1 e1ements the1r speech. The
ratl0 may vary not on1y from speaker to speaker. but a1so may depend the
sltuat10n whlch the speaker uses the 1anguage. Thus the same speaker may
use the extreme var1ety of dh1mot1k1 whl1e buy1ng th1ngs at a market p1ace and
then sw1tch to the extreme katharevusa when address1ng a un1verslty professor.
The genera1 trend 1s toward dh1mot1k1 wh1ch 1s the normal 'lnforma1
'
1anguage. but 1ts var10us degrees Ipur1ty' cont1nues to be
used as the off1c1al 1anguage government work (Para11ment. Courts. Rad10
broadcasts. etc.).
The spoken Greek may be represented graph1ca11y as fo11ows:
,-

L U
- -- - -- - - - .-

D1fferences of sty1e are even more consplcuous the wrltten 1anguage. Bes1des
Govgrnment other publlc announcements. documents. off1clal
etc. al1 publlc slgns and v111ages are wr1tten 1n katharevusa. Thus.
for example. the word for f1sh1ng shop every-day language 1s 'pSaradhlko
I

but the slgn"over the store sayR I1khth1opolfon


I
; the word grocery store
1s Ibakallko
I
but the s1gn says Ipandopo1ion
I
etc.
As far a8 the press ls concerned the newspapers are wrltten
katharevusa;'those or1ented towards the center. kathoml1umen1; and those
the extreme left. the extreme and sometlmes even 80mewhat art1f1c1a1
dh1mot1k1.
x1v
GREEK BASIC COURSE
The wr1tten language, therefore, may be graph1cally represented thus:
dh1mot1k1 kathom11unen1 katharevusa
Modern L1terature Older L1terature
Off1c1al Language
Moderate Press Conservat1ve Press
Every-day Usage
Th1s Course
The Greek descr1bed th1s Course 1s representat1ve the kathom11umen1
var1ety, 1.e. that the 'standard
'
speech educated Greeks. As the
1nfluences from the other styles Greek the natural speech an educated
person vary to the speaker and thus create a great var1ety 'correct
I
utterances, both the most common dh1mot1k1 and kathaverusa forms are represented
the Bas1c D1alogues and Grammat1cal Notes. At the same t1me the use
extreme dh1mot1k1 or Ioverpure
I
katharevusa 1s carefully avo1ded.
The whole Course cons1sts 75 un1ts and 1s d1v1ded 1nto three volumes,
each volume conta1n1ng 25 un1ts. After every f1ve un1ts there 1s a Rev1ew con-
s1st1ng a Narrat1ve whlch based the vocabulary prev10us un1ts.
to th1s the Revlew Un1ts Volume 1 have Rev1ew Dr111s whlch the
student 1s supposed to supply proper forms g1ven words. These dr111s are
cont1nued more advanced un1ts connect1on w1th the katharevusa grammat1cal
forms.
1s systemat1cally 1ntroduced the narrat1ves Volume 111
and the rules katharevusa grammar are d1scussed the subsequent grammat1cal
notes. Thus the student who has completed Volume 111 th1s Course should
have a good foundat1on for read1ng off1c1al documents as well newspapers
wr1tten katharevusa.
The follow1ng parts may be found a Un1 t:
Bas1c D1alogue
Response Dr111
Useful Words
tPo11te
'
Express10ns
Narrat1ve
Grammat1cal Notes
Sample Dr111s
Subst1tut1on Dr111s
Transformat1on Dr111s
Correlat1on-Subst1tut1on Dr111s
Response Exerc1se
Top1cs for D1scuss1on

GREEK BASIC COURSE
The wr1tten language, therefore, may be graph1cally represented thus:
dh1mot1k1 kathom11unen1 katharevusa
Modern L1terature Older L1terature
Off1c1al Language
Moderate Press Conservat1ve Press
Every-day Usage
Th1s Course
The Greek descr1bed th1s Course 1s representat1ve the kathom11umen1
var1ety, 1.e. that the 'standard
'
speech educated Greeks. As the
1nfluences from the other styles Greek the natural speech an educated
person vary to the speaker and thus create a great var1ety 'correct
I
utterances, both the most common dh1mot1k1 and kathaverusa forms are represented
the Bas1c D1alogues and Grammat1cal Notes. At the same t1me the use
extreme dh1mot1k1 or Ioverpure
I
katharevusa 1s carefully avo1ded.
The whole Course cons1sts 75 un1ts and 1s d1v1ded 1nto three volumes,
each volume conta1n1ng 25 un1ts. After every f1ve un1ts there 1s a Rev1ew con-
s1st1ng a Narrat1ve whlch based the vocabulary prev10us un1ts.
to th1s the Revlew Un1ts Volume 1 have Rev1ew Dr111s whlch the
student 1s supposed to supply proper forms g1ven words. These dr111s are
cont1nued more advanced un1ts connect1on w1th the katharevusa grammat1cal
forms.
1s systemat1cally 1ntroduced the narrat1ves Volume 111
and the rules katharevusa grammar are d1scussed the subsequent grammat1cal
notes. Thus the student who has completed Volume 111 th1s Course should
have a good foundat1on for read1ng off1c1al documents as well newspapers
wr1tten katharevusa.
The follow1ng parts may be found a Un1 t:
Bas1c D1alogue
Response Dr111
Useful Words
tPo11te
'
Express10ns
Narrat1ve
Grammat1cal Notes
Sample Dr111s
Subst1tut1on Dr111s
Transformat1on Dr111s
Correlat1on-Subst1tut1on Dr111s
Response Exerc1se
Top1cs for D1scuss1on

GREEK BASIC COURSJ
Bas1c D1a1ogues and Response Dr111s are found each un1t. Narrat1ves beg1n
w1th Un1t 2. The occurrence other parts may vary.
Use Th1s Course
1. Bas1c D1a1ogues
Most Bas1c D1a1ogues cons1st 10 sentences. more advanced un1ts the
d1a1ogue may be d1v1ded 1nto two or three parts 10 to 14 sentences.
The 1nstructor reads the Greek. 1tem by 1tem. repeat1ng each 1tem (a bu11d-
up or a sentence) tw1ce for each student. Each member the c1ass repeats the
1tem after the 1nstructor. try1ng to lm1tatehls (or her) pronun-
c1at1on. the the 1tem 1s m1spronounced by the
student. the 1nstructor repeats 1t at norma1 speed w1th the student repeat1ng
after h1m (or her) as many t1mes necessary. After the c1ass hours each
student goes over the Bas1c D1a1ogue by 11sten1ng to the tape and repeat1ng.
dolrtg thls untl1 he knows the d1a1ogue by heart.
After the sentences the D1a1ogue have been thorough1y memor1zed the
students take part act1ng out the D1a1ogue. The 1nstructor may take one
the parts the f1rst t1me or two. Thls procedure 1s to be contlnued unt11
any student can take part and go through thedla10gue 11ke actor.
2. Response Dr1l1s
Response dr111s cons1st quest10ns and answers based the d1a1ogue
and narrat1ve st1uat1ons. are d1v1ded 1nto 'Response Dr111 referr1ng
the d1a1ogue and IResponse Dr111 referr1ng to the narrat1ve. One 'rea1
s1tuat1on
I
1s g1ven by the d1a1ogue and another one by the narrat1ve. The
answers to the quest10ns are. therefore. pred1ctab1e . and the student 1s
supposed to know them. Thus. for examp1e. 1! 1t appears from the d1a1ogue that
the restaurant 1s Just across the street from the mov1e theatre. the student
must accept 1t as a 'real
'
fact and say when answer1ng the quest1on: 'Where
1s the restaurant?I
the f1rst 15 un1ts the answers to the quest10ns the Response Dr111s
are g1ven w1th the dr111s. Therefore. these quest10ns and answers must be
dr111ed the same way the sentences the Bas1c D1alogues. Beg1nn1ng
w1th Un1t 16 response dr111s conta1n on1y quest10ns and the student 1s supposed
to formulate the answers h1s own words. but h1s answers must be pert1nent to
the g1ven s1tuat1on. From Un1t 16 the Response Dr111s are 10nger dr111ed
the same way as Bas1c D1a1ogues. but rather take the form a free conversa-
t10n based the facts g1ven by the d1a1ogue or the narrat1ve.
xv1
G REEK BASIC COURSE
3. Useful Words and rPo11te Expressions
'
must be dr111ed by the 1nstructor and
memor1zed by the student the same way as the Bas1c D1alogues.
4. Narrat1ve
The narrat1ve presents expos1tory style e1ther a s1tuat1on s1m11ar to
that represented the Bas1c D1alogue. a s1tuat1on related to 1t. w1th
broader vocabulary.
The 1nstructor goes through the sentences 111ustrat1ng new vocabulary
1tems the same way as for Bas1c D1alogue. After the students have thus
fam111ar1zed themselves w1th the new vocabulary. the 1nstructor reads through
the whole narrat1ve at a normal speed. The students 11sten w1th the1r books
closed. The students summar1ze Eng11sh as much as they understand the
narrat1ve. Then the students read and translate the narrat1ve 1nto Eng11sh.
The 1nstructor then asks the quest10ns Response Dr111 and the students
answer them. The narrat1ves are 1ntended to be memor1zed at home and retold
the student's own words class the next day.
The narrat1ves Un1ts 2 through 5 are presented both transcrlpt10n
and the Greek wr1t1ng system. subsequent narrat1ves the transcr1pt1on
18 om1tted.
5. SampIe Dr111s are to be treated the same way as the sentences Bas1c
D1algou8s.
6. Transformat1on and Correlat1on-Subst1tut1on Dr11Is are to be
used accordance w1th the 1nstruct1ons g1ven at the beg1nn1ng each dr111.
7. Response Exerc1se
Response Exerc1ses occur at the very end each un1t. The quest10ns of
these exerc1ses are not necessar1Iy reIated to any part1cuIar un1t. GraduaIIy.
as the student's vocabulary 1ncreases, these quest10ns beoOme more general
character. The purpose a Response Exerc1se 1s to 1nduce the student 1nto a
free conversat1on with1n the scope h1s vocabulary.
Un1ts 2. 3. and 4 all poss1ble answers to the quest10ns are g1ven. AIl
these answers should be dr11Ied the same way as the sentences the Bas1c
D1aIogues.
Beg1nn1ng w1th Un1t 5 these exerc1ses cons1st quest10ns only, and the
student 1s supposed to be abIe to answer the quest10ns by h1mseIf.
Any answer g1ven by the student 1s cons1dered correct 1t 1s appropr1ate
and 1s good Greek. The answer 1s corrected by the 1nstructor necessary.
The student repeats the corrected answer.

G REEK BASIC COURSE
8. Top1cs for D1scuss1on
These dr111s appear 1n the advanced. un1 ts 11eu of Response
The 1nstructor presents the topics one by one and asks the members of the
c1ass to take part the d1scuss1on. One of the students 1s asked to develop
the top1c further and g1ve h1s reasons for agree1ng w1th the problem ra1sed by
the 1nstructor. Another student should present h1s arguments to derend the
oppos1te po1nt of v1ew. Another one should try to f1nd a comprom1se between
the two posltlons. Then other students jo1n the d1scusslon. When one toplc
has been fully d1scussed the 1nstructor ra1ses the next controversla1 questlon.
The exerc1se goes unt11 a11 top1cs of the un1t have been thoroughly d1scussed
and tota11y exhausted.
GLOSSARY
At the end of each volume there 1s an alphabetlcal 11st of a11 the vocab-
u1ary 1tems 1ntroduced that volume.
Follow1ng each verb 1s a number 1nd1cat1ng the unlt whlch the other
forms of the verb are 11sted.

GREEK BASIC COURSE


t
the parentheses and quota marks are used toge (, )
a more Uteral tranalation is given addition to the ord1nar'j EngUsh equ1valent.
Brackets [ ] are used indicate vords in the equ1valent vhich do not
equ1valent in Greek.
ParentbeSe8 ) 1Ddicate vordB vhich are in the Greek but a noral EnElish
equ1valent.
'n1e Eng11sh side 1s not a Uteral trans1at1on the Greek. but Englisb
speakers ord1nar11y Ny1n ISUch a s1tuation. '1be use parentheses brackets
explained the s1tuat1on clear 1n each case.
On Greek s1de. parentheses are used to 1nd1cate sounds vh1ch are
Alternate pronunciat1on the same word or alternate vords are given atter a
slant line /.
Motes, slant lines / / are used to Greek sounda, word8,
phrases or _entence. 1n vith1n an EngU8h text.
t
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Unit ,









,



'







sas.
sas.
kalintxta sa5.

su.
p6s
isee/iste
p6s
ka1l.
erxar1st6

kesis?
ka1A kesis?


mflista.

paraka16.



2
Good (Iyour good
Good arternoon. 2!: Good
evening. good arternoon/
).
Good n1ght. (said parting).
He110. 2!: Good bye.
81.
bow
you
are you1
_11
thanks (11 thaDk
l
)
and
you
and
IIJD rine, tbanks, and you?
Yes.

Please. velcOIe.
beg
l
).
t.'umbers

tvo
G REEK BASIC COURSE

trfa three



p&nde five

six

ept4/eft'
okt610xt6 eight
eMa/erry4 nine
ten
Grammat1cal Notes
-----------------
,
Modern Greek wr1tteo 10 Greek 1etters 1nher1ted from auc1eot Greek. The spelllng
to a large extent h1stor1cal aod therefore not cons1stent on a number polnts.
In order to 1t ea81er for the student the t1rst '0 un1ts th1s course are vr1tten
both 10 Greelc cbaracters and 10 transcr1pt10n. Beglnning ,,1th the un1t 11 Qverything 18
10 Greelc scr1pt and the transcr1pt10n used only occaslonally io grammatica1 notes.
Tbe traDscrlpt10n used here adaptat10n Lat1n ]etters for l1IOst sounds and
Greelc 1etters for a tn. It not stric1tly speaking a 'phonetlc transcriptlon. For
the 1etter stands for one sound before la,o,u/ and for another sound before
le,1/. 510ce the pronunc1ation 1s predictab1e the basis vhere lt occurs, a s1ng1e
letter may be used for both sounds.
The transcrlption used th1s course cons1sts the follov1ng 1etters and other

a, u, e, 1

V01ce1ess: t, Ic, t, ts,
Volced: b, d, b, g, v, dz, r, 1, n,
The acceot mark 1ndicates the 10udest syllab1e a 01 sentence and
1ndlcates a 1ess 10ud (IsecondaryI) stress. The weak stress 1s unmarked. word sa1d
iso1at10n (as 1n the bu11d-ups) regu1ar1y have a primary stress 1'1. 1n a sentence
thls may be replaced by secondary or even by weak Btress (unmarked). The stress 1n Greek
3
GREEK BASIC COURSE
falls a1vays one the last three sy11ab1es a word.
There are three types phrase endings 'junctures') 1n Greek: 1,1 111 and 1.1
(the spec1a1 signs for these are 11/, 1111 and 1#1 respect1ve1y).
These punctuat10n are not used the same vay or v1tb the as 1n
either Eng1ish or Greek ordinary spe111ng. The system used here ass1gns spec1f1c values
to the punctuat10n
'T'he 1,1 1nd1cates that the intonation pattei-n 1t 1s character1zed
by a ra1sed pitch the last stressed syllab1e the phrase.
per10d 1.1 1s used to 1nd1cate the end a pbrase accompan1ed by fal1ing p1tcb.
It may or may not correspond to a period e1ther in Greek or 1n Eng11sh spe111ng.
quest10n 111 1ndicates a r1sing p1tch questions.
Quest10ns Greek be div1ded 1nto tvo categories:
,) QuestioDS vbich begin v1th a quest10n vord (such, for examp1e, as 'vbo', 'vben',
'vhere', etc.), e.g. ,wbere are you g01ng1' 'Wbat d1d be say?' etc.
2) Quest10ns vithout quest10n vords (usually beg1nn1ng v1tb a verb 1n Greek) sucb as,
'Are you g01ng there1' 'D1d be tbat1', etc.
The bighest p1tcb in quest10ns tbe first category tbe quest10n vord, tal11ng
gradually to the 1ast syllab1e.
Quest10ns the second have tbe bighest p1tch tbe stressed syllab1e
tbe 1ast vord.
Tbe p1tch 1eve1s are" not abso1ute, but are bigb or relat1ve to each
other.
Stress (vh1ch 1s 10udness) and p1tch (vh1ch be1gbt tone) lIIWJt be caretul1y
d1st1ngu1shed. S1nce tbe 10udest syllab1e 1s otten tbe bigbest 1n p1tcb, there
frequent1y a tendency to con!use tbe tvo.
Very spec1al attent10n be pa1d to the 1ntonat1on each Greek sentence. It
should never be treated as if 1t vere an Eng11sb sentence. Tbe punctuat10n vill
he1p the student to say tbings correctlyj but only careful l1sten1ng, and 1mitat1on as
vell as constant and pers1stent dr111 g1ve a correct prcnunc1at10n.
4
G REEK BASIC COURSE
,
Tbere are sounds in Greek:
/1/
/8/
/./
/0/
/uI
G.D.I.2
l1ke ! but
h1gher, tenser and v1thout the
gl1de that
Tedhn1cally: a h1gh front
unrounded [1].
L1ke e 1et.
- ----
T8chn1cally: a (h1gber)
tront unrounded [e].
1jke ! 10 but
RUch shorter 11 unstressed.
Techn1cally: a unrounded
{a].
thch l1ke c10th.
a h1gher-IIIid
rounded back
.S08Vhat l1ke 00 boot or u 10
but h1gher, tenser, and
v1tbout the g11de English.
Techn1cally: a h1gh back rounded
[u].
Pronunc1at1oo Dr111s
/1/
k{rios
k1rfa, k6r1,
1r{n!, {stera
e&6, ker6s, It1mos,

kill, 4na,
parakal6, pot!mi
e06, 6ra, p6ros,
etxar1st6
kun6, kuldr1,
kalu, ualfa
1or6tas

ae!na
korits1
fkaros


nda
GREEK BASIC COURSE
/e/
leoforlo

perno
patates

/a/
trfa
kal$.
/0/
6ra
p6nos

6noma
ak6ma
/u!
kut6s
kun6


Note 1.3. Consonants
et!lete
miMn
t!na
ner6

6ra
4I-ostos

patE!ras

aft6s
mikr6s
sor6s
6mikroD

ur4
us{a
Ute
kald

/b/ L1ke b bob.
- ---
Techn1cally: a voiced b11ab1al
stop [b).
6
bamb4a, buk411
bt!no, blka
GREEK BASIC COURSE
UNIT ,
/d/
/f/
/g/
/k/
Like d dot but with the tongue
touching the teeth.
Techn1cally: a voiced dental
stop
L1ke f fOM.
- ----
Technically: a voiceless
labiodental sp1rant [f].
L1ke Rare except after
Technically: a vo1ced dorso-velar
[gJ.
L1ke c cot but wi
pandd,
pand6fles
f40, falakr6s, f6ros
furd, fflos, fe16s
grernn6s, grfnya
4ngelos, 4ng1ra, 4nglos
k6ta, kano, kdpa
strong purf breath. Fronted
before /1/ and /e/. kd, kfrios
Technically: a vo1celess
/1/

/rj
dorso-velar stop [k].
be like ! (before
a/), fronted /e/ aM /1/
(v1th speakers almost l1ke
!l before /1/).
Technically: a yoiced apico-dental
lateral [1].
Like !!! may be fronted
iJefore /1/.
Techn1cally: a b1lab1al
Like /a,o,u/, fronted
before /e/ and /i/.
3D apico-dental nasal
/n/.

7
lA01, luluo1
lost6s, lekls, leksik6
1fma, 11p6n, 11ym6s,
l1manj, lituryf.
maSima,
mikr6s,
na6s, n01163, nus
n1sf, nfxta
GREEK BASIC COURSE

/r/
/s/
/t/


Like ot P2S but wi thout the strong
puff breath.
Techn1cally: a voiceless bilab1al
stop
Usually a single flap or tap tbe
tongue against the ridge behind the
upper teeth. Technically: an
alveolar flap [r'].
Like !! Technically: a
vo1celess apico-dental spirant
(s]
L1ke t tot but without the
strong puff breath, and with
the tonguetQuch1ng the teeth.
Techn1cally: a vo1celess apico-
dental stop (t J.
L1ke V Technically: a
vo1ced lab1o-dental sp1rant
Made by friction air pass1ng
tbrough as tongue 1s in position
/k/.
Before /a,o,uI (or before consonants
by one these
the sound 1s back, l1ke German
before /e,1/ (or consonants
by one these the
sound 1s front, more l1ke ch
1ch.
Technically: a vciceless dorso-velar
sp1rant
8
paraka16,
pern6
r6nd, 6ra, rUxo, r'vo, p6ros
korItsi,
s4mos, sU1a, sovar6s
Isya, 'se,
tfnos, poti, t4ksis
vun6
vfxas, v6rio8
xar4, xor6s, xdfta
oxtd,
x1m6nas, xees,
G REEK BASIC COURSE
,
L1ke Technica11y: pzo, zIte, zaxari
a voiced apico-denta1 spirant

/'6/
/8/
/ts/
/dz/

Made by frict10n air pass1ng
through as tongue is pos1tion
for / gf. (It a vo1t:ed counterpart
TechrI1cal1y: a v01ced
dorso-ve1ar 3p1rant
L1ke Tecbnically: a
vo1ced ap1co-dental s11t sp1rant
L1ke Techn1cal1y: a
v01ce1ess apjco-dental s11t sp1rant
(8).
L1ke ts nets. Techn1ca11y: a
v01celess ap1co-dental aftr1cate [cJ.
L1ke <!! Techn1cally:
a v01ced ap1co-dental affr1cate
L1ke l Techn1cal1y: a
palatal gl1de
ayor4, 4yuros,
ynost6s


aniBema, B41asa, 86108
81savr6s.
kor:l'ts1, ts1iEndo, tsCY
tsuv411, ts1yUO
kafedz:ls, dz{dz1kas
pe&y4,
ky4to, y1Mka, pyite,
yeory6s, yatr6s, J4ro.,
4)"108, ya
The Qr.eek alpbabet Coos1at8 24 1etters:

/a/
/./

r

/'6/
/e/

9
letter
-------------

/Il.ta/
/nta/


/lpsllon/
/Zfta/
Greek:






G REEK BASIC COURSE
Letter

-&











Name letter
--------------
in Greek:

--------
/1/
/I.ta/
/e/
/eita/
/1/ /y6ta/
/k/

/1/

/m!


/nI/
/ks/
/ksr/
/0/ /6mikron/


/r/
/r6/
/s/
/siyrra/
/t/

/t&r/
/1/
/:rpsilon/
/f/
/fi/

/ps/

/0/

8equences 1etters are used to represEnt a s1ng1e
a)




.. Used final posi tion only
Sound

/u/
'nour'
/e/
/onOI1'Azete/ lit 1s called
l
/1/
/1r1nikf/ 'peacefu1'

/1oeet6/ adopt'

1168/
10
b)
word initial position:
GREEK BASIC COURSE
,
5equence letters Sound


/b/

/bor6/ can
l

/1.'

/d5.no/ dress'

/,;

/ 'prec1p1ce'
After the coll1blnatlons
usually stand for the sequences /rrb/,
respectlvely, e.g.





/.t:)l,I'fno/
'bright'

approvp.-t
'clgarette
'
The pronunClation /nt/, /rd</ occurs when the comblnations are
by a v.:>lceless consonant, malnly in foreign loanwords.
The combination occurs only in t1le the word and represents the soI,nd /f)r/
English 'finger', 'longer' etc. e.g. /4ngelos/ 'angel'.
The sound /ts/ and /dz/ are represented in Greek orthography by f:inal
poslt:ion) am respective1y, e.g.
/dzfdz1kas/ 'clcada'.
The corrbjnat:ion -YX-1n the the ",ord corresponds tc the sound /nx/, e. g.
/sinxorfte/ 'excuse!'.
c)
The comb:inatlons and stand for /av/ and /ev/ before vowels vclced
consonants, /avy6/ 'egg
f
, /4vra/ 'breeze', /eviJfW!rfa/
'prosperlty', and tor /af/ and /ef/ before volceless consonants, /aftokfn1to/
Icar', /eftlxfa/ 'happ1ness
l
, /efxarist6/ 'thank yOU
I

2)
The gemination (doubling) consonants occurs only in scrlpt, not in speech.
double consonants represent slngle scunds, 'other',
/alayf/ /'-na/ 'Ann'.
3)
There are three accents: the acute accent /'/, the grave accent /'/, and the
11
"\


(;RI:EK
c1rcnmflex accent
4)
The signs ! and 1'1 traditionally called 'breath1ngs' are written above a11
vcwels These signs have mean1ng modern Greek.
1'1 13 used to iDdicatethe 10s8 a 't
/taftokini tol the car lna.ncv61 that go up
The diaeresis // is wr:itten 011 or v to indicate that the comb1nat.lon
or either a di?hthong (when or v are unstressed), e.g. /4ipnosl
'sleep1ess' or two separate vowe1 scunds (when t or are stressed), e.g.

1,1 1s a sign under some affecting the
r.ronunc1ation, e.g. Ina QtIs11 that he give'.
6)
The punctuat10n signs are 1dentica1 Greek and Engl1sh for the quest10n
mark the
The question jn Greek 1s lil and the semdco1on 1s 11.
Phono1ogy: Ass1Jrd1ation
ka1A kesIs7 Fme, thank and you7
),hen a word end1ng a 1" 1 by Iieg1M11ng "11th the
the is ass1rnHated, th'.1l1
vowe1 asII1JTd1at1cn occurs "11th certa1n other ccmb1nat1ona (see
later un1ts).
12:
G REEK BASIC COURSE
UNIT a
2
(he, she, 1t) 1s,(the7)
(the)
vhere
Excuse
18 the
r1ght, the r1Iht.
on the r1ght

s1nxorHe.
p't1
Ine
1 prezvIa
p't1 In(e) 1 prezv!a?

1 :!ne The 1s the r1gbt.
or6




(the) consulate
tar
ap6/ap !rom
eb6 here
froJl
or6

!ne proksenlo 1I'.akr1a, Is the Consu1ate far froa
he
LO"ra, m411sta. Ine. Yes, 18.


arjster4 1eft
staem6s (the) 8tat1cn
In(e) Is the stat10n the
arjster4?

not


1ne. 1s not.
13
G REEK BASIC COURSE
kate!efan

katefefan brostci
stra1ght
in front
ahead
:lne
katefefan brostci.
p'ra

sas p.ira

Narrat1ve
The station 15 straight ahead.
very
III1ch
Thank you very much.




to proksen:io :ine konda. a1d i
prezv13 :ine makri4.
:fstera
'near by'
'but'
'then', 'afterwards',
'after'






t!
1 ?rezvfa, :lne po1f makr14 apto proksen:io.
:lne kond', 314 staem6s, :lne makr14. :ine
kistera katefe:lan
proksen:io ki prezv1a,:ine makr14
apcM.
ka1Wra pc)S
88 pU in(e) 1 prezv!af
GREEK BASIC COURSE
ka1B kesfs?
1 prezv!a ine
UNITa
ine
in(e) ar1stera1
in(e) 1 presv!a ar1steraf
!ne to
:!n(e) 1 prezna k8 to kond8f
to prokaemo in. pol!
ine broat8.
1 prezna :!ne
to ine _k:r1J apoM.
6xi, 1 prezvU k8 t.o :Ine
8kr1A.
Grammat1cal Notes
-----------------
Verb: '1s" '1sn't', 'are',
d



!n(e) ar1ster47 the stat10n the 18ft?
tne. 1sn't.
k1 prezv!a !ne The stat10n and the
are tar.
The above examples 111ustrate the use the Greek equ1valent to the I:ngli8h verb
the person s1ngular or plural negat1ve).

means either (he, she, 1t) 18 they are
and ine/ means either (he, she, 1t) 1sn't they aren't
:Jote 2.a Phonology: l'alatalization
sas/ 'good night'
']e8'
15

/to
'no'
, consulate'
G REEK BASIC COURSE
'lbese exarnp1es 111ustrate 'pa1atal1zed conscnants, i.e. made w1th
the tongue a sim11ar position to in saying l in
The fo11ov1ng consonants are pa1ata11zed (more cr 1ess, dependinc; speaker) when
followed by the scund !: /1/, Im/, Consonants /1</ and are palatal1zed
before the sounds 1 and
Exarnp1es:
/kir10S/, /I<!.pos/, /k1tos/, /ke/, kp.fal1/
/pa]i/,
/mikos/,
/meni/, /keni/, /z6ni/
/xlios/, /xwa/, /xerete/, /xeU/,
All consonants are pa1ata1ized e.g.

/paxya/,
/kyo te/
/kyar1stera/, /1 maya/
/to /arn.yCme/
'..'hen occurs before or the result1ng sounds 1s /mn
7
a/ or
(1.e. the /m/ w1th a very palatel1zed ard /."i/or
/rrJa/, karr.nYa/, etc.
Noun: Gender - Definite Artic1e.
ar1stera? the stat10n or. thc 1eft?
! prezvla'l the
ine makr1.{ thc fro;l! herfJ7
cm
Greek nouns fall 1nto three f;I'OUPS wi th to ecnd'!r: feJllinine and ncuter.
lJo be dece1ved by these lal1e15 int.o beUcV1ng is a matter sox.
the examp1es above stat10n lIIascu1ine; Co;lsulate neuter)
that gender is a .1'eat\:re 0.1' question the1r re.t.her t!lan a
feature (determ:ined their meaniT![s). best way to pt:t 1t are
t"roups Greek, and .1'or rn0st YI='U car.not determ1ne what a nrun tJe1on:o;s
,6
G REEK BASIC COURSE
to by considering what the means.
As in there are two kinds artic1es Greek: definite ('the
I
)
1ndefinite ('a').
definite artic1es are under1ined the above. Thus /o/1s the
1118scuUne defini.te artic1e, /1/ the fininine, and /to/ the neuter difinHe Sortic1e.
('1he 1ndefinite artic1e i9 disc\lssAd in Note 3.:?).
Greek nouns have end1ng9, e.g. /-as/, /-1/, /-a/,
etc.
In Modern Grcek t."e of a offcrs predictacility tc 1t.s
gender, e.g. a11 ncuns ending /-on/ in Katr.arevusa) are neuter; a greet
number nouns in / -a/ are fer.dr..1ne;
l-iOst animate nouns end::'nr, in are fiJr.ininc, 10Ihereas inanilllllte n01Jnsendir.g in
- /1/ are neuter. (It should be feminj.ne nouns in /-1/ are spelled
whereas nouns end"\.ne /-1/ are spelled - rer.ardlcss whetr.er they are
animate or te ).
'lbe major1ty (but all) ending are 1118sculine.
However, the gender a great mJl'lber nouns r:anJ"1Ot. be predicted at a11 from
endings. 'lbe 8tudent, therefore, is advised to 1earn t:e artic1es w1th the In this
Course the art1c1e 115 regu1ar1y given whenever a new noun 18 introduced as a build-up,
/0
Ph0llCl10gy: AssiJllilation /-e/ the word /ke/ 'and'
ke8is 'and you'
kfstera 'and then'
kyo 'and the
the word /ke/ 1s fcl10wed b;' a ,",ord which begins with a tl:e assimi1ation
patterr8 are ..
/ke/+/e/-/ke/, [. /kes!.s/
/l<istera/
/kc/t/a/-IkYa/, ,!)q'aristera/ (/kcAi'aristerc(/)
G. (/ke,4-/lJ!lepot,:?/)

17
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Pronunciation Drills
--------------------

kuM
lem6s
lioyald pa1Jn6s
ka1B t.rav1&s

/r/
pern6
rUmeli
amzo

str&na


xar4
xeri irxondas

,
X'Jra
mro


dyuros

ayor'
ylik6s
/6/



Ii6ti
,

GREEK BASIC COURSE
a


M:Ja


Oa_sia



Mndro

arerit1s
irea

Oalasa

GraIIIIIIItical Dr111s
------------------
staems7
1 prezvia
to prok8en!o
k1 prezna
ke to
staODSs, 1 prezv!a ke
!n(e)
!n(e) 1 prezv!a7
!n(e) to prouen:!o7
ln(e) k1 prozv!a1
pU !n(e) 1 prezv:ta ke to proksen!o1
!n(e) ar1stera.
1 prezv!a !n(e) aristera.
to proksen!o !n(e) aristera.
k1 prezv!a !n(e) aristera.
1 prezv:ta ke to proksenio, in(e)
ar1stera.
19
1neM i
to prok8erno7
k1
ke to prek8en!o7
1neM 1 prezv!a ke to
!ne
1 prezv!a !ne
to prok8en!o !ne
k1 oeks18.
1 prMv!a ke to

:tne broat8.
1 prezvia !ne katefe!an
to proksen!o !ne katefe!an
k1 prezv!a katefe!an
1 prezv!a ke to proksenio, !ne
katefeian brost&.

ineU6, staem6s?
i prezv!a?
to proksenio?
staooos, i prezvia ke to
proksenfo?
GR.EEK BASIC COUR.SE
ine..1 ine.
""118ta, !ne.1 ine.
cSXi, inc.
cSxi, :lne.
8&S, !see?
_inxor!te. pU !n(e) 1 prenia?
to
ar1_tera?
!n(e)
!n(e) 1 prema aristera7
ine to proksen!o
!n(e) 1 prezvia ke to kmd8'l
ka14 ka14
i pre.-da 1ne !ne
lne
_kr1A
6xi, {nel to kond8/
to !ne
_11sta, mel cSxi, Mn :tn(e) ari_tera, :tne
bro8t8/ fne
katetei8l1 bro8t8.
in(e) !ne pU-a po1:l _kr1.i apo&d.
cSxi, .. in(e) ari8tera. 1ne

{ne/6xi !ne ..
1 pren!a !ne kood8, W to !ne
cSxi, !ne pha po1:l ...
ao


'f6
GREEK BASIC COURSE
kanena (ne1Jter
ka16
to
)
any, nobody,
good
(the) hotel
kanena ksenoooxlo 18 there a good



to
ena, ena


here7

(the)
Ye8 there i8 one, a
(f'ar) here.




. ...


'f6
'fci


akr1 expensi
!n(e) akriw7 18 it
rea80nable,
ex1 he (8he, hu
orea beautitul. n1ce
l.arge
to
ta (the)
!ne ft.in6, it is reuonable and hu
orea ke meyala nice (and) large rooms.
UnciPXEI.

'f6

ip8rx1
episis
to
iparxi ep:sis ena
21
there i8, there ex18ts
a180
(the) restaurant
Is there a1so a good restaurant
GREEK BASIC COURSE
lana't6p1.0 XOV't6:; eoo nearby?
small
Iocrra, maiista, ena 'Yes, there i8 a small, :Jut
aristera, al<i ver:y good on 1eft.
'tt t! t-lhat
i (the)
t! ine? "'hat time is it1
lne It's two o'c10ck.
't6 to (the) bus
't6 inc to 1eofono? i8 the bus?
tc 1eofono iJeksia. The bU8 1s the rir,ht.
Narrative




ine
iparxi ena
banyo.

'(the) bath(roam),
'vith'
'or'
'kilometers'
to ksenooo:clo 'other'
aH. ine 'th1s

xoV't6:. kond8.
'a good and b1g taV8rn'

a'tcf.
.





KOV'tcX a'ta&-
22
ena kseno6oxio, ine J{atef3ian brost8. ln(e)
makria
a18 exi orea ke :>'nyo.
episis ena ena:! oio
rnakria in(e) ena alo
ksen06oxio. e:d ke meyala
:Jomatia. a18 ine ke akrivc. eM kond&,
GREEK BASIC COURSE
3





!n(e) exi ena
exi episis ke mia kali
taverna. to ine
ine mikr6 ke ftin6, a18. i taverna, ine po1i


endeka/en8eka e1even
twe1ve
thirteen
-)ekatesera
fO\Jrteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
6eka0xt6/5ekaokt6 eighteen
oekaenea nineteen
twenty

pu in(e) ena
rnc,,:-&la :'omatia7
:tne ftin6?
c:d. estiat6rio7
pU in(e) 8:10 ksenoi)ox!07
exi afto orea ke meya1a
in (e) akriv6 af'to to
pU in(e) staGmos?
cxi staGmos estiat6ri07
w(e) to mey810 kyakriw7
23
ksenobox!o, in(e) ena ma)r.ria

exi ke 1'0 orea tia.
ine ftin6.
ena estiatOrio.
en(a) 810 in(e) ena i
makria apOOo.
exi orea ke
me banyo.
in(e) akriv6.
staemos konda.
ma1ista, ena kal6
to ine ke
GREEK BASIC COURSE

ke p8nd.e
8Ilea ke
olctO ke tr!a erdeka.
ke tA8era :lkDsi.
ke eksi
ke &:10
k8na
ZIelcaenea
k;yolctO

ZIekaepU.
ZIekaenea.
ke
Note8
Adjective: Gender







:tne Is there a good hotel around
k0nd87 here7
:lne akriv67 1s
6xi. :lne 1t 's reasonab1e.
:lne ena ar1stera, There 1s a small, very
poll ka1b. good the 1eft.
kall ke good and big tavern.
These sentences iUustrate the use adject1ves, wh1ch have d1fferent end1ngs for each
the three genders.
Adjectives wh1ch mooify nouns 'agree' witlI them 1n gender. In
/ka10 the noun 18 neuter, and the af"jective has neuter end1ng, 1n
24
GREEK BASIC COURSE
3
/ka1l taverna/ the noun is teminine, and the adjecti has a tem:inine ending.
Adjectives which refer to a noun a1so 'agree' with the noun, as
/!ne ine both reterring to the neuter noun
0/.
There are severa1 difterent classes adJectives, according to their endings. '1be
most frequent i8 that which has /-os/ in the ma.sculine, /-i/ in the and
/-0/ in the e.g.






/b16s/
/meyi10s/

F.
/ttini/ /ttioo/


'1001'


'b1g'




An other adjective c1ass 18 represented by:
. -
. - /orlJo/ 'beaut.Uul'
Rear:l1' an vith n- 1n. (_ ../) 81'8 ot tb:18 VPe.
-
adJectives /enas/ and /kanenas/ have the




F.
/4nas/
/kanena8/

/4na/

Other classes adJectives be discussed in 1ater units.
Beg1nn1ng with Un1t 4 the three forms feminine am neuter) a11
adjectives "i11 gi.ven in the build-ups
, -1j, -6


-1.,
.-i,
oreos, -a,
'good'
'bie'
'beautiful' .tc.
adj.Ct1W8 vith 81088 end1ng /k/ baw an a1ternate tea:1D1n.



ID:ie.t1n1te Art1cle
1he atject1w
2$
/ma/2!: Wa/, 18
GREEK BASIC COURSE
equivalent the English 1ndefinite article (1;,:1, 'an'):
/eMs

F.
6ra/
/rrW&
'a
'one station'
'an
hour'
'a
'one
indefinite art1cle occurs only w1th nouns.
Definite Article. Plural
()omBtial the rooms'
This exaJJlple illustrates the plural fonn /ta/of neuter def1nite article
/to/.
The def1nite article you have encountered up to here can be
follows:
Mascul1ne
Feminine
Neuter
2i.
6 /0/
/1/
/to/
Pl.
/i/
/1/
/ta/
Dri1ls
1parn ksenoooxio kond81
ena kond8?
ipArx:i. ella kond&1
1parxi ena kald loofor!o kond8?
iparxi kanella k0nd41
iparxi eM koncl.&?
kanena eM koncl.&?
kanena leo.fono eM koncl.&1
26
!ne meyUo
ine kanena JJleyalo
!ne leofono kond8?
:tne JJleyalo kond.&1
!ne kanena oreo kond.&1
ine kaneD8 oreo koncl.&1
:tne kaneD8 kond.&1
!ne kanena oreo leofor!o
GREEK BASIC COURSE
:!ne kal! taverna kond8?
!ne m:ilcr! k0nd8?
!ne taverna
ine or_ taverna
!ne kanenas kond41
:!ne kanenas koooa?
kanenas koma?
!ne oreos koma?
!ne kond81
!De or80s koma1
!ne koooa1
!De tt1n! koma?
or8a tavema konda?
ine ka1D e6c) kond?
Icoma?
m:ikro eM koma?
:lne kanena kom.a?
ine or&!s ke
k0nd41
27
mili8ta, :!n(e) k0nd4.
cSx1, :Ine kan4nas eM k0nd.8.
maUsta, kond8.
6xi, !ne kond8.
mallsta, m(e) 8naS kond8.
6xi, :lne kaMnas kond4.
miusta, (e) eM k0nd4.
!ne kond8.
miusta, :!ne m!a kond8.
Ine kam!a konda.
_Usta, ine kond8.
!ne kond8.
!ne kond8.
6:d., :Ine kond8.
dllsta, !ne m!a eM kond&.
ine k0rd8.
dUsta, !n(e) kond&.
6%1, !ne kan8na
milista, ena k0nd8.
6xi, !ne kaneM kond8.
mallsta, !n(e) koma.
6xi, !ne kanena konda.
ma1ista !n(e) eM koma.
6xi, ine kanena konda.
!n(e) enas
kanenas
GREEK BASIC COURSE
ine kamnya orea ke ft1n:l taverna

ine mey:il0 oreo ke
kondA?
m4lista, m!a eM kond!.
6%1, ine kaooa.
mal1sta,
cSx:i., ine kanena kond&.
COrre1ation-8ubstitution Dr1lls
-------------------------------
Substitute the 1Iords in parentheses !or the underlined 1Iord (or 1Iords)
sentences and change the fonns articles ard. acljectives as necessary to agree with
the noun substituted.
G.D.3. ,
koroa.
(taverna)
!n(e) aristera.
(leofono)
i mikri taverna ine katefeian brosta.
(staems)
in(e) aristera.

:tne

to ksenooox!o !ne kntefe:tan
-------------------
(taverna)
G.D. 3.2
iparx:i. kond8?
(tAverna,
leoforio, taverna)
28
in(e) aristera.
(taverna)
ine brost8.





(prenia)
1parxi k0nd8?
(tavema,
GREEK BASIC COURSE
,
pi k(e)
&oMt1a
:1ne l't1Jl6 to


ora ine?
pU ine to leo!'orio1
ena poli ,!ne
1n(e) e&c) kondi/ !ne p4ra
pol! makr1i/ kond8 8na
kalC> ena,kat.eteian
brost8, a18 ine pira pol! akrivd/ in(e)
prok8en!o.
ke
a18 tla/ exi pira
poli kal8 ae bMyo.
maUata. rt1n6/6x1. !ne pira pol!
akr1w, al& kB pol! !ne
ke !ne f't1n6, a18
para poli !ne ko
8na ke
.usta, a18
!ne a1A !ne
aU ine poli
a18 aia .ey&l1
-in(e) apto
!n(e) arl8ter'
ine
katefe!an bro8U,
ine _kr18 apto
!ne poli .akri8.
a14 ex1 pol! kali tavema/
ex1 ena, _18 ine poli ka1O.
ine ept&/
ine katef'e1an / k(e)
makria apoM.
29
G REEK BASIC COURSE



",,6
",,6 ""0'6:.'
6
""O'6:t


",,6
""O'6:t




",,6
Kaff



",,6




fi1dz4n1


fi1dz4n1

1 zixar1
1em6n1
me
ke
esfs

pfnete
e81s. p6s p!nete to(n)
gart 8&S?
to(m)
sklt08. -1,
xorfs
-y41a
to(m) blno ke
xorfs
30
'breakfast
'
want
you want
(the) cup
(the) tea
(the) corree
Would you l1ke ('do you want')
a cup tea or corree?
(the) sugar
(the) 1ellOn
1'd 11ke tea with a
sugar and [a p1ece or] 1elllOn.
you or p011te s1ng.)
dr1nk
you dr1nk
you? do you
talce ('dr1nk') your corree?
dr1nk
unsweetened, p1a1n
w1thout
(the) m1k
dr1nk w1thout sugar
and w1thout m11k.
G REEK BASIC COURSE 4



kul6r1
ta

vdt1ro
1 marme1'Zla
ndpos t!xete kul11rya,
psond wtiro ke


1
1
to
we have
(the) toast

(the) honey
Do you by any chance have
doughnuts or bread and
butter and [some)


6JC1, a14 but have toasts and
ke _11. etlete% honey. Do you vant %








potIr1
krfos,
ner6
p6so
k4no
k'nun
11m th1rsty
(the) glass
co1d
(tbe) vater
mucb
do
they tbey do



rf, ke B4110 41na
potlr1 lcrJo ner6.
p6so
Yes, and tb1rsty. l
'
d
11ke a glass cold water.
much 1s ('do they
1)1


1 ora.xmi
i
(the)

)'



GREEK BASIC COURSE

eMa
to purbuAr.
(the) tip
drachmas. Ten W1th the
t1p.
arxizi














start, beg1n
he. (she, 1t) starts,
beg1ns
k1nimat6yrafos (the)
aMdzi What t1me does the mov1e
start1
at.
st1s okt6 at eight
krima It's a pityl
oi6t1 because
leave
ya
1 p4tra Patras
stis okt6. kr!ma. e1ght. That's bad,
st1s eptA ya I'm leaving ror Patra8
t1(m) b4tra.
Narrat1ve
1









1 p4tra 8kr1!

t!xun '141&.
karen:!o :!ne
tt1n6.

kat4.
:!n(e) akriv6.
32
Athens'
'tr1p'
'taverns'

Are you th1rsty?'
'he/th1s'
't1cket'
they have

GREEK BASIC COURSE
p:!nete ts4y. 'always'
URl'f 4






Ixovv
.


lva






st1s ept4, me leofor:!o ya
b4tra. 1 :!ne makr1A apt1n
ae:!na. al4 :!ne 0"0. 1
:!ne est1at6r1a,
tanrnes ke
pr6yevma1 ,a katen:!a y4la k8
ts4y. me ts4y .xete kul11rya f ..
me wtiro ke _11,
p:!nete.na pot:!r1 kr:!o ner6. 1
k'na me-y4lo k1n1mat6yrato.
att6s, :!ne akr1y68.
1s1t:!r1o kAni okt6 kyarx:ls1
pMda st1s alA krt_, st1.
okt6 f.vyo ya
leotor:!o?
_kr14, 1 p4tra apt1n
tak.ld1 or401
1
'xun t.a
p6s p:!nete e.l. to(n) gat'?
'xun .ta katen:!a
keun kat'. ts1y
ests ya b4tra?
1 k1n1mat6yrato?
arx:lz1
:!n(e) akr1v6s?
p6S0 k4n1 1s1t:!r1o?
leotor:!o teyY1 .t1. epU.
1 :!ne pol:! 8BkriA apt1n aa:!na.
totalc81d1 po1f -orfo.
1 p4tra katenfa, e.t1at6ria, tayfrne.
ke ksenoooDa.
ta Irat.,. y4la ke ku16rya.
b:!no ke xorfs
lxun.
me purbu4r, k4nun brUJlll&s.
ya t1(lII) b!tra stis tlpt4.
1 p4tra 'na(n) bo1f _y410

arx:!z1 p4nda st1s
m4l1sta, :!ne polf
na 1s1t:!r10 k!n1 okt6




GREEK HASIC COURSE
DIU 1ete

xronya poli

Pleaa8 tell
Greetings.
Many happy returns.
to you.












8a8
ka1D
kal!

...

st1n iy8
&n exete tin ka1Dsinl
IIIU k8net.e x8ri

ep1tixU
..ra1&s
Grammat1cal Notes
Have a n1ce tr1pJ
Good-by8 t1U meet
againo
Congratulat1ons.
Get.
Af'ter 1'0'1.
1'our hea1th.
Would :rou be k1nd
Do a
G1ad1y.
Good 1uck (tor any


Phon010gy: Assim1lation
/p6s plMte to(n) sas'l/ do 1'ou take 1'our cottee?'
'1 take ('drlnk') vithout sugar'.
ya b4tra/ 1eav1ng tor Patras.'
above /n/ plus /k/ rep1aced b1' /ng/ (/tO!! _ /tO!! Iafd/ and
/n/ p1us replaced by /m/ /tO!! and /t1!! 2'tn/).
Voise1ess consonants /k/ /b/, /d/, /g/ vhen preceded by /n/ C10S8
sequence.
The consonant ass1m11at10n the patterns:
/n/+/k/,. /ng/
/n/+/p/= /rrb/
/n/-t/t/= /rd/
as gaf./ 2!: gaf'/
as b:(no/ /to b!no/
(e.g. denek'/ tor
/e'10 tenekl/ '1 a can').
3b
GREEK BASIC COURSE
4
Pronoun: Fersona1 pronouns.


ine 'it JS very expensive'
3e1i 'he wants coffee'
These are examp1es proncuns i t' and he
set persona1 pronouns:

/e8i/ you
/a!t6s/ he
/a!ti/ 8he

/aftrJ/
/em!s/
/es1.s/ you (plural po11te
/aft!/ they
/art's/ they )
/aft4/ th8y (neut.)
S1nce the verb 1nd1cates the person ofthe subject, personal
are RI1chless used Greek than they are When they are used, they are s11ght],y
Attent10n 1s dravn the fact that this part1cular person 1s, or these part1cular
per_on8 are. d01ng
should be noted that the th1rd person forms are al80 equ1valent 'th1s
1
2!:
Ithat"t /aft6s. -6/), and 'these' /aft!, -48, -4/).
Verb Classea
Greek verb8 -are referred (and l1sted d1ctionar1e_) the nrst
persoD s1neular, present tense. Tbus, for the verb 'vant' 1s 11sted as
/eI10/ (11 ".nt'); 11eave' as 1eave
l
), etc.
Beg1nn1ng vith Un1t S &11 verbs occurr1ng as bulld-ups be 11sted that fON,
but the1r Eng11sh equ1va1ents be glven as 1nf1nitives, e.g. /arxizol
start', etc.
Greek verbs faH three classes. a ccord1ng the patt.ern the1r 1nflect10n:
Class - Verbs end1ng unstressed /:0/ the first person s1ngu1ar, present tense.
(a) . i.e. verbs which have tvo sy1lab1es tu tbe t1r8t persOD s1ngular
35
GREEK BASIC COURSE
such atI
have' etc.
/88-10/ "ant' /pi-no/ dr1nlc' fxw
(b) polysyllab1c verbs, 1.e. verb wtdch cons1st more than two syl1able8 in the t1r8t
s:ingular e.g. /ar-od.-zo/ begjn' etc.
ClaS8 and Cla88 verb8 and their subdivis10ns be discussed later un1ts.
Verb: 8m Pertect1ve stems.
Greek verbs ha'Ve two impertect1'Ve and perf'ect1vo.
Verb forms conta1ning 1JIIper!ect1ve indicate act10n (or state) the
verb or st111 cont1nuing a part1cular present or
tuture).
Verb torms containing 8 pertect1ve 1nd1cate that act1an (01' state) denoted by
verb "88 or W'ill be at a part1cular ot t1JDe or future).
The 18 the verb in the present tense, 1.e. the part
verb in the present tense "hich precedes ending, e.g.
Pre8ent tense


arx!so
etc.

8'1-
fx-

The perf'ect1ve the tbe tuture the verb Un1t 6.1).
Pre8ent tense ot Cla88
orM, ke -eyala 6_t1a. ha8 n1ce large
'ta&t.
't6v
9810 t8ay. 8 [cup ot] tea.
pc5s pinete to(n} gste sas1 do you drink your cottee1
vUt1ro? Do )'OU happen to have bread
and butter.,
From these examp1es "e that the verb ot the Greek verba1 sentence a111a18 1ndicate8
by ending vhether the 8ubject 01' actor 18 (88 in /8810/ "ant'), 'you'
(as in /mte/ ')'OU "ant') or 'he, (88 in ha8' or
Btarts'). the verbs belong to the Clas8
other verbal endings the present tense (ClaS8 are:
)6
G REEK BASIC COURSE
(,) a familiar fonn for 'you' /-1s/
(2) the 'we' end1ng
() the 'they' /-un / /-une/
The present tenS8 forms these verbs are, then:

(1) "
C /pfno/


C /p1.n1s/
(he, she, 1t) /pfni/
Plural
-------
(ve) C
(you) /Mlete/ /pfnete/
(they) /p1.nun(e)/

Plural

/arnzUJJl!l/
/arnzete/


/arx1.z1/
/arx1.zun(e)/
aod the personal

Plural

/-0/ /-U8/
/-181

/-ete/
/-11

/-un(e)/
The 'tresent tense descr1bes act10n (or state) vh1ch e1ther 1s go1ng on at
III08nt speech (1'm 80-a0d-80') ortalces place ('1 do
URIT
The verb8 /arx1.so/, etc. therefore, mean both:
dr1nk' anci dr1nk1ng', beg1n' and beg1nn1ng', etc.
S1nce the verbs the present tense descr1be 1ncomplete act10n or state they are
alvays based on the
Verb be' present tense.

'\"6
1 :ine /')1.0.
pl1 :ine leofor:io'l
o'clock.
Where the bus'l
The complete present tense forms th1s verb are:
37
GREEK BASIC COURSE

Plural
-------

/ 2! /fste/
/fne/ /fne/
This verb does not belong to any the verb classes and may be said to be 'irregular'.

G.D.4.2-6
leofor10.
es! leofor!a.

emds trIa
esls
aftl

es! p!nis tsAy me
yAla.
em1s p1D11D3 ner6.
es!s p!nete xorfs zAxa.ri.
aft1 pInur.e me -yila.

ta kal6
!ne xorfs zaxari.
tsAv!ne xorfs
i zaxari !ne pol! akriv1.
i !ne makriA
kulUrya.
yAla !r.e pol!
i k!nun
kafenlo pol!
38
stis apti(m)
es! stis apto
aftl fevyi stis aptin aefna.
em1s stis okt6 apti<m) brezvfa.
es1s stiz apti(n)
stis 610 apto
lm(e) e06.
es1 !s(e)
1ne sti(m) brezvfa.
em1s sti(n) da.rerna.
esls 1ste sto
aftes 1ne sto estiat6rio.
kinimat&rrafos arx1zi stis
ksenooox!o Oomitia.
i J:'Atra 1116 aptin ae!na.
i !ne
proksen!o !n(e) kond4.
es1s
leofor1a kalA.
t.otaks!6i ya ti(m) b4tra !r.(e)
ta isit!ria ya leofor!o 1n(e) ftin!.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Subst1tution-Correlaticn Dr111s
Change the forrn the underlined verb as necessary agree w1th the pronouns
(or nouns) parentheses.
..
aft! 8t1(m) b4tra.
(ey6, a!t's, 8s18, esf, a!t6, emIs)
e.! !se sto ka!enJo.
(ey6, a!tr, em!s, aft6s, aftIs)

(esI, aft68, art6)
enda
ey6 kyes!a, 1 prnvfa,
kyo staem6s, esis)
kafenfo.
(esI, aft6s, emIs, aftf)
,ga!I?
(a!tf, ey6, emIs, aftls, esIs)
y4la.
(ey6, afti, esf, aft6)
ya t1(m) bitra.
aft6s, a!tls, emIa, es!)
E!n2 ka!'.
(emIs, aft!, es!s, a!t6)
tiY71 to leotorio?
!n(e) i "tra aptin aelna?
i p8tra,
18 t.a estiatOria?
39
8U8 8tis
8ti8 8t18 a4Ska.
!ne poU ..Jcr18/ !ne &4Ska ukr18
apt1n ae!na/ &en Ine poli ukr18 apt1n
u(e)
poll Ine
,ke Ine poli ..-y8lo/ _ po]j

ix1 tawrne8/
ix1 p8ra poli k. nw
kaf'e me y.],a ke s8xari, Uun
_ ke {
wtiro ke &4Sn
kalo kafe, a18 pira kalQ t8q.
Nliata hun/ &&0 ta kat.,
ta n4S 8xun kate
ine p&nda kri08.
p!nete tonpfe sas?
exun ta kulU1"ya7
ka!'es ke ta kulUrya7
8xi 1 t.ra tav8rna?
dra ya ti(m)
exi i patra
t{ dr (a) arxizi
!n(e) akr1v6s?

GREEK BASIC COURSE
to(m) b:lno sketo/
zaxari ke yila/ blno kafe, pino tsBy.
8xun kulurya, a1& exun
CI&n exun
ta katen!a 814 8xun ta estiat6r18.
kinun
_l1sta, nda !ne akr1v!/
ex1 e..u pu ine kond4 sto

fevyo st1.s ept8! st18 enea/ st1.(n)
6x:i., ex1/ ala ine
ke akr1
arxlz1 81:.1s enea/ st1z 81:.1s
s1:.18 8ndeka.
Ul1st.a, :lne akr1ws/ :lne
a14 ine poll !ne p4ra
po1l akr1w. k8 p8ra poll or8OS.
Jr8n1 CIraxais/
ilcD81 CIraxaes/
40
G REEK BASIC COURSE
5
tlHlT S
pul6
pul4ne
p'd pu1Ane 1s1tlr1a
parakalM

6
or6v to(n) staGmirxi
or6v to(n) staGqrxi?
sell
tbey sell
Where do they sell t1ckets
p1ease?
to
(the) stat10n-IIBster
(the)
(&8 d1rect
Do you see the stat1on-..ster
(over there]!

ivvoeiorE
6

."
or6v
.. cm

!XEt ." fv-
or6

en06
eno!te
1"'111os

1 p6rta
enofte pd
!ne brosta apt1(m)
b6rta?
ek!
1 G1rIba/G1r!s
m411sta. ek! In(e) 1
Glr!6a pu pul4ne ta
isitir1a.
to
.an
( eq:1oyee
vho.
(the) door
the (vho
front door?
there
(the) t1cket v1ndcw, v1cket
Yes. There '5 a t1cket
where they sell
tickets.

&faL





GREEK BASIC COURSE
-i, first
i Msi(s) (the) seat, c1ass,
pos1ticn
pr6tis the first c1ass
to par!eirc (the) willdow
isit!r10 pr6t1s want a first c1ass ticket
kondi sto next to the wir.dcw.
f\ar40iro.
pyazninos, -i, taken, occupied

to (the) sleeping car
61es 1 Unfortvnate1y a11 the f1rst
t1s c1a5s seats th1s tra1n
saft!(n) t1r. amakso- are Eut there are
st1xIa, !ne <Ithis tra1r. has
I
)
a1! to sleeping- car sEats ln th.1s





Tpfvo















c1stix6s
610s, -i,
61es
i eisis
i amaksost1xfa /
to trlno
saft!(n) tin amakso-
stlxIa
vagon1S.
Be1ete .,
eavm4s1a

1 e140a
st1n
unfortunate1y
a11

(the) seats
(the) tra1r.
in this trairl
tra1r.. Do you want
excel1ent
tc prefe-r
Greece
GREEK BASIC COURSE UNIT S
(
















t






i kaeistlrisi(s)
mnya pu
eavrnasia.
vagonlf, mnya pu
stir: e1ioa,
panda
O!kyo



yrfyora


kaecnu yrJyora.
t6te

i
1

kefxar1st6 ya t1s
p1irofaries ke to
1s1 t:ir1
sto ka1e
sto ka16. k ka1c
taksiCj.
(the) de1ay
since
Exce11ent. prefer the
sleepi r,g car, since the
tra1ns Greece are alvays
1ate ('a1vays have delay').
(the) r1ght, 1av
you're
go
at a11
qu1ckly. promptly, tut
You're rieht, tralD8
here don1t fO fast at a11.
then
vell
(the) 1nformat1on
(the) p1ecEs
yl-ell then. good bye and
thanks for the
and the cket.
[000 bye (siid only tc a
person vho takes leave)
:;000 bye. a njce trip:
pul4ne lslt!ria?
ti isitjrio aftbs eplv4tis?
dles i saft!tn) tin
amaksostix!a pyaznAr.es?
vagonl! aft! 1 amaksost:1x!a?
protiM41
yr:f,ora ta trt!na stln
e1Joa?
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Re sr'onse Drill


stl(n) kond! stl(m) pu
!nte) 8ta9m4rxls.
lslt!rl0 pr6tls konda
sto
o18tlx6s, dles :1 t:1s
kond4 _to jne
Nl1sta, t!xi st!sls vagonl!.
vaf.on1!, ta
p4nda
kae61u
arlend



ikos:1bio

lk081trfa tventy three

:1kos:1t4!sera

lkoslpfnde

1kosi'ks1


lkos1ept4/1k081ett4

lkoslokt6/1k081oxt6 t.vent)' e:1gbt

n1ne

trlMda t.hirt.y

th1rt)'
sarinda tort)'

..
tort.y
t1ft)'

G REEK BASIC COURSE
,
Narrat1ve


p1yAn1 sto
ka!en!o.
'peop1e, vor1d'
aft1 pu1ADe

1 !ne

aftlls to 1eotor:fo.
t !ne

t aft! !ne poU

t !ne kond4 st1(a)
b6rt.a.
Ana

'1ts" 'h1s'
prefers'
'porter'
'su1tcase'

'each. ever.r'


----------


t

-4. -6
kafen!o.

1s1t!r10.
1& t1(_) Wtra.
--- -
!)11!!!!:! !n(e)
7a t1n
-'. -6
'passenger'
'toda.;y'
'da7'

'vho. one'
staomtrx1s. 61es 1 t1s
pr6t1s kond! sto par431ro !ne
p4nda kond4 sto leotor1o
al4 k6zmos prot1m41 to pu
se nda 6ra. t.v;y1 apto(n) 'na
ke st1 b'tra. !ne
sto 1p4rxi ep!s1s
yr!yora, leotorl0
1eotor:fo. pu 1 tu !ne

6
t o&up C
pu 1 1p1.l1l1 t.a
6 1s1t!r1a, kondi st1(m) b6rt.a pu !ne



ol
6



C
GREEK BASIC COURSE





me tis va1itses ke
tis sto kafenlo pu lne
sto(n) staem6, kaee epivAtis to(n)
tu, kfstera sti tu sto
slmera i
taks:lo1.
Ana apto(n)
art.b
ID(8)
!n(e) sta9mArxis7
61e8 i kondA par!eiro

410 ip4rx1 sto(n)
se 6ra.
piyAn1 sti(m) b!tra.
brost! sti(n) pu
i 1pili1i pulAne isitfr1a.
lne kondA sti(m) b6rta, ekl pu !n(e) 610S
k6zmos.
1 tis kondl sto parleiro
pyaa_nes.
t!na leo!orfo.
i 1eoforlo

protimAi
1eo!orlo
v14pete kond4 1eo!orl07

k!n1 k!Be epivitis sto kafenlo pu
sto(n)
k!ni lstera?
slmera?
slmera7

6xi, i sattb !ne

protim4i trino, pu piyt!n1 pol{ "fT!yora.
p4nda
v1Apete t!nan
'xi vaHtses ke 4les
to(n) tu.
sti(n) tu sto
slmera.
taksfoi.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Grammatical Notes
_5.:1... Phono10gy: Vowel assind1at10n and 10ss.
5
apoM.
trost4 apti (m) b6rta.
k0nd4 sto par4eiro.
1eotorio.
Far f'rom here.
tront the door.
Near ('to') the v1ndow'
In that bus.
The V'owe1 vords ending a V'ove1 and by a vord
v1tb the .... V'owel d1scussed Note 1.5.
The ex.amples 111ustrate the assim1lat10n V'owels the prepos1t1ons /S8/
and /ap6/ than' betore vh1ch are the (/apo/+le?J6/_
and and 10ss V'owe1s prepos1tons betore consonants (/se/ +
/tol-/stO/ and
Note 5.1.1 Ass1ndlat10n /s/ betore vo1ced consonants.
k6zmos everybody
stiz at ten 0'c1ock
i prezvia the
The 80und ex.amp1es 1s represented Greek spelling by 18tt8r
/s/. The v1th a V'01ced consonant 18 /ZJt. V'oiced consonant. Thus
crrtt; /st1! but CM'tt;
Iote 5.2. Cases
Cons1der the tollow1ng Engl18h sentences:
The b1t dog. !!! b1t dcg.
dog b1t tbe The dog b1t
Not1ce that the pronoun has one shape when 1t's the subject a and
a d1rterent shape vhen 1t's the object a sentence; but nouns
only one matter vhat the1r tunct1on.
Greek the as vell a8 the pronouns change the1r shapes. The difterent shapes
are called 'cas8S': the subject-shape a or pronoun is ca11ed the 'nondnat1ve case'
and the object-shape 1s ca11ed the 'accusative case'.
(There used be a 'case'-system English a thousand years ago, but it's practically
47
G REEK BASIC COURSE
The singular 1. al50 'name !orm', 1s, the one used when the noun
1s c1ted, as in a dictionar-.f or when talk:i.ng about
The accusative (objective) case 1s the used when a or pronoun 1s the object
a verb (as /vlepete to(n)
ta 1sitir1a/, etc. or a prepos1t1on as
/apt1(m) C1't6 /kondA paraG1ro/, et.c.).
The gen1 ve (possess1 case 1s generally equ1valent to Engl1sh possess1 !orms
l1ke or or to phrases 1nvolv1ng
Noun: Art1cles: Accusative.
vlepote to(n)


C1't6



i pu
pul8ne 1s1tir1a.
k0nd8

18 t1s
pUrotor!es.
you the stat1on-
master?
There a ('the
where they sell the tickets.
want a seat next to the

Thanks !or 1n!ormation(s ).
The above example. illustrate det1n1te and 1nde!1n1te art1clp.s uaed the accusat1ve
case. set those !orms is:
48
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Indefinite article
------------------
m. f.
I!nas rrJ4
u
I!na or
I!na(n) 1(n)
u
Acc.
Defin1te artic1e
----------------
5g.
t. t.

i 'f6 i

i 'f& ta
Acc. 'f6v to(o)
ti(n) 'f6 tus 'ftc; tis 'f& ta
5
8hould be noted that betore consonaats detinite and indetinite .. and
detiaite artic:les may a1teraate tOI'Jll8 the accusative singular (1D
. ..., ton, tin .., to, t1.

apti b6rta 2!:
apti b6rta
2!:
y]Jpo
tr08l door
... a
11n the vorld t
stoa 2!:
ato
Betore the det1rIite and article and the d8t1a1te
art.1cl8 are 'f6v /ton/, /4naa/ and



11)41110
vll!po
st10

... a stat10n-..ter.
110 Greece
I
The 1ndetiaite art1cle uaua11.y has oaly oae tOnD;

8.10 el!si.
nda 411 prezv:!a.
but / presdal '887 be al80 heard.
a seat.
another
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Note 5.4 Phonology: Stress
-----
Greek nouns can be stressed either the Iast syIIabIe (e.g. Ifititisl 'student').
the second syIIabIe from the end (e.g. Inaftis/'saiIor'). or the third syIIabIe the
end (e.g. laneropos/'man'). Notms stressed the Iast syI1abIe wiII be referred to as
'nouns; those stressed the second syIIabIe froro the end ncuns,
and those stressed the third syI1able froro the end nouns.
Declension




eno!te ipali10 pu
brosti apti(m)
Do you see a porter1
You mean the empIoyee in front
the door?
b6rta?
m:fa kondi sto 'd like a seat nar the
paraOiro.
YLa efxarist6 ya tis pliro- 'Thanks for the infcrmation(s).
for!es.
prefer the slfe;Jing car.
i ipnili pu pulane ta The empIoyees who sell tickets.

'The above sentences 11lustrate accusative singular (
/ton ipalilo/,
and pIural

eesil
Itis pIiroforiesl
Ita
Greek nouns are tradltiona.lly grouped three decIensions:
lnclud.es mascullne oxytone or paroxytone nouns ending 1-181
e.g. '8tudent' and l-a81
'seargent'; femin1ne oxytone or parcxytone nouns ending 1-11 E.g.
Ik6rl1 'daughter' and a11 nouns - I-a/, e.g.
'heart', IUfJ.lasa/ 'sea'.
5econd DecIenslon: mascuIine and ferninine nouns ending I-os/. e.g.
-----------------
10 aoelf6s1 'brother', /0 'medic'.
10 'man, li o66sl 'street'. 11 pfJ.rosl 'Paros'.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
UJm' S
/i 'out1et' and a11 neuter nouns ending in /-0/, e.g. -r6 8vy6/
'egg', -r6 /t,o 'sh1p', 'ear'.
compr1ses (mascu1ine, and that have var10us
er.diIIfS. Th1s c1ass nouns ....111 be discussed in 1ater un1ts.

F1rst
ueclenaioa
Second
Declens10n
Third
Dec1ens10n
--08
(1ater)
Note 5.6. Noun: PlUral forms.
---------

/-es/ the plural, e.l.


/nAftes/ 'saHors', /lox!.es/ 'sergeant8' /k1rfes/
'1ad1es',

,
/k6res/ 'daughters'.
'stat10ns',
/1/, e.g.

'streets' ,
and neuter noun. of thi8 declen.10n end / e
. ,

'cars
1

/a"..,4/ 'eggs', /pl1.a/ 'sh1ps, / aftokfn1ta/


Noun: case.
to1lcN8a
Katharevusa th1s endinr /e/. Some masculine nouns usua11y denotinr sch01ar1v
have mainta1ned this plura1 ending, e.g. /1 'students
1
C 11 kae1yiW/ 'professors' C /1 'puplls', etc.
51

GREEK BASIC COURSE



1
01.
t i k1nimat6yraf1
ton tus ao_elNs
tus
(v)
Fem1n1ne
--------
(same as mascu11ne)
Neuter



Plural
,
to tr4no
,
ta
to
,
ta

to trlno TcX ta tntna
to
,
ta kseno<:oxfa
G REEK BASIC COURSE
5
It should be noted that 3eccr.d Deoler.s:ion and femin:ine
stressed the th1rd syllable from the have their stress to the second
syllable from the the aoousative rlural, e.g.
t!om.
?l.
d

k1nimat6-,rafos
'l'he sh1ft in declensions is d:iscusscd detail 7.2.
Adject1ve:
Note ).1 was stated that Greek adjectives agree with nouns wh:ich they mod1fy
(e.g. IkaH and with those which they refer to (e.g.
ElvaL 11 ip41lli !ne kaB/) gender, and oa5E.
The commonest type adject1ve 1s the wh1ch has the ending /-osl for the
nascu11ne, 1-11 for the fenin1ne and for the neuter (with ccnsonant stems),
or the wh1ch ends I-os/, I-a/, (w1th vowel stems), e.g.
Ika16s/, Ika.H/, Ika161 or

'rhe m&scu11ne arn neuter torms th1s type are decllned 11ke secor.d
declens10n nouns -osl and secol".d declens10r. neuter nouns 1-01.
The the same case endings as f1rst declens10n felllfn1ne nouns
1-11 or loofl/.
tus kalds n4ftes
1 kal! n4rtes
to(n) ga16 n4ft1
ti (n) ke o%'1!a
ka168 n'tt1s
kal! ke

i



Plural

,





,

,

,




'.co.
53
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Plural
Nom.
. -
i ke
Acc. tis kall!s ke ordes

Nom.
ksenoooxIo
Acc.
to ksenoooxIo
Plural
Nom. ta akriv!
Acc. ta akriv! ksenoooxIa
Class 11 verbs.
me Excuse me.
parakal6 Please beg [you]')
pul!ne isit:tria7 \'here do they sell tickets'l
noG enolte ipililo. pu . 'Y'ou mean the employee who's in
t d:n' :lne brostA apti( m) b6rta'l front the door7
protimAi to He prefers the train.
sas efxarist6 thank you.
These are the examples the Class 11 verbs.
These verbs will be discussed detail later units. At this point student
should only that these verbs (1.e. the first person singular) end a stressed
/-6/ and that their third person s1ngular and second person plural are as
-
__
s1nxor6 excuse' s1nxon
paraka16 beg' parakal!te/parakal'te
efxarist6 'to thank' efxaristf efxaristfte/efxar1st4te
protim6 'to prefer' protim4i prot1m4te -
".
pul6 seU' pu141 pu14te
eno6 'to mean' enoi enofte
G.D.S.S-7

1nec6.,

1
i amaksost1x!a 1nek!.
! oeksi4.
i ln(e)
aCtl 1 tavlrna, ka1!.
p1ydnume stl(
tin
vllpume b6rta.
'lllpume 6ra.
1nek!.
!ne ka16&.
lpA1i10s &ek&ii.
k1n1mat6yrato& arxJz1 &t1z
!ne kond4 &ti(m) b6rta.
.,1lIo to(n)
to(n)
vllpume 1p411l0.
!ne &to( ginj 1I'.at.6)'rafo.
ton ax90r6ro.
ksenoOoxl0
leofor!o makri!.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Grammatical Drills
i ep1vAtes ine06.
i
vllpo
tus sta)marxes.
1 amak&ostixje& fne sto(n)
i
i p1iroCorfe&4
aftls i tavlrnes, ln(e) akr1ns.
i ln(e) orees.
aft! stis prezvfE&.
010 ae 010 6res.

piylnun st1s
1 staem! !ne mikr!.
att! 1 51n ka11.
i arx!zun &t1s okt6.
1 sto(n) &taem6.
i staGnd :ney4li
vllpume tus staeNds.
I!XUI!II! 510 1raH1us.
aft! tus axBof6rus.
&tus k1n1:natO)T4tus.
ta ksenc1ioxJa !n(e) akr1v'.
leoforla ka1A.
5'5
s
proksen!o
to estiatorio !n(e) akriv6.
kafenlo ine ftin6.
ksenoooxfo.
sto leoforio.
to

sto ftin6 kafenlo.
epiv4tis, ineo6.
ipililos, lne sti(m) b6rta.
axeof6ros, lne sto(n) staem6.
.. tav4rna, lne Mey41i.
mla prezvta, lne pol! makri4.
nda p6rta, lne mikrt.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
.. proksenla makrJa.
ta estiatoria
.. bomAtJa
..
sta
leoforia.
.. isit1ria.
..

ga16 ip!lilo.
ston axeof6ro.
se mia fticl
mla pliroforla.
se mJa
estiat6rio, poli akrivo.
ksenoooxfo, !ne kondi sto(n) staOm6.
leofor!o, stin ae!na.
meyAlo estiat6rio.
ksen(){;oxio.
lxun leoforio.
Substitution Drills
-------------------
Substitute the words listed the right each for the underlined word
the sentences using the aprroprJate definite article.
Jneld.
ineo6.
prezvia, oom4tio, staem6s, kafenio, par4airo.
leofor!o, tavlrna.
tne katefelan brost4. Estiat6rio, p6rta, epi-r.ftis, kinimat6yrafos
G.D.3.'
Substitute the nouns listed the ri[ht each sentence for t he underlined word
the following sentences and chanr,e the the adjectives as necessary agree with
the nouns.
1 nliroforla kalf. __ _
!n(e)
1 fne
-------
m1kr6s.
fne _"'11.
In(e) akri-n.
!n(e)
O.D
G REEK BASIC COURSE
staem6s, i tavirna, estiat6rl0,
1 staem6s, 1
staem6s, 6omftl0.
1 prezvfa, leoforfo, i tavlrna.
katenfo, estlat6rio, klnlmat6yrafos.
ka!enIo,
1 estiat6rl0,
5
Substltute the plural fonns the nouns l1sted the rlght each aentence wlth
the appropriate deflnlte artlcles for the underllned words the sentences.
fne katefefan brost4. prezvfa, 1pll11os, ka!enfo.
1nekf. tavt!rna.
fne prezvIa,
IV 0.D.5.8
Do the same substitutlon and change the torms or adjectives to agree wlth the nouna

!ne m1krls.
!_!!!!!! !ne orles.
!n(e) akr1v'.
!ne ka1f.
!ne m1

leo!orfo, Oom4tl0.
estlat6rio.
prezv'a, sta6A6s.
p6rta,
pl,.nete p4nda sto(n)
!ne akrlv4 ta lsitlrla sto(n) glnll118t6yrafo'l
p6te sto(n) glnimat6yra!o'l
pd pul!ne 1s1t!ria ya to(n)
t! p:fnete yapr&;eVJlla, kafA ts4y'l
pfnete ts4i sas'l
sto ya to(n) sas?
protlmAte sto
pul!ne isitlria ya to
57
eIlete pot!rl kr:fo ner6'l
100 estlat6rio ya
p'd aft! ta tr.!na'l p6s pi)'t1nun'l
makrl! !n(e) 1 aB!na aptl(m) b4tra'l
In(e) 1 p4tra?
k4ae sto
Ine ka16 tc
ksenooox!o sas'l
me tis valftses sas'l
GREEK BASIC COURSE
RIVIEW
------
(tm1ts 1 - s)


Sounds
-------
/a/
/8/
/8/
/1/
/1/
/1/
/1/
/1/
/1/
/1/
., /1/
arter 8Dd
stressed
or al80
betore unstressed
/0/
/0/
/u/






















. -


58


'...11'
/eartV ' 'hol1day'
/k4/ 'and'
'ch1ld '
/1rlni/ 'peace'

/k6r1/ 'daughter'
'sleep'
'8leeple88,
/168/ 'son'
/proiI
'beart '
'vork'
/W68/ 'vh0
1
P11S-/ 'let 's dr1nk
/toly8J 'nelrt.'
'truth'
'he drank

/6pro/ (n)
/6pr1/ 'thoee'
/ner6/

/uranIa/
GREEK BASIC COURSE Rev1ev , - 5

LetteZ'8

------





'bed'
(betON I.,O,u/

I-r:.ta/ 'cat'

)

'C1pNtte
butt.'
...




ImCIII'
(betore
I'T1n&b./ 'VCIII8D '
/'I4rf:AI 'ald'
'd.1tt'
--v--
Iaq1za!
'8DCbor'

'anpl'



'
6

11.,...
'Ut.'
&


/kI

/Dl.,
' ....
'Nd'
+"
!!:
K(iPLO
rJ.no/ or 'tb8


(ace. )


I81tAra/


,

/bI

/bira/ 'beer'
/bI

or
'

I..Wl1/

'
IeniaI
59
GREEK BASIC COURSE

Cl!.'!!!

/d/
/nd/


/ks/
'stranger'
2!:

gzero/ 2!: h1Jn'
/ngz/

/patIJru/ 'tather'
/papas/ 'priest'
t
/b/
betro/ 2!: 'Feter' (acc. J

/r/
/rUtu/ 'tailor'


'

/8/
./s1r'/



'a8a'
/./ (betore vo1ced CO!l8.)
'yorld'

/na
'111 order see
'
/8/
',..ather'


/tJ..ioa/
/at1Jd/
/d/

/ at.1 2!: -nIt'
/nd/
/ts/

Its1""ro/ ' te '
+
/dz/ 2!:
/sti dzep1! 2r '111 the pocket.'
/ndz/ /st111dzep1/
/dZ/
/dziezikas/
'c1cada '
(arter
betore
vo1celess cons.) /att6s/


'bappy'
60
G REEK BASIC COURSE Rev1ev , - 5

Let.tel'8
!!s!!!!!
-------
v (atte1' laYY6/

betore ' .. '
01' COII8.)



IrUoal
'tr1eDd'



')'8&1'1

lzi.ahal
Ir-I '8aul'
(-\1)+ /bs/fl! -r6\1 bs4tt1/
1tb8 1181"
(acc. )
1..1
6,
G REEK COURSE
Review Drills
Fi11 in each blank with the proper form the word given the right. it is a
use the appropriate form the artic1e (wbere necessary).

- ---------- ine katefeian brosta. prezvia
eXUJ1le
?
stin e103oa.
staem6s
proksenio
i patra makria apoOO.
afto to ksenoooxio exi triandaoio
simera ine orea ---------.
ee1une ena ka16

oomat.io
. ,
lJIIera
estiat6rio
to treno ka1es
1eoforio fevyi
ka103
.
---------
stin e180a.


1eo!orio
oen ine kalos simera. ka.fes
emis pinume ton gafe

exo _________e
kulUri

___________ sti(lII) b8tra, ine
i ipalil1 pu18ne
sto ksenoOono tu oeka
lne
stis arxizi

- ---------


taksioi
isitirio
ipililos

to tu
i e180a ka1a
ee1ete
atto lne po1:l krio.

vUt.iro

ner6
.
----------
8tO lne
vlepete 7
aftos axeo!oros exi ept8
artQ to 1eoforio Mka
tu.

62
aposken
staemarxis

epivatis
GREEK BASIC COURSE Rev1ev , - 5
a!t8 _ _ !ne pol!
paraBiro
att! protisAi
st1(m)

treno
amaksost1na
ine pol! makru
- ------
exete &io

to to kr88! :lne
to 1s1t.ir1o !ne


tavernes 1neJd.

att! 1 prezvla !ne pol!

vlipi to leotorio.
________ 1 pya-'nes.
_________ 11p8llu !ne


---
888 pol!.
_& &8 &iqo.
8&1& 1..1111.
atte8 88 y8la.
88i& t! t
-----
. stiz
t.a ;ya t1n ae!na.
ta

ef'xar1&t6
te'9'yO
vl&po
arx!zo

"'la,ke kuldrya.


----------

8S:1& t! 7 eno6
i 1sitiria.
ta trena st1n eu&a pol! yri"(Wa.

piyeno
6)
G REEK BASIC COURSE




















t! kanete2
1


si kirie.
1ca18 xr1stuyena.
ett1x1zmeDOs,-i,-o
, -a,-o

kenkyos

xrcnos.
na sas
1

DIU
na s1st!so t1n
mu, ke ton
mu.
ep1tr&pste mu
epi na atto-

are you?
(the) pardon, apology
(the) gentleman
sirJ (voc.)
acuse me, sir.
l';erry Chris
hapPy
new
(the) year
Happy New Year.
may 1ntrcduce you./I 'd
like you to IIIeet
(the) si8ter
('the) brother
I'd l1ke you meet s1ster
and brother.
me
_ 1ntroduce
1
xero poll,
mu.
i t1Jn:!
meyal1mu1 timi.
1 oesp1IUs
xar1ka poli,
64
(the) lady
1m very glad to meet you,
madam.
(the) honor, pr1ce
The honor 1s m1ne.
(the) young lady
Very rlad to have Dlet you,
G REEK BASIC COURSE
mu.
(my) }/I.1ssJ

katayoyteVlllenOS,
-i,
It's been ay pleasure.
del1ghted



i
katayoyt.eMnos apt1n

(the) aequa1ntance
del1ghted to have
your aeqa1ntance.
yL


u Eva




lxouv




xat
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Un1t 6
p1n6 be hungry
bor6
be able
na i40 eat

t:in6. pd na i40? hungry. Where can eat?
1 kuzfna (the) cu1s1ne, k1tchen

let's go
aft! i This tavern has a very good
kal1 kuz!na.
cu1s1ne. Let' s go there.
e1d.
",,6
",,6
",,6




't'6
't'6

't'6


gars6n

g&rs6n. para-

k84!ro
6t1/p6s
f"skos, irfsk;ya,
frfsko
psu1
kot6pulo
n6st111108, -1,
kreas

na
(the) va1ter
(the)
Wa1ter! pleasel

(conj.)
fresh
(the) fish
( ch1cken
tasty, pretty
(the)
ve can
that dr1nk
0""1. that they have iresh i1sh,
66



GREEK BASIC COURSE
ka1a kot6pu1a,
ke kreas.
a1A t! na

good and tasty
here. But what sha11
('can') we drink?






"



-6









cpcxt;





to
i b!ra
i retsfna
stin e1Aoa 610s
pjni a1a em1s
borUme na pydme bira,
j

na
pite
eanik6s, -6
tc pot6
to k6 tus
p!te.
to jne to
tus pot6?
to arMki
to fa!/fayit6
ta favVfayi
ke mjpos !ne to anW:k1,
to eanik6 tus fa1?

to suv1'ki
ta

6)'1oS
67
a Greek a1coh01ic
(the) beer
a kind resinated wine
drinks 'uzo' in Greece,
but we can drink beer or

ttIat is to say
that say
that you say
nationa1
(the) beverare, dr1nk
the1r nationa1 dr1nk
words ycu're trying to
sav that 'U1.0' is their
nationa1 drink?
(the) 1amb
(the) food

And isn't the their
national food?
course
shishkebab

(thE) lT!usaka
as
epJsis ta course, as well as shjshkebab,
_&06 v;ell then we '11 taste tbe1r














GREEK BASIC COURSE
ep:isis
ke ta lir<1.
suvlakya, musakas,
ke ta lira.

ea

perffjmos, -i,
i 6reksi(s)
ta per!fima fayit!
tus. kal! 6reksi.
loyaryazm6s
as well as
etc.
musaka, etc.
to taste
'U try, 'u t.ute
right avq
famous
(the) appeti te
tood r1ght !Dj07';Y0U1'
meal (Igood appetlte')l
(the) check, bill















to(n) para-


Useful words
to py4to

to kutali
to
ala.ti

i petsta
ylik6
to payot6
i p.4sta
payos
to krasf
68
Check, please.
lti ght away!
(the) plate
(the ) knife
(the) spoon
(the) fork
(the) salt
(the) pepper
(the) napk1n
(the)
(the) ice
(the) pastry
(the) ice
(the) wine
G REEK BASIC COURSE
i brjz61a (the) steak
i naMtes (the ) pot.atoes
..
ta 1axanik! (the) veretab1es
aOUna i sdpa (the) soup
i saMta (the) salad

to an.o1dn1to (the) car


6
fx1 att! i
na pAte ek1?

fxun satt1 ti(n) davlrna?
bon1me na
m!pos uzo !ne eenik6 tus
ke ksirete, :lne tus ta:l?
na art.A ta rayit4'l

att! i t. avfrna kal! kuzJna.
vevdos.
tr'ska psirya, kaU kot6pula, ke

na pydme dzo, p!ni 610s
stin e145a, bfra, ! rets!na.
fne.
arn4ki.l ta suv14kva, ta musak4s,
ke 1ip4.

E1VaL arn4ki !ne n6stimo.
-6 psit6s, -1, 6
roasted,




stin ipuxun
ksenoc)ox!a.
6fn ixo kae61u lertA.
na fao
money
IT.ust, have to
.vou can drink


!2
pime sti daverna,
50kimasume ta suvl!kya.
bor1te na W te
69
when
it (as an obj.)
o,n/o





G REEK BASIC COURSE
ITI to treno.
na fate
exi oeka
-------
to
whatever
that you
that vou eat
dcl1ar
aftQ to i'ai 010 ccsts
oolaria.










i stln e146a?
1
akrlv6 krasl i
py6s protim41 tl(n)
na pylte uzo?
t:! preri na k4nete otan jste stin
?6s lne fa1
70
ixun 6ti friska ps4rya, arnaki
briz61es, kot6pula, sa14ta, friska
laxan1k4, ke 111'4.
m41ista, pol:f kalQ ke pol:f kal!
rets!na.
6xi, lne pol:f
art! pu iX\ln po14 leftd.
soles tis ke estlat6ria st1n
elAca.
na pAte na fate sti(n) davirna. ru
konda sti(m)
pol:f ke nOstimo.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
UHIT 6
p6so 4xi musakAs ekl?
na ta
ke ft,in4 fay1t4 ke krasyA sa.rtl
t1(n}

ea na p1y.nete ekf, 611
Grammat1ca1 Notes
Hote 6.1 Verb: ruture Class verbs.

ta We'l1 taste the1r
fay1t' tua. food.
nfJyatve-re ea e.1ete na you be v1sh1ng go
c1'
sa.rt:r t1( dawrna, tavern al1 the
611
The aboYe sentences 111ustrate the use the future tense. L1ke a11 Greek tenses
(v1th except10n t,he present vh1ch 1s alvays the future can be
e1tber or pertect1ve.
The tuture be referred th1s t:ourse a8 'Future Cont1nuoU8'
tbe pertectlve u Future
Note 6.1.1 Future Cont,1nuoua
.
na ek!, you'll be go there

al1
Th1s tense a ccmt1nuous act10n the future ('1'11 be d01ng 8o-and-80) and
1s a tbe vord /ea/ ( 0&' before /a-/) v1th the verb the
pre88Dt tense, 8.g.
8ct t
84
kras!
sas v1.po
1'11 be dr1nk1ng v1ne every
day.
1'11 be see1ng you every day.
smal1 nwnber verbs vh1ch do not have a perfective stem, have on1y one future tense,
e.g. /ea /ea
Future


ea ta .....e '11 taste the1r famous foOO.
tus.
71
G REEK BASIC COURSE
This tense refers a sing1e action in the future (11'11 do so-and-so
l
'11m going
do so-and-so'), and is formed in the same way as the future continuous, but the verb form
following the word is based the perfective stem. Thus in &6
lea the perfective stem is in &6 arxfsol
the perfective stem i8 d:px
Forms such as
larx1.s-l, etc.
160kim4so1 or are used by
but only in combination with lna/ (Note 6.3), liv IUJ/ or
lif', 16tan/ 'when', /pr1:nj lbefore
l
etc. later un1ts).
These forms wi11 be referred in this Course as

Personal endings of the Simple Future of this Verb cla8s are same as those of the
rresent tense with only a slight difference in the spel11ng.
Present Tense
&6
&6
&6
-&&
ookimazete ea
-&& ea ook1_sun{e)
Note 6.2 Class Verbs: Perfective Stem Forms.
The perfective stem i8 formed from the iv.perfective stelll with varioU8 degrees
pJ"8dictability.
The most predictable verbs this class are those the stem wh1ch ends
in With a very tew exceptions the of is changed
/s/ in the pertective, e.g.
Pertect1ve Stelll
---------------



arnz-

d:pxta-
ooki_s-

Other predictable perfective stems w111 be discussed in later units.
Class Verbs: Per80na1 of verbs wi th stems in a/, -0- / 0/, el.
Persona1 endings of verbs wi th the which end in / a/,
GREEK BASIC COURSE
are follows:

P1ura1
1-01

1--1
-'tE
I-tel

1-11 l-n(e)1


tr60

tr6te
tr61

Claa. Verb8: Irreplar Perf8ctlve Ste.
6
verb. have 'irreplar' perfectl'" The
Y8rb8 ban 80 tar tb18 cour..


tr60 '_t'
tro-
,,-
t_-

1'0 '8Q' le- ,,-

t'YVf) 'lea".' tny-


pSno 'drlnk' "tv-

"1.-

'10'

plyen-
"'-
pa-
ti
..

,,1Jpo
'808' vlep-
6-
present tense and pertectl" fo....

Pre88n\
-------
tr60
tr6. tr6te
tr61 t.r6r.(
1'0 1'.
1'.

1'1
l'n(e)
Perlect Ste.
-----------------

f40
r4s r4te
r4n(e)

pfs
pdn(e)
13
Present
GREEK BASIC COURSE
?erfect Stem Form
piyE!nume


p4te
p4s
pin(e) 1"41
06

vHpun(e)



fE!vyi
p!no
?!n1s










Note 6.5 Notat1on.
Plural


)
pSnume
p!nete
pfnun(e)

f1yis


py:{s

Plural

fi'.vete
f:lyun(e)

py:{te
py..m(e)
pite
p4n(e)



Beginning wit.h 7 basic forms (1.e. first person s1ngll1ar the
present tense and that the perfect1ve stem al1 Class occur1ng for
first t1me the F'3s1c Jialogues or the Narrat1ves be giveo 10 the build-ups as
fo11ows:



arx!zo (arx!so)

vl!!po (06)
etc.
to begin
go

(The basic forms Class 11 and Class verbs be d1scussed later un1ts).
Note 6.6. Verbs: Subjunct1ve the Class verbs.
eelete na p!te... other you are try1ng
to say

na can eat1
.C na and what can dr1nk1
74
GREEK BASIC COURSE
6
The verb forms /na pfte/ /na. f40/,
pydme/ are subjunct1ve.
Subjunct1ve 1s most used refer t1me after that the preced1ng verb (
na. 'you want say [future w1th respect the
vh1ch 1s present]'). Subjunct1ve 1s used when the act10n is des1red, poss1ble, mandatory,
doubttul, etc., after verbs such as 'vant', 'l1ke
l
, 'tell' and words l1ke 'can
l
,
'8U8t', 'shou1d" 'poss1ble" '1mposs1b1e', etc. Used after another verb th1s 18 80st
trequently equ1va1ent an Eng11sh verb phrase w1th a8 'he vants 11ke
etc. But the subjunct1ve has end1ne which 1nd1cates the actor. The l1tera1
trans1at10n subjunct1ve clause, therefore, be more accurately: eat 'that
dr1nk', you _ay', taste', etc.
The 8UDjunct1ve 10 Greek 18 exact1y l1ke tuture (Note 6.1.1) but
p1'8ced1ng the verb 18 ( /n-/ before /a-/). verb 8ubjunct1ve
can, cour8e, be e1ther or'cont1nuoU8'.
Tbe cont1nu0U8 1s p1us pre_ent tense,
/8'10 na 611 tJra/ want a11 the ,
and t.he 8ubjunct1ve 18 /na/ p1us ste.. t01"lll;
/"10 aa t40/ eat.'.
Not.e 6.7 Verb: Verb necesllary', 'should',
----- ----
EtcnE .. tJtan 8t.1n When you At.hens
cpiorE na pite na ('goand') eat. a tavem'.
at se tay,frna.
The verb torIII 111 111nce 1t can be t.he
person only. The verb that. /pr4.p1 / 18 alwayw 1n t.he
Other w111 be d1scussed later
Cla8S Ve1"b /bor6/ be able'.
ktJzmos bor! p1y'n1 People can go there day.
ekf, k4e. _ra.
The th1rd person s1ngular form /bor6/ 1s /borr/ (she,1t.)
can, 1s able', 11ke /enor/ /efxa:,istr/ etc. (see 5.9).
75
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Note 6.'3.' Impersona1 use the vcrb form
can, may, might'.
The third person singu1ar form the verb
/borf/ 'it's perhaps',
/bor6/ can be used impersonally,
e.g.


bori na stin a9tna.
bor! na arniki.
Perhaps 1'11 go to Athens.
1t's possib1e that 1'11 eat
1amb.
Noun: The use the word 'peop1e', 'wor1d'.
bori na Peop1e can go

1t should be noted that the /k6zmos/ a1vays used co11ect1ve1yj
the verb it
The express10ns means 'everybody'.
Expressions T1me
1. ; p6te to wben does the train 1eave?
uOTav Jste stin ae1na, When you are Athens, you
1. prl!pi na p4te na f4te go and') eat a
tavern.
/p6te/ 'vhen' is used in questions as ..
/p6te arxJz1 'wben does the start?' and 1nd1rect questions:
1. arxl2ii don' t vhen the
st.art..
uOTav /6tan/ is used to indicate a concurrent 'vhen', as
uOTav -&a 1efti, \oIben 1('11) 1'11 go
st1n eUoa. to Greece.
Adjective /poHs, -1, -1/ 'numerous', 'rnany','a 10t'.
!ne 18 to(n) pu 1t's !or the peop1e vho don't
.. 1eft!. have a 10t
The adjective /poHs/ 'numerous', 'many', 'a 10t' the !ol1owing
forms:
76
11.
GREEK BASIC COURSE

ut.I1'1' 6

a.
polfs
Plural


n.






t t



k6zllOs
6ra
krasf

poll. presvf8s
poU

people
a 10t, 1;1_
a 10t, ..
88n,1 st.at,1ona
181\1
88n,1 hote1s
prfp1 na kar. "ra.
8S! pl,'p1 na p!n18 yUa
alt6s pl,'p1 na p!D1 t,d1 W8 _ra.
na
na plnete poli
na plnun(8) kaf' ..
8"(6 prfp1 na
8s1 prfp1 na pyfs ..1'6.
na pyf tsi1.
81111s na
na t.e t8i1.
aft! na py11ne
77
na rfvyo P'nda _ t,o t,...no.
e81 na t'Y7!s P'nda _ t,o t"'no.
na r.vy1 P'nda _ trfno.
pl,'p1 na r.V'yU88 pinda _ t,o t,...no.
s na t'vyete p&nda _ t,o
att! prfp1 na rIvyun(e) _ to t,NRO.
na tlyo .80S.
es! na ..80
na tiy1 ..
na .80S.
es!s na tlyete .so
aft! na f!yun{e)
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Ba sti(m) brezvia
es! ea sto proksen!o
aftds ea sto mera.
ea sto kafenio
ea sto proksen!o
aft:! ea sto proksen:!o
Ga simera stin aqfna.
es! ea s!mera sti(m) b4tra.
Ba s!mera sto prosken!o.
em:is ea pime s:!mera stin aIJtna.
ea p4te s!mera sto
aft:! Ga p!n(e) s!mera sto(n) staem6.
Substitution-Corre1ation Dri11s
Change the form the under1ined verb (or verbs) agree with the pronouns 1isted
the right each sentence:
na
na yA1a stiz
na fai.
s!mera ea sti(n)
na stis
Ga ya tin aetna.
na ton aoerf6 sas.
na sas !!!e! tin
na stin aeina?
Ga sas s!mera.
na ps4zwJa k4ee
na p4nda
yala
na krul.
na sas stis
na sas na S,S
s1mera.

ey6, es!s, aft!
esi, aft6s, em:is.
ey6, es!s, aft6s.
aft6s,
ey6, esfs,
emis, aft6s, aft!
em!s, ey6.
aft6s,
aft! em!s, art6s.
aft6s, em!s.
aft6s,
ey6, es1s, aft6s.
aft6s; esfs,
aft6s, em:is, aft! (pl.)
al"t6s, em!s,
Substitute the words the right each sentence for the under1ined words and
change the aspect the verb according1y.
s!mera.
78
G REEK BASIC COURSE
UNIT 6
na sas
pr4!pl na txete leftA.
attis prepl na plnun(e)
pr4!pl na ooklmizl
pr4!pl na lmast(e) eM,
na rt1vyo ya taks!al
pn)pl na p4a.
na
na r!yo '1&
na a6err6 tu
pn1pl na pyite to(n) gar" sas
na ta yl1ki
na !s{e)
tu
9a p_4rya.
poU lett4.
ardsun na
ea na att6(n) 1p41llo,
kj,)e "'ra.
---------
ea p!n... kal"
_1'8.
------.
arus tine
sas .. .
'x1s letu
eard81 na
e4!lls na 518 lp11ilo

1mast(e) s1mera.
79
stis okt6.
sIrnera.
stls okt6.
slmera.
stls okt6.
sfmera.
sfrnera.
611
k4t3e
611
611

ki&e _ra.
st1s okt6.
stlz
_I_ra.
_Imera, st1s epU.

_t1z

slmera.
kiee "'ra.
k4ee
_1'8.

kige
k4ee
k4ge
tr ea k4nete slmera?
GREEK BASIC COURSE
sti(m) b!tra?

tf fayi t! i e061
t! pot41
lne akriv4 ta potl, stis pu tr6te?
p6s lne ta krasy! tis
p4nda sa14ta to fal sas ?
t! ylik4
Ine to tus
na to pot61
na p4te stin aefna1
p6s ln(e) i p4tra?
t! ek11
p6s lne ta stin
!n(e) akriv! ta isitlria ya ti brati
sto treno1
i p4tra kal!
borlte na plte t! Jne1
Usef'ul vords
----------

man
student
natt1s sa1lor
sergeant
aed1c
vordJ reason, lIOt1ve

1 k6ri daugbter

1 ealaaa
8treet.
1 anchor
to egg

to kar'V'i
80
G REEK BASIC COURSE



kt _s ! ma_te ka1i. both t:i ne , but vJt.'.
1 t1s s1clr.
ytnlka8 iiiu, !n(e) aro.t1..





KL OL






600

EtVO:L
6





YLaOfp6c;

KL'auOf6
yiMka

p6s !n(e)
su?
ki cy6 / ke 1
cy6 I18s/ke 1

i
t,1s
II!U
t:is JI11.I
4ro8tos, -1,
yatrl5e
yatr6s U.
so)

abrnatos, -1,
-1,
c t:ls nom!z1 pos
1 karbya tis tne
abinat1, in(e)
e1
(the) vif'e,
how are youi
18 your w1fe7
both ('a11 the two')
U_, our
both U8
{ the) .cther
the V1f.

ay v1tc
s1dc, 111
(tb8)
ber doc:t.OI'
t-h1nk
( the ). heart
.eak, _l1a
dangerous
Her doc:tor th1nks her heart
1s very wcak, and that's
dangerous.
GREEK BASIC CQURSE







vfa.











epikinoino.
xr6nos (the) year
xron6n years
p6so(n)
old 1s she?
rather. qu1te
-a. ycung
yer6s. -1 -6 healthy
tne milon tne She's qu1te she 1s
sarAnda xronm,ke years and she's 1n good health
yert y1Mka. ('very healthy
to (the) hospi tal
na blte sto Tou oughtto take ('go') her
the hosp1tal.
nosokorou the hosp1tal
1 p611s (the) city
t1s p61ecs c1ty
1 yatrl Unfortunately. the doctors 1r:
nosokomdu t1s pole6s our hosp1tal aren't good.
fne kaH.
1 Gesalon1k1 (the) Thesalon1k1
t1s (the) The8salon1k1
-6 kaear6s. -1, 6 clean, pure
t &14 1 yatrt t18 6esa10- But the doctors 1r.
ntk1s tne kaH, are the
ke ta hosp1tals are
kaear4.
m4l1sta as a matter fact. indeed.
certa1nly
fnos, 1 f1li

(the) friend
G REEK BASIC COURSE 1
t1(m) b4tc call h1m')









cS:py&



cS:py&

inas m41ista
fne f110z MU. too(e)
papab6pulo. na


aryi
1 ntxta
to ..a:1
..., ldaaete D8
(11)
nJxta.
a matter fact one
('one doctor') 18 a fr1end
m1 ne 1118 1s (. th.y
should take her to h1l1. He'.
'V8I'J good.
agre.


pl.
late
(t,he)
1\ [8bd) qree J08J
to tab to
lat.e(r) ton1ght,.

'f6 \-0
bocI7
'f6 ta t.u 8_toe pu'U bocI7

xlr1
'f6

11
'f6 he8d

_t1
.,.
'" JoL(;'n)
1 nc88
t.o
artf ear
b6(n)d1
t.ooth
sldn, leather
toe
ta maly4 ha1r
ta

8)
GREEK BASIC COURSE

1 sas1
nomdzi t1s1
fn(e) apt1n garoy4 t1s.
pos aft6 fne
p6so(n) ln(e), 1 t1s1 100 100 saranda ke
yer1.
1ne ka11 i yatrl,tu nosokom!u pole6s sas1 6xi, oist1x6s, lne kal1.
p6s fn(e) i yatrl tis eesalon!kis1
p6s ta nosokomia tis
fne kal1.
pcl! kaear!.
py6s f110s sas1
p6s
ea t1(n) m1 sas
nosokol!l!o'Z
fJloz mu, yatr6s.
ton(e} papao6pulo.
m{lista, fmaste 4timj na ti(m) b4m(e) ekl,
ary4 nlxta.
Narrat1ve
thU8, 80
nowhere, anywhere
nurse
year
area, secticn
-chl1d
!ather
fne pol! meyil1.
orta.
ttyi
4rostos.
ptme st1c
tn(e)
leoforto
ELvaL


ELvaL








EtvaL

lvav ELvaL

GREEK BASIC COURSE
7



---
ln(e)
pd na
1p4rx1 kanlna st1(lI) 888'1
yatrds, 8t1<II) b611 8&&7
pA1,to b'osto St18

S.. ta t18 aeinuf
.ft! talds yatl'l18 ke
8 7
pd Jne aft! ta
t! 9a 'xete 8tHII) b611 sast
to fllu MU.
prc!p1 r.a sto

aU Jne

st1n
patlras tu.
Jne .....,.., ke
_118ta. "xun.
Sne 88 kall per10xl
tu IXW118 atHm) btI11 c!na 88YUo
1'&
Not.e 7.'. The 0tm1t19'8
.-_. - -
p680(n) .





1 t1a MU. 1V v1fe's IIOther
How old 1s she (bf how
year'8).
IrA! sarlnda 5he '& Corty t1ve years old.
1 yatr! tu nosokor.1lu thfO doctors t he hosp1tal
1 yatri t1s eesalcnlk1s the doctOTS Thessalon1k1
The examples 111u&trate the use genitive Case.
Note 5.2 the genit1ve case was described as 'POSsssive' case, i.e. one that
85
G REEK BASIC COURSE
generally correspcnds to 'of' the apcstrophe-plus-s suffix in English.
addition the genitive case may be used in Greek with certain prepositicns (see later
units) as well as in certain expressicns indicating quantity (age, price, measure, etc.)as
by the second and third above.
Other examples:

EtVaL

EtVaL
to tu 1pal!lu
!n(e) arister4.
i kuzJna aft!s tis
!ne
The employee's is
the left.
The food this tavern is
excellent.
kaH.
okt6 eight day trip
Genitive Case - Articles.
The d.efin1te article in the gen1t1ve case 1s:
11.
51ng.

and the 1ndefinite article:
.

tu
ton






tis
ton




tu
ton
en6a
Follow1ng 18 Chart d.efjnite and indefiD1t8 article

G.




..


!:

--




1 to i 1 ta
-rGiv
tu tis tu tcn

to(n) ti (r.) to tU8 t.a
86
G REEK COURSE 7

G.

Indef1n1te Art1cle
------------------
!:
f.

"

41'1&8
fna


ell6. 45

u

'na(n} rda/-'"
'na
- C... -
Tbe case DOUD8 are a s tollov8:
F1r8t Declension
proparoxyt.one8
parox"vt.one8
Ox;ytone8


.
--- -
-fs -!
"18 ':1
:.s
1
-ln
-f.
-&1
':.j
:18
-6n
-,

.:a :..
-611
':a "-asl":"I-:'18
-m
Second Declension
-------------------

oxytone.

Felll. Oxytoaea
....c.+
-6
parosyt.cnes " ':cr:
prop&rox;ytones j:J :-08
::cut. ox;ytone8
-6 -1
p&rox;ytone8
11
':0
.

Note 7.2. F1rst and Second Declen810ns:
------
Charts F1rst and Second Declens10n nouns:
87


--.------.



NoU118
---------------

-------.. -----



!. 1s
.
1-1
!. 1
.
:. a t1s-1a
:. 1 (n) :. &(r.)

: 1 - , : & .:..

-

:. 1
:. 1
:.,.
:.

ta
ta -J'
t.u....yU
,
to -i
to -!
-y6n

--60
_ J
-...,--85
:'-as/-!'is
:-a(n)
:'-e8
:'-e8
-
.
-
:. a (n)
:
.
-
-u
-
- 88
- 48
-&1
:. 1(0)
:'18
.
-
.
-u
-6n ton-eSn
1.....
t-i8 -4s :'88
-&
:. 88
:. 8S
-6n
:. 88

.
-15
.
G tu -i
Acc. to(r.) -1(n)
PltIr

i -'8
G -6n
Acc. tus -eIJ
.....

u
u
.. ..

-<
CQ
::t
.....
.....

<,,:,

.
fititis
'student'
loxlae
i;.iior
i
is;rgeant'


1


'heart'
1 k1r1.


'anchor'

'chI1d'
kanv1
iihljjT---


'5ea'
Neuter oxytOfle and noane 1n /-1/ beeQ 1D the Decleaa10n Chart due to their
pattern.
t-

u
u
-
<
I:Q


IJ
..-..----._-.--.....




1
..

-----------
'brotber'
, 'outlet' 'eg'
'shlp' 'au1iClllob11e
G REEK 8ASIC COURSE
From the charts above, the ru1es can be observed with the
stress Greek nouns.
,) The stress Greek nouns may sh1ft only from '1eft' 'r1ght'. 1.e. from an
ear11er sy11ab1e a 1ater from antepenu1t (th1rd sy11ab1e from the enc) ta penult (second
syllab1e end) or the last syllab1e, and the penult to the last syllab1e. The
Str888 on oqtone ncnms 1s, therefore, constant.
2) The parcxytone and proparoxytc.ne nouns the inc1ud1ng paroxytcne
nouns /:'1/, sh1ft the1r stress the 1ast sy1lab1e the gen1t1ve p1ural.
add1t1on Neuter nouns /:1/ sh11't the1r stress to the last sy11ab1e the gen1t1ve
singu1ar. (e.g. kar4v1 karavyd).
) The stress proparoxytone nouns 01' the sh1fts the
penultimate (second trom the end) syllab1e tbe gen1 s1ngular and p1ura1, and the
accusat1ve p1ural and on1y), e.g. k!r1os - t-u k1rfu - g1rfon -
tus k1rius; a!tokfn1to - tu attok1n1tu - attokfn1ta.
Houn: 1rregular Dec1ens1on:
'vord', 'apeech', 'reason'.
/0 rr6nos/ 'year' and
vords /0 xrfJnos/ and /0 are 1nt1ected the
s1ngular l1ke Second Dec1_ns1on 188cul1ne nouna. the p1ural, the.. vord8
(and. l1m1ted other nouns) have 0De 'regular': /1 xrdn1/,
/1 1671/ and one '1rregular': /ta rr6nya/,
/ta
should be noted that the p1ural /1 1cSy1/ '8p8_CbeS' or
're&80ne' whlle the /u 'vord8' only.


1 or ta xr6nya
tu xr6nu
xr6non or xron6n
. --
to(n) tus rr6nus ta xr(,'Iy&
Adject1ves:
F1rst and Second Dec1ens1ons.
stated ).1 the frequently used adject1ves e1ther

/-os, -1, or -11, /-os, -a,
90
-o/(like
G REEK BASIC COURSE

.,
All adject1ves end.1ng 1-11 or -aI are dec11ned l1ke F1rst
Declens10n rem:in1ne nouns.
All adjectivcs end.1ng I-osl are l1ke Second. DecleD810n
I88cul1ne nouna.
All neuter adject1ves end1ng 1-0/ are c1ec11ned l1ke Second Declension
neuter nouns.

Sg.

1 lc8 Jra]j
G.
ke

Un _ yWka
Pl.

1 or8ea ke 1ra1" 11Mb-

ton or8cn lc8

t1s Ite 1ra1U
d
'S'6 'S'&
to
1 Urte8 ta lra1i

G. 'S'OU 'S'ou
tu 1ra111 tu

ton ton pl8n pe&,.Jn
'S'6v 'S'&
ton 1816 n&rt1 to ka16 tus ka1w. ta lra1i

.w.6
'S"
to 1ia 1raU
'S'ov

tu kal1!
toD

'S'6
'S'&
to ka3.6
ta lraU
91
GREEK BASIC COURSE
shou1d be noted that the stress the adjectives a1ways persistent does
shift as does with some types nouns (see Note 7.2 above).
The on1y exception this ru1e are proparoxytone adjectives which (derending the
speaker) may or may shift their stress the genitive p1ura1, e.g.
/ton yinek6n/ or n6st1mon y1nek6n/
the pretty Both pronunciations are acceptable
afto(n)
Adjective:

/aft6s/ /610s/.
Do you that gent1eman?


girio.
61es 1
1eofor!0, !ne
All seats th1s bus
are taken.

The adjective 'this' by the art.ic1e p1us the noun
.
modifjes. Contrast !kwn& ksenoooxic/ or
/to ksenoaoxfo/.
Most adjectives, l1ke
Engl1sh).
/ka16s/ occur between the art1c1e and the noun (as
/610s/ 'a11, every' &1so generally by the art1c1e and the noun,
Everybody 18 here.

adject1ve 1nflected
-1.1


_!:.


_!:


polfs

/ pold / pc16n



pol!(n) polds
G REEK BASlC COURSE
7
\l8ed the sense 'as a _tter fact " The word
1ndeed', part1cular'.


m4lista
fne IIIU.
As a tact 0118
doctors 1s a fr1end
Th1s shows use the las a _tter
tact'.


'f1,
ha\""e 'rets1na
l
; one thell]
part1cular has [any klnd
w1ne that you [1181'] vant.
the taverns th1s town
af\!s t1s
retsfna, _l1sta
6tl krasf
'W1ete.
1 e66 the nurses here are lood,
fne ka1ds, nda [but] t,hsJI
p4ra partlcular 1s e.xce1lent.
61es 1
Other


..




po]J kalI.
The U8e /):q'bl 10' &8 Engl1sh take

..

'ffiv ni're a' W'f6v
D08ok08fo.
lIIU8t taJce her \0
.at to

Whea tbe "rb 18 vith a d1reot object, 1ts
corre8p0nd8 to the Engl1sh ':.rana1t1Vf!. verb take
Other eUlllplea
aac;
xtvYJ'fO

na sas
_ att.okln1
staem6'l
n', na pdt(e)
ek:!.
you vant take you
by car. statl0n'l
Yes
J
I'd 11ke you take
there.
93
GREEK BASIC COURSE
should be not.ed that the word
puaeM-.
1puxun pueen4 ek:i
akriv4 nosokomia.
The use the word




/puOeM-/'nowherc an.., place' and

'an,ybody', 'any one'.
are golng anywhere.
There 1sn't any F.xpens1ve
hosp1 t.al over therc
there expens1ve hosp1tals do
exist').
/puoeni/ always used w1th a
Are you go1ng place
verb the statements as the examples above.
the 1nterrogat1ve senter.ces, however, the verb may be either affirmative
neeat:1ve clepend1ng the meaning,
3:1 p4te pueeni
ea pilte pueen4,

The vord /
the way, g.
!ne ka.nnas
but:
today'l
Aren't go1ng any place
today'l
/kan4nas, kamfa
There 1.8 one here.


!ne kwna8
fne
any
I8n't anyboQy here1
to kar4vi tu M-ft1.
kserume tu f1t1t:f.
t1n tu staem4rxi.
me t1s ton nat't6n.



aOerfa tu loxta.
to(n) t-u lox!a.
prctim41 t1(n) 0481 tu loxia.
p1yenun sta lox:i6n.
tis yinikes lox16n.
kslro tus n4ftes aftu tu karavyd.
tus tu peoY\1.
:tne y4la tu
la1 88t1atonon.
t1s karav16n.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
t1s yinikas sas.
!ne ts4y t1s k1r!as.
ksero tus 1pal11us brezv16n.
st1s kuzlnes davern6n.
tus aoert;)s y1nek6n DB8.
UNI:T 7
tu 1pal!lu.
prot1mA1 .ftok!n1to tu yatrl1.
61. ta attls t1s
sta a()erf6n sas.
e4n.m taftok1n1ta att.on lpal:1lon.
ta a!tl1 tu
par4e1ra tu
ta 1s1tlr1a leofor!on.
sta
t1.
Outl1ne:
-------
Subject Object (Adject1ve+Noun)

------
att6s ln(e) kal6s kfr1o.. (vll!po). g!r10.
In(e) oreos
In(e)
attl In(e) 1 tavirr..
Ine e8t1at6r10. (ell1)
att6s In(e)
atL6s In(e) 4rostos ep1v4t1 .
attl !n(e.) 1
aft6s In(e) kal6s 1p411los. Ocalrun)
attl In(e) 1 perlt1m1 retsina. (prot1m6)
In(e) pot6. (p!nun)
9S
attl 1n(e) 1
1118 (Ixi)
In(e) katl.. (C>ok1IIIta1)
aft! In(e) 1 4rost1 (vl'pun)
Ine mey410 leotorro. {prot184n)
Ine
ln(e) yatr6s. (kslro)
aft4 Ine ps4rya. (tr6ne)
!n(e) 1 meyiles amaksost1x!e (rlvyun me)
aft! ln(e) i perit1m1 &nsropl. (kserume)
G REEK BASIC COURSE
,) lIse the nouns in parentheses as 'possessors' (genitive case) the following
sentences.
:1odel:
to kald peur. naftis)
to peo! tu naft1.
ln(e)
afti ln(e) i ftini
ine to
in(e)
aft! !n(e) 1 orta ylnika.
jne kr!o
perSfimo
2) Put above sentences plural.

-----
fne n4!t1s)
artA lne ta natt6n.
i prezvfa.
(1 p61is. staem6s)
rAftis, kIr1os, of!los sas)
staem6s, i k1rIa,.
yatr6s, aoerr6s sas,
sas)
kIrios, 1 k1ria, 1 sas,
1p411l0s)
(1 estlat6r10,
p6aon
p6son fn(e) 1 sas1
&XEte
p6son jne ta sas?
:ln(e) ke i mit/ra sas?
me i 1y:ta tu pat8ra 888 ke t1s

pos 1 yatrj tis
pole6z mas, jne
ta nosOkomia t1s pole6z maa

jne ft1n4,
na fste 4rostos?
prepi na k4nete, i
lne 4rost1?
ine eplk!nolno na
borite na MU ta tu
96
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Unit
Ull'f 8
JUI&a t
-1), -6






-1), -6




KI.cS









el1n1k6s, -6
ta el1n11c4
1 t4ks1s
k4pote
sti(n) dAks1 mas
plnde f'1 U , ke
k4pote,
&1plo.at1k6s, -6
1
1 1p1re.Ja pl1ro-
tor16n
1 Jne
t1kJ kyo
apt1n
plirofori6n.
simfititfs
Iksipnos, -1,
milao/mi16
i "(16sa
simfitit!z mu !ne
eksipnos,
97
to _tq
Greek
Greek
11m studylng Greek.
(the) c1as8, order

we have 8tuder.ts our
class ollr class W8
t1 studEnts') and



U.S.I.A.
Four are Foreign 5erv1e.
OrC1eers and 18 rrOll
U.5.!.!.
(the) fellow student
1nte111gent
speak
(the) language, tongue
One fellow student mine 1s
intellignet, he speaks






GREEK BASIC COURSE
eksi yloses.
kaeiyitis
i kaBiyftria
tHinas
i
t(o) 6noma
si languages.
( the) professor, high schoo1
teacher
(the) teacher (female)
(the) Greek (male)
(the) Greek (female)
(the) name
kaBiyitfz ine
cm aptin
L tcnom4 ti1, ine
0Ur teacher 15 a Greek froa
Athens. His name is
?ap&dopoulos.
1 (pl. (b) 88DtenC8J J*'OPCIIit1CD




(

papaMpulos.
oyav4zo (oyav4S0)
oiitoros, -i,
1
epana1amvILno (epana-
livo)
to read
( the) sentence
to repeat











mas
oi4fores prot4sis,
tis epana-

rot40/rot6
rot4i
i er6tisis/i er6tisi
i
kaeenas,
kaeena
i yn6mi
He reads us various aentences
and we repeat tbea.
to ask
he asks
(the) quest.ion
pl.
talk
each every
(the) opinion
L fstera mas rot4i Then he a sks (us) questions,ve ta1k
rni18me, k;yo 181 and every g1 ( t t) hi8
98
GREEK BASIC COURSE
t1 tu.

etx4ristos, -1,
'" i sizftis1/i s1zft1-

8
opin1on.
(the) break
pleasant
discussion,
sto p!nU8 Dur1ng the break ... our
'Ixou- el1n1kb kar, kex-e Greek cottee and ba"
etdr1st1 s1z!t181. a pleasant di8CU8S1on.
'f6 cmt'fI.
'f6 ....
'f&




'1'6 cmS
'f6





6ouAeIr&, &u&


spft.1
to .1_
..ef_ta
1
1 tenfa
1 _yn1toton1kf
tenfa
spft1 ...,
.na
_81...., _
vofd1a tQn _yntto-
ton1kbn ten1bn.
-1,

s1nxr6nos
!ne &14
ke
etx.trist1.
99
(tbe)e"n1ng; tbe
at
( tbe) hOU88,
1888_
pl.
(the)
( cture
tape
we ba" to our
at tb
t.ape8.
hard
job
at the

It's a d1ft1cult job but at
the a very
pleasant
GREEK BASIC COURSE

py6s e11n1ki1
p6s1 st1(n) sas?
!n(e) 61i 1
ti ine enas s1mfititis sas1
p6ses m1141
apo pd in(e) sas1
p6s ton
tf k!n1 sas sti(n) d8ksi?
tf k4nun i
tf rot4i istera
tf k4Be fitit:ls1
tf k4nete sto
t! na k4nete to vr40i sto spiti sas1
p6s in(e) atti 1 ou1yi?
Narrative
ey6 e1inika.
st1n d&kai mas, imaste f'1t1te.
6xi, apaftus in(e) apt1n ip1resia
p11rofor16n.
mu, !ne

ine i1inas, aptin
ton papao6pulo.
mas oiav4zi oi4fores
epana1amv4nun tis
mas rotAi erotfsis.
ke 181 tin tu.
pinume ton mas,
sizitisi.
na to mas, ti{ n)
ton ten16n.
ine ofsko11, a14 ke
efxAr1st1.


fiyo to

isitirio.
before, ago
i in(e)
1 sxoH afti ine
to uoUo
eksoter1k6n
country
schoo1
8choo1

St.ate/M!
Fore1r,n Affairs

to
too
(the)
eklnos, that







3&

GREEK BASIC COURSE

yatr6s.
(spuo4so)
ek1ni i fne

k;i3e nx:ra,

(metafr!so)
p;ime
aefna, p!me ke sti(m)
b!tra.
study
translate
only

















to
pol'
pr4yma
att.:t 1
meyilo

stis
ptnda
tu.
akuo (ak6ao)
esIs &yavAzete pfnda me
prosoxi.
i
i tis s61ea
------
t1s ti8.
voiGcS

c1n l1sa\1oa
a\ tour
bear, l1aten
attent.1on
help, a&sist



GREEK BASIC COURSE










!naropi slmera na p4ne stin
prdp1 na ktnun, prln p4ne stin aftI?
pu arx!zun maelmata elinik6n?
i e11nikl t4ksis
p6aes dres t1n 1
8ti(n) tU81
tf ktnun ekn
m6no ti(n) yldsa saftl ti sxoll?
tf k4nun 1 lstera apo ti(n) d4ksi?
tus art6, ya na m4eun t1n y16sa?
,02
ir-41ili.
prepi na elinik4.
st1n axoll tu ipurJiu eksoterlk6n,
st1n yuisinkton.
6xi, i e11n1kl t4ks1s, p4r.da vjkr6
ariem t1titdn.
spu,Mzun t1r. 1dra.
kae1yitls tus prot4s1s kekln1
tis fstera artds tus
rota1 erotIs1s. s1z1t181 ke k4pote
metafr4zun to ma9iIIIIk tus.
6xi. epls1s ke pr4ymata 18
ton
kyakUne me prcsox! tis
tenles.
m'lista, tus p4ra poll.
GREEK BASIC COURSE UNIT 8
Noter.
e.1. Pronoun: Possessive Pronouns




stin d4ksi lmaste

.
yatr6s tis nondzi ...
\':e have five students oyr
class.
one students ..
her doctor thinks
The above sentences illustrate the use the case perscnal pronouns
('of us', me'. ber') as equ1valent English possess1ve pronouna 'her').
The these forms is:

tI\Y

ycur (, ycu")

h1s him')

tis her ('of her')

1ts


('of \;.s')

sas ('of
tt..1r thell') tus
'fO\)c;
These and follow the noun they mod1fy, e.g.
pebf chlld'. However, 1f 1a by another adject:lve the POS888a1"
may e1ther the the noun, e.g. /to kal6
peb:l/ L t /to ka16 pe3:1 good
Wben the by the possess1ve adject1ve 1s proparoxyt.1)ne, the stress 18
ah1rted the syllable, e.g. /0 ineropoa/ 'the man',
but /0 anerop6z IfIl1S/ man
Pronoun: Personal pronouna used as d1rect and 1nd1rect Objecta.
Aa personal pronouns can be used either aa direct ind1rect objects
a verb (e.g. he - direct obj.; he said - 1nd1rect obj.)
Pronouns used d1rect object a verb are:
me me
af
se


hiM
103
GREEK BASIC COURSE
tin her
it
mas
sas
you
tus them(m.)

tis (r.)
(n. )
D1rect object pronouns a1ways come before the verb. except some 1mperat1ve (command)
constructions (see 1ater un1ts).





se 8411 yatr6s.
tus rotAi erotfs1s.
They ca11 h1m Papadopou10s.
The doctor wants you.
He asks them questions.
The 1nd1rect object pronouns are the as possess1ve pronouns but are
d1fferentiated by an accent mark.


me
su you
'toiJ to h1II
t1s her
'toiJ tu 1t

us


YOl1
tus
them (m..f n.)
But, un11ke the possess1ve pronouns. the 1nd1rect object pronouns a1ways precede
the verb.


mu pul4i 1s1tJria. She sel1s tickets me.
miUi 611 tin &ra.
'toiJ Qa tu m1.lAo
el1n1kA.
He talks to 1011 a11 the
I'l1 speak 1f1th h1m alvvs
:in Greek.
GREEK BASIC COURSE mlIT
When tvo pronouns are used a5 direct and indirect object a verb, the 1nd1rect
precedes the direct, e.g.
8& ea to s:Unera. 1'11 it to you
ea sas ta to \Ole '11 read to you ton1ght.
add1 the prcnomina1 forrns descri bed are 10nger forms vhich
can be u.ed d1rect or 1Dd1rect Object the verb.
The long pronomina1 forms are:
me

you
yau

att6n h1III or to h1III


her 2!: her

aft6 or

u.
U8

you you

aftl1s the. or to theIII

aftls (f. }
,
croTci
aft'
,
(n.)
,
Tbe be used e1ther for
e.g.


or after prepos1t1ons,




ka91yitls
e.na.

lIa1 mi1A1
byavaso esas.
f1yo m(e) aftus.
8.10 na
5(e) e1iniki.
10S
It's _ (d1rect Object)
the teacher .e.8.
It's you (d1r.Obj.) he

He '. talk1ng .!!!.. .
1'11 read together with you.
1111 with them.
dcn't to read Greek
you.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Pronoun: Demonstrative pronouns: laft6s-f-61 and
ek! r:os-i
laft6s, aft!, aft61 'this', 'that' and
t lekfnos. ektr.i, ek!nol 'that', are used both ,) independently,
as 'demonstrative pronouns'. and 2) modifying a noun. as adjectives.
laft6s, -1., -61 may correspond 1n mean1ng Engl1sh 'this' or
'that' depending on the context, e.g.
'neropos,lne Th1s man 1s good.

pu 'lbat you say 1s
lne good.
order avo1d any the adverb le'66/ 'here' can be added
-6 lart6s, -1., -61 'th1s' and lek1.1 'there'
Mean spec1f1cally 'that" e.g.
e'66 Th1s one a doctor.
artA ek1. Those are chlldren.

laft6s, -1., -61 wh1ch usually either 'th1s' or
respect d1stance, def1n1tely 'th1s' when paired w1th
and 1s there.
Th1s 18 here
klr10s ineki.
,-1, -01, e.g.


lKEt
t. me and they ('those') l1sten to
prOSOXi. attent1vely.
ekin1, ekinol correspcnds
English 'that'. spec1fy clearly there' be coni:l1ned w1th the
word leki/ 'there'. Thus ekfl 'that OV8r
there', e.g.


ek:fn08 ek!
e11nikA.
That over there speaks
Greek.
106
GREEK BASIC COURSE
UNIT 8
shclJld be also noted both la!t6s1 and
e1ther precede or fol1ow the noun they modify, g.

Th1s 1s good.
ka16s.
or
aft6s, Jne
ka16s.
Note 8.).1 Alt.ernate forlllS -6
---------
lekfnos, -1,
laft6s, -61 and
lart6s, a!tf, aft61 ha8 alternate forlll8
s1ngular and plural, while lekfnos, -1, alternat.e
s1ngu].ar on1y.

/ /
aft6s art\1 aftund att6n a!ton6n
/ /
art! att:ls att6n arton6n
/ /
att6 aftl1 aftun11 art6n a!ton6n
/
ekfnos ek!nu ek1nu ekfnon

ekfn1 ekfn1s ekfnon
/
ekfno ekfnu ek1nd ek:lnon


aft11s

atWa
aftA

ek!nus

ek:lnes
. -

ek!na
spJti This man's house 1s




tu aner6pu, ln(e)
akriv6.
expens1ve.


peoi aft!s (gt:aftinis) This woman's child is small.
tis Ine mikr6.
107
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Note words
--------
Ip6sos, -1, 'how much, how III&ny' and
-6 Ip.v6s, -4, -61 'whlch','which



py6s in(e)

How much do they
is that gentleman?
The questlon word Ip6so1 much' 18 used acI.verb1ally the
sentence. word i. used an adject1ye
p6so1 100 IIIOC11ty a w1th "h1cb 1t agrees (11ke any other adjectlve)
gender, number and case.
pe6yj ! .. sto ch11dren 11111 be
are leaving for Athens'l
How people are
The 1:hlldren persons
k4n1 tNno"
f.vyun ya.tln ae:lna'l
ks4!rete you know many
wiU 1t take( for ]the traln
(1;0
p6aus kHrete7 people do 7011
p6S0S
p6su ta








bouse7
The que.tlon "ord f"ho
t
, '''h1ch 0118', 111 d8clined
..
11.
G.


.!!:

py6a

pyd 01'


--

pyand pyan!s pyand

py6n p:fi(n)
f!!!t.
_!:. _!:



p,.t.

py6n py6n OJ' py6n 01'

pyan6n pyan6n

t1Y!
,08
G REEK BASIC COURSE
8
Exalllples:



3&

pyand ine kafemo1
pyan6n in(e)
sp:iti1
ks4ret.e1
prd8 kir!us
pylis kserete
7
Whose 1s this1
house 1s th1s1
(! do you lmow'Z
are you 101118
to see1
do ,"ou knOlfI
The use verb
T6v
in the sense name', call (by n&I8)'.
ton( e) papaMpulo> n.. 1s Papadopoul08 (they
c_ll h1_ Papadopoulos).
The )rd per80n plural the "rb 'to say' 18 used Greek to
COrre8poOO mean1ng to the Engl1sh 'one 's i8 80-aOO-80 (l1terally: 'they call h1J1
<.., her, etc.) 80-and-SO').




O.D. 8.1
.. 1fne mko.
to pe6! to
al'k8andro.


N1cho1aa.
ch11d's n&IE 18 Alexander.
to sp!t1
to 1.eotorfo 8U
1 tu fne ka1f.
1 t1a kaH.
&e.at16 tu
G.D. 8.1-2
dz6n.
8e lt!r.e n!ko.
ton rotane erotSsis.
afti(n) t1n marSa.
to _8 !n(e) 1 rets!na.
sas fne to arn6k1.
1 tU8 fne n'ea.
ta tus fne kae61u ka1I.
tua fne
emis mas
esas 5as to 5as.
aftus tus dz6n ke nfko.
t15 kaae
109
me dz6n.
kala.
k!ee
ya
me y'la.
mas maria ke mko.
sas to ts4y sas.
tus
tis rot41 erotisis.
6Aka
e11rUk&.
pul4ne 1s1tir1a.
epanalamv4nun protas1s.
884s, s.. nfko.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
mu mil4i
su
tu epanalamv!n1
tis
tu elin1k4.
mas pul4i to est1at6r1c.
sas pol'
tus ta tus.
tus to
tus elin1ki.

1ta16s.
!n(e) akr1v6.
aftin:1s 1 4rost1.
aftund to ftin6.
ton nlko.
att!n gzlro.
k4ee "ra.
attl !ne
atton6n !ne
1 kond.4 1pury!o.
aftu8 tua nfko ke
t1s kHrun 1
aft4 ta
110
ek!nos,ekf !ne n4ft1s.
to sp!t1 !ne makri".
8kfnis,
tattok!n1to ek1m1, !ne
t.a ek!non
ekf tua dz6n ke nlko.
ekf, dis ksArun 1ta1J.
t.a tus.
GREEK BASIC COURSE

!n(e)
ln(e) afti2
fr.(e)
ryanl1 !n(e) to eplt1?
1oaf1ookfn1to1
pyand fn(e)
f'yi p4ne 8to e81ola1obr10?
pAne 8100 1puryJo'l
r-4tOyi p1ywtnun sartf 8xcU2
fn(e) aft.! ta leoforfai
ro1ofaete erot!sis?
razf
pyC ixun
py6n pAte .81oln
p6sos lne aplti 8a82
p680n gafI!
p6s1 z4xarl e'lete1

p6s1 klrll fne s100
p6a88
p6sa kS8nOOoda 1118 810ln
p6son 1 y1n'ke8 pine 810ln ae!na?
p680n p4ne s10ln aIlnat
p68US fi101 'xete?
p6eea Vl'pete1
p6sa m10et
Correlatlon 5ab8tl1out1on Drl11
.-----------------------------
G.D.8.a
.. tbe 88 lndleated by 1000 Encl18b paren10hesesa
_ 143ne nlko. (b1111, ycu).
8&8 8411 1 klrr (ber, b1_, tbelll(a.
.. k4ee ber, th8111 (f.
rot41 (her, (n..
1018 puUne 'na aftokfnlto. (tl-.8m (n.), lt)
101n 143ne (you, JOU (pl.
... n08lzun 'k81pnua.
10us _ra. (us, )"Ou
8U pullne 1811ofrla. (her, h1111, 10helll (f.
mu (100 us, 100 hlm, her,
100 thelll (11.)
su m4ei ma. (to hi 100 me,
U5)
101. 1'1 kal1_ra. (100 b1I11, 100 1obe_ to
us, 100 JOU (pl.
mas pul41 'na 1811ofrl0. (100 (pl.), to bll11,
100 her, to 10helll
1oU8 IIIi1ine ta (100 100 _, us,
to hll11)
.. l'ne dz6n. (hll1, you)
es48, kirlos. (us, 10helll (m.),
(f.},(n.), you (s1ng.
ka14. (me, you (pl.), hll11,
her, 10hem (m.
ro1oane erotIsls. (them(f.), her,
you (sg.
,,,
afta ta pulane (it).
GREEK BASIC COURSE
em!s mas nom!zun (you (pl.),
tcn (you (pl.), her,
t, them (f.))
them (m.)
aftus tus dz6n ke ntko (you (pl.), 118)
Transform Model Drill
---------------------

IIIU jne nikos.

me ltJne nfko.
su fne marIa.
tonom4 tu y6lj"os.
mas marIa ke y6ryos.
t1s jne marIa.
tus nfkos ke y6ryos.
tonomA tu y4nis (neuter)
sas fn(e)
tus mar!a k(e)
tonom4 tus nfkos ke (neuter)
ton_ y6ryos
p6s1 t1t1t4 fne st1n dAks1 sas7
p6s1 apattds 61plomat1k! 1pa11ii1
p6s1 apt1n
tf k4nete st1n d4ks1 s&87
tf k4n1 kae1yitts sas stir. d4ks11
rot4te k4pote erotjs1s ton kaBiyitf sas7
t! 141 gstJrete to sas7
p6ses .114te7
tf kinun 1 t1t1t4,sto ay411ma7
to :rA sas7
bor!te na O!sko1es e11n1ktJs
protU1s7
aIn1te k40e _r., t1s mayn1toton1k's
fl".e t1s sJtoHs spu2l4"ete
el1n1k47
p6s tone*1'ne ton kae111t! ...7
1 sas,sto 1puryio
eksoter1k6n7
nomdzete pos ta e11n1ki a{skcl1
pos 1
nomfzete pos 1 'lines jn(e) ori1 k. pos
1 el1rd6es oNa ke mey41a .utya7
*/tt5ne/ 18 somet1Jnes 11800 for eupholl1 :inStead /ton/.
112
GREEK BASIC COURSE


1111! 9

















.. -


-6




to pro!
parangelno (parangI-
10)
to kustWn1
aW10 to proI, 9a


to kat.astima
t.a
to


ka pu181
kala itazmata.
1
ton ifa_ton
kU:1 b wda
p:SJdl!a
ma11nos, -1,


ifazmat3 malina,
kera, ke t:.a
113

(the) morning
to order
(the) suit
going to order a suit
tc8orrow
tortunat.ely
(the) store,
pl.
(the) cloth, material.
pl.
Fortu.nately, there 105 a .toN
vhich 8e118 very good
DIaterial (8)"
(the)
mater1al
and 1t ba8 a
tabr1cs.

cot.ton
nylon
Woolen material(s), cotton,
etc.
GREEK BASIC COURSE

i elines ee1W1
etiJna
to buy
The Greeks don 't like to
buy read:r-made suits.


/









-&&








-&'


kustUr.mya.
sinieizo (sinieiso)
rattis/o raptis
siniGizun na piyenun
sto(n) ratti.
perno
ta l1Ietra
(xrisi-
mopiiso)
i ta/-t.1e
i foresya

rattis Sa sas pari
ta metra, ke Ga
xrisimopiisi tin
tu, ya
na S3S k8ni ti(n)
toresy& sas, teUa.
-a,
i
aspros, -1,
to pukamiso
apto tayo katastima
ke I1Ila
dnzlna aspra puk8misa.
,,4
to be to
(the) tailor
They usua11y go to the
tai10r.
to take
(the) maa3urements
t.o use
(the) skil1
(the) suit
perlect
The tai10r will take your
l1Ieasurements, and wi11 use
a11 h1B ski11 to make your
t pertect.
(the) same
(the) dozen
white
(the) sh1rt
1'11 a1so buy a dozen white
shirts trom the store.
i yravata (the) tie
. to ta xr6mata (the) co10r



G REEK BASIC COURSE
-!. made si1Jc
9

(

to kat.istima, exun They al50 have vcry good sl1k
ke ka1es metakso- ties a11 co10rs, this
tes yravat.es, ta store.




,




an/ean
meno )
-es, ..a
to pl.ta
i
to
qan mu ke

ea-yOraso
ke

rema1n, to stay, to dveU
any,
(the) money
8Ocka,
(the) shoe
And have any mone,. 1eft
( money vi11 )
111 buy soclcs aad
sboes.







ea avrio to
perdnda ena tirtyone
pen!nda fitty
sixty
seventy
eighty
Dinety

parang!1i ena kustUmi
.
pu pai na parangili to sena kat.istima. pu pu1al ka1a
GREEK BASIC COURSE

exi ifazmata to katastima7
Gelun i elines nayorazun etima
pU sinie:tzun na piyenun ya ta tus1
t! kani raftis,sto katastima tu7
t! ep:tsis Gayorasi kirios apto
kat8stima?
t! to
t! Ga tu rn.inun merika

mails ta, exi rn.ia pild.lla ifazmaton.
vamvakera, nailon,
ke ta lipa.
6xi. Gelun.
siniG:tzun na piyenun sto(n) r'fti.
raftis pernl ta metra, kc
611 tin epitiCIiotit8 tu, na kani ti
foresy8 telia.
Gayorasi ke m!a duz:tna 'spra pukAmisa.
to katastima ke kales
metaksotes yravates, ta
Ga-yorasi ke papUtsia.














Narrati'98
mey810
saf't! t1 yinika.

s:lmera 1 taverna polus
pe14tis
t!
pu lete
ayorazo puk8misa me

to
nikos lei p8ma tin

i alleya
, 16
1nterest
to
C\lS patron,
client.
exactJy
pleases
design, plan
truth
'tou.






G REEK BASIC COURSE
Mni ta
tu.

mas panda poles

i
1
pol!
to give

choice
taste
9
'tou 'tou
au'tOt
fxouv

'tou

'tOU
YLa'tpot
'tOU


'tou

lene to sas?
pU ine to tu tllu sas7
protiJmin to kat8stima
eld ka18
t! aneroros in(e) raftis?
t! olxni stus pelates tu?
kani raftis kal3
stus pelates tu?
lene
!ne kond4 sti(n) stin aeina.
aft! pu eelun Wlia kustUmnya.
exun poll malina, vamvakera,
metaksot8 ke n&1lon
enas aneropos, me
6ixni saftus mey810
malista, kani ta tus
ta eelun.
117
, " , ..
pane sto katas tima
ali pin(e) eki?
ya piyenun eki'l
!n(e) mkos'l
stua tu?
!ne ta pra"(lll8ta pu
GREEK BASIC COURSE
i Qiplomatiki ipalili,tu ipuryiu eksote-
ke tis ipiresias
yatri ke tu proksen!u.
piyenun tU8 efxaristi i pikilia
ton ifa_ton tu.
ine eksipnos ke efxaristos

tus ti<n) tu, ya ayorazun.
!ne kal8 kexun pol! yUsto.
Grammat1cal Notes
Noun: Third declension neuter
pu There i8 a store wh1ch sells
pu1ai roll kal8 very good materia1.





1fazmata.
pik1.l:ia ifa_ton
s (e) 618 ta
ky8n mu m:lnun,ke
merika ta
variety
in a11 oo1ors .. ,
and 1f have money 1eft
In Note 5.4 was stated that thc third dec1ension inc1udes a largc number nouns
with various endings. The above examples i11ustrate class third dec1ension nouns,
neuter nouns in / -ma/.
All neuter /-ma/ are dec1ined follows:


5g. Pl.
5g.

to ta
xrcSmat;a
to
G. tu ton tu
to ta
xromata
to
Pl.
ta
ton
ta
Note 9.1.1 Noun: Third dec1ension neuter nouna
--------

/to y8.1a/ 'milk' and
/ to kreas/ 'meat '
'lbese. nouns are dec1ined like neuter nouns in /
118
GREEK BASIC COURSE


to yala ta yalata

tu yalaktos (ton
1.. to yala ta
kreas
,
ta kr8ata
G. tu kreatos ton kreaton
to kreas
,
ta kreata
Grammatlcal Drills
9
to :lne
aspro fn(e)
s1mera.
to :lne
to :lne eiskol0.
1 1p811l1 attu tu katast!matos,
ta a!'tu tu kaU.
to attu tu lrazmatos, (e) aspro.
1 prot8s18 tu i-ne kales.
to
8elun to aapro
attl 1 yat.ri exun po18
e:Us 8na ka16
1 fitite to
ta

fne kalA.
ta aspra akr1"a.
af-t.8 ta ine
ta 11018.
':.a
i ka!!.
1 "ltses ton
kaG1Y1tis ine
eksipnos.
to ton lra"ton, fn(e) "pro.
.u.
a!'t8s 1 bun 11018
GeU 1101-'
to exl 11018
Correlat.1on Substitutlon Drlll
------------------------------
Put the vords 1n parentheses the appropriate case (slngular or plural, as necessary).
(to Ga p8rl avr10 (to
art! 1 fi ti maGenlJn kal8 (to tus.
1 pik1lia (to :irazma) (to katastima) meyali.
119
GREEK BASIC COURSE
(to ifazma) ton aspron poli akriva.
(to xr6ma ton (ifazma) poli orea.
Subst1tute the words in parentheses for the underlined word or words the sentence,
and change the aspect the verbs accordingly.
enns 1!'azmata (stis eksi)
aftes ea epanalavun to (kaee
mera)
... "yavazo to maeima

es:!s prepi na to maeima (611
tin dra)
spudaz1 elin1ka. (avrio)
ta krasya !!!!'2. (kaee mera)
p:lnete kafe (avrio to
f8me musaka (kaee mera)
prep1 na p1yen1 st1n e1aoa,
(avr1o)
aftes M.nun
(avrio to pro:l)
s:lmera to n:lko. mera)
(avrio)
ea parangilume ta pukamisa mas sto(n)
yan1, avr10.
esis sinieizete na
(st1s
stis okt6. lstis eks1 avr1o)
esi men1s st1n (sen& xr6no)
aft:! xriRimop1un 611
tus 18 sas efxar1st:lsun. (avr1o)
kala kustUm,a
(avr10
r&rt1s p&rni ta metra (avr10)
dra (avrio)
pU piyenete (avr10)
kBnete! avr10 to pro:l '1
iparxun ka18 sti(m) sas?
aft8 ta katastimata?
ine akr1va ta pra'Y1ll8ta
kBnete sena kat8stima?
:lne i yravates ke ta pukwsa akriva sto
kat8stima pu
120
pite saftd to katastima mera'l
pite p8nda ston ratt1?
!n(e) r&rt1s
r8ft1s enb1aferon stus
tu?
prot1m8te kustUmnya,
na p1yenete sto(n) rafti?
1parxun ka1a 1!'azmata, ke ala pra"11ll8ta
sta po1e6s sas?
G REEK COURSE
10
ker6s


1111'1' ,0
(the) veather
long, ('how IIII1ch ti.')
_tayed, re_iD8d
stin
aeina?

peripu
i
660 I!Idna 610
perfpu.
1 akr6po118

tin akr6poli 2
x94s
. (e )p:fya
(.)"'no
-r6 btijya to prof,ep:fya
eki ne
41us.
long d1d ;you 8ta;y in
Athens1
stayed, re-.1ned,
approJd..tel;y, about
(the) week
_ta;yed the
approx1utely.
( Acropol1.a
Did 70U ..e Acropoli82
vent

Yes, went up there
-"i th others 188terdq DIOrn1ng.

to !ind

vr:fka / evr!ka fO'Jnd

-i, easy

'fkola easily
121

GREEK BASIC COURSE
( guide, driver








vrikate 8rkola,inan

eks!yi.se
1
lept.oMr1es
i arxi

Did tind. a guide
tound
to expla1n
exp1a1ned
(the) deta11
in detall
(the) arcbitecture
(the) taple



vnk8ae pu expla1ned
eksfyise to U8 in detall the arch1t8o-
t1n arxitekton1Jd ton ture the
,
naon.






-6










sa8 are"

su are8e

-!,
8a_8108, -a,

aplcSs ke eaws108

(xris1-

arxeos, -a,

1t pleasea
1t pleaseci
1t pleased you
(adv.)
Wh1ch d1d like the
be8t. ('pleued the 11081'.)1

beautitul
(the) Parthencn
The beaut1tul
Parthenon.
to serve, to be use

ancient
(the) art
G REEK BASIC COURSE 10






-6

Kat



pu xris:1Jnevi CI!xni

te1ia i tan 1 arxea
eliniki texn1.
kata1aveno Ocata-
14vo)


ke kat8lava,
1 8rXei eUnea,
!ean


shovs ('serves to
the wor1d hov perfect the
anc1ent Greek art vas.
to

(the) art.i8t
And only then d1d understand
tbat nc1ent
rea1 artists.
p6eon itan st1n aeinal
p!ye st1n
ae pyUs Pb(e) eld
enan
tu eks!71M
tu irese
18

kat8lave Idr1os,
barthen6na?
Narrative
itan per!pu.
piye xees to proi.
p!ye eld _si .. 'lua.
vrike en.n.
tu ek8iyi8e t1n ton arx80n

veWoa.
k{e) apl6a, ke 8a_s108.
p6so ltan i arxea eliniki texni.
katalave pos 1 arxei elines, :ttan
ka11texnes.
stin el.8CIa.
f:t1os sas in(e)


,23
last year
Amer1can
GREEK BASIC COURSE
exi mines.




ElvaL








-6



eel0 na pao
!pye rets:ina
kond8 stin eesaloniki. :tne

to
a-yorazete pola



ta eelun
pol8

aft! i
kala.
month
everywhere
oCC8a1on
ru:1n
book
they knev
tbey vanted
contemporary, present

art! 1 y1neka ex1
i
em!s ato .kaf'enio
to llve
lUe


ElvaL







tu n!ku.
s1xn8zo
ta katast!mata,
oeksya.
-:!. ,
aresun 1
1
kond8 sto t1s

to o1askeo'seos

to v1s1t of'ten,
to f'requeat
popular
fun,
center
nightclub

GREEK BASIC COURSE
:me enas

10
people, crowd,
L L aft:t i maresi
pU elci.
& fititis na
att:l. /Hskoli ylosa.

r.!:!!!! pmete ka!e,6li tin
so(much)
to be (to d.o
sanething)
wby, becaUS8
ntpvaL <tOV



YL '<tcX


<tt

a<tcX
yL
<t6ao

p!yan s't1n
p!yan .Jd.,1
eJd'l
pyes tis plyan7
pU piyan :ttan stin aeina7
tores eld7
,25
enas me ti y1neka tu.
perisi.
m1nes per!pu.
pandu. st1n sti Oesalon!ki,
sti(m) b8tra ke poles ales
pi"(811 stin ke stus il",s arxeus
naUs.
merikes forcs.
tus aresan ta arxea afta erfpia?
tf ikseran ya tin arxea e1aoa1
G REEK BASIC COURSE
tus aresan para
lkseran po1a ya arxea e1aoa.
a]'O pu ikseran, afta ta pra"jttl8ta?
tl 310 lee1an na maeun episis1
t! akri lee1an na kserun ya tus
simerinus elines?
ya na ta aftB7
ke tl: emaean yaftus?
tus arese aftO?
po1a viv1ia pu
lee1an na maeun merika prayroata ya tus
simcrinus elines,ke ti simerinl
ieelan na kserun zUn aft! i anerOPi,
v1epun ti zot ke tl kanun simera ya
ti ton a10
pu sj.xnazun i e1ines. stis
tavernes, sta sta laika kendra
ta 1ipa.
pos ine enas me enas 1a65
pu Icseri na z:t.
ne, tus arese poli pu na
minun ya panda 5tin
Grammatica1 Notes
Note 10.1 Verb: Past tense the 'be'.
KaC



ke kata1ava,
pos i arxei elines,
itan pra-ymatiki
kalitexnes.
And only then did understand
that the ancient Greeks
re.11 artists.
past the verb '00 18 as tollows:
_21:
1.

vas
2.
isun{a) you vere )
). hc,she,it vas

1
/ or
vere
2.
/

or lsastan or 1888 you werp.
). /


:!tan they wcre

GREEK BASIC COURSE
Mote 10.2 Verb: Cla88 1 Verb: Past personal endings.
10

lxEt



ya eJd
alus.
po18 pra'Vlll8ta.
D1d YOU Acropolis7
1 up there vith the others.
They leamed th1ngs.
The present tell8e perscnal endings the Class verb8 (used w1th present,
and d18cul!IRd 1n 4.5. The above 111ust.rate the p8st
personal end1ngs the verb class.
'1he set these end1ngs 1s:
21

1

-a

2.
-es
-ate
3.
-e -an(e)
Class 1 Verbs: Simple Past.


txEt



'fa
minate st1n long d1d you 8tay in
7 thell87
ek!, 1 8tayed veek8.
leamed
ieelan na They vanted to
They th1r.ge tl'Oll
pu bo0k8 they read.
vasan.
The Greek c:orr8sponds in meaning to the Past in Engl1sh (11 d1d 80-

The Pa8t C1a.. verb8 18 by (,) add1ng past tense p8r8onal
endinga to the verb and (2) the stres8 to the th1rd ayllable
the end.
'n1u8, tor the verb /arozo/ 11 begin
l
has the perfect1ve
stem /arxis-/. 'n1e S1mple Past this verb 1s, therefore:
,.

127
Pl.
arnsame
G REEK BASIC COURSE
2.

arx.ises
arxise

lXPXLcrav 11


arxisan or

As can be seen fram this example, the stress 1n the plural forms the verb comes
one syllable later than the stress in the s1ngular fOrmB. The reason for this 1s
the plural endings /-ame/, /-ate/ and /-ane/ ccntain t"o syl1a.bles.
When the th1rd person plural /-an/ is used (as 1n /8rrisan/ above)
the stress falls on the same syl1able in the s1ngular fOrmB.
All 'regular' po],ysyllabic verbs this c1a.ss have the1r stress stdfted in Simple
Past according to the above pattern.
d1as)'llabic Class verbs have a stressed prefixed to the the
verb.
1s usually the /8-/ (e.g. mae8no-maeo-naea) or somet1mes
("1th a 1.iJni ted verbs as the verb
/8810/ 'to V'ant', I1ksera/ the verb /kaero/, etc.)
The 1s prefixed to 'regu1ar' dissyllabic this class V'hen
a syl1ab1e past tense en<ti.ng 1s added to the verb stem. \\'here the end1ng consists tvo
syl1a.bles (e.g. p1ura1 end1ng / / -ate/ and / -ane/) the
or be prefixed to the verb.
/kI.rw/ 'to do
1
ekana d1d'
2. 8kanes etc.
).



'1be S1JDple Past the verb
(e)k4name

but:

/pemo (p&ro)/ vell a8
that the siX other '1rregu1ar' l1sted Note 6.2 1s 88 follovs:
/ph:o/) 'to talc8
'
1.
2.
3. (
(e)pire
126



(e)pframe
(e)pirate
(e )pfran(e)
G REEK BASIC COURSE
/1'&0/) 'to eat'
10




efara
efayes



i1


(e)fayate
etayan or
1'ayane
( ( /pcS/) 'to
1.
2.
3. !pe
'to lene'
1. 'f1ya
2. c5fiyes
3. efiye

"



i1


Ipate
Ipan(e)
(.)
(e)
'f1yan or
tIyane
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
1.
/pr6/) 'to dr1nk'
{p,ya
Ip,yeS

t
( )p!oya

(e)p!ye
'to






( /r.o/ 'to go

(l}nf)yaort





:!pyate


(e)p!yat8
(e)p!yan(e)

i6ate

verb /vr!sko/ 'to find' belongs to a claSS: vhile
steIn i8 constructed like any other 'irregular' Class verb (
/vri/ etc.) its S1Jnple Past i6 by add1ng the past suff1x
129
G REEK BASIC COURSE
/-1k-/ to the perfective stem /vr-/. The resulting form:

vrikes. vrike. vrikame, vrikate, 1s a typical Simple Past form Class
verbs which w1ll be d1scussed later Uni
The iJnpersonal verb L
was necessary', 'had to'.
/prepi/ (Note 6.1) has the Past leprepe/
Verb: 'lbe use the verb /areso/'to please' as equivalent to the
Eng1ish verb 'to like something or somebody'.


sas arese

wbich temple d1d you like the
best ('pleased you most')7
'lbe verb /areso/ 'to please' used in Greek as equivalent to the
El1gl1sh verb 'to like'. Thus:


ares1 or like' ('1t pleases me')

su ares1 or sares1 'you (fam.) like'
tu ares1, tis tu 'he, she, likes'
mas ares1 'we l1ke'

sas ares1 'you l1ke'
tus ares1 ''they like'
'rhe 'liking' e1ther in the geniti
tu,
8U, etc./ above) or in t.he accusat1ve preceeded b,y t.he prepos1t1on /s(e)/
'to'.
'rhua t.he atglish sentence 'th1s li.kes th1s auch' be e1ther:
or
XUp LO. area1 pol! (n) ton g:lrio.
XVptov


attu tu 1dnu tu ares1 po]j
and 1n plural: 'Tbis gentleman l1kes these temples very much':
xvp tov t attu tu Idriu tu aresun aft! 1 nai.

arti i nai aresun to(n)
XUPLO. g:irio.
'rhe Past this verb 18
/8resa, areses, arese/ etc.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Verb: The the verb
( ,
'to be near to" the veree 'to be about to'.

/kondevo
t1t1U& na
atti t1 <Hsko11

Other ex8p1e&:
The 18 about to I118ster
this d1ff1cult language.









nay0r880
to.
kond8vo na
to -n:Ylio.
na 610
to kr..I.
kondm na
el1nik4.
konde'VO na to
IIU.
aBo8t bought car.
about to [anp1ete] read1ng
(aU) th1. book.
f1n1.h8d
aU th18
He '11 aoon be ab1e to apeak
Greek.
about to eat 87 _81.
'1be abo". how the 'Yerb (kond8peo)/
U88d tense d1d U.ed 1n tbe Present. tenae 1t
_ about. to do ao-end-eo.
Note that the.,.b 1. w1th /na/ p1ua SubjUDCt1'Y8.


1 _& xee. eelane na
Iwe 610 to kr..1.

pr:tn p8nde
1 Jdr11 prin
xees lcae61u tus tu.
618 ta pot8.
nikos p!ye 18 stin 1talia.
,.trcS
aft8& ta v1vlia 88&.
a"(Orasame pol8 pra-ymata.
5e 88& xri.lmepse attOl
lcal1 61a ta
mazi
k1 tu _nan ena
stin
G REEK BASIC COURSE
p!yate to kendro oiaskeMseos1
vrikame kanena isit!rio ya ton

af"ti eoosan lef"t8 kanenan.
ar&se poll i pu Qelame na

t! !pes peOi mu1
katalava tl na p!te?
pu isuna
t! ef"ayes niko7
kondepsame na flyume ya t1(m) b8tra.
Correlation-Substlt\Ition Drill
Use the vords in patentheses and change the umerl1ned verb according1y:
mu na pai st1<m) brezm.
rdkos ret8lna.
st1a okt6.
ya t1n aebt
t! stin taksl sas?
p8me stln na ton
poIa vivl!a7
ayorazun pol8 to katist1Jaa.
6la ta vivl!a splti tu.
af"t! i saf"t6 to
na f"_8.

ar8si

.us
oen katalav8n1, tl: akr1ws
---------- ------
!ne stis eksi sto(n)
stia




(prin dna)
(prin

(XSes)

(pr!n







(XSes)
pU
t! kinate
kendro S1.xnizat8
ti(n) OO11?
G REEK BASIC COURSE
10
pu ea m!nete tu xronIJ 7
:lsaste Jcapote stin e186a7
pyes a10s xores
sas arese i
sas arese eki?
aresan, ta arxea er1r18 t1s?
sas aresi na oyaY8zete vivl1a1
(jyawzete elinika vivliai
po18 vivlia ya tin arx:ea
nomizete ya ton arx:eo e1iniko po1itizMo?
t{ 18 tin arxea e1inild
18 tus s:iJnerinu8 elines1
na stin
Gelete na 18
* ,/yal!a/IFrance
133
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Units 6-10
Review Drills
Fill in each b1ank with the proper form of the word given on the right. it is a
noun, use the appropriate form of the article, where neces88ry.
Nouns
"
---------
ta fay1ta aftis ine nOstima.
____________aftQn poli kales.
stin ela5a ine ftina.
- ---------
aftos kseri safti(n) ti(m)
to !ne oreo.
- ---------
!ne kal8 ti(n) gar5ya.
satt!(n) ti(n) daverna bor!te na tate 0
k&pote ayOrazume 0
i 5ulya _ mu exi enaiaterono
i e1B5a orees 0
exete poli _
attu tu nosokomiu ine ka1:l o
i elines exun meyal1
mkos ea t!yi ya ti(m) b8tra.
ixate pr:(n 0
i 8xi "
i attis _ ine poli eksipni.
atti i arxizun stin __ plirotoriono
ea parangilete esis 7
___________ mu ine poli kala peoyao
a5ertos tu patera mu milai pende _
to vivlio exi ena meyal0 ariemo
maresun i poles _
___________stin ela5a 011 pinun retsinao
yatros sas 0
to pola _
aftos r8ftis, exi
kaeiyitis exi _
134
taverna
kuzina
psari



suvlili
yl1k6

yineka


kar5y4



t&ksis
ipiresia

simtititis



vra()i
spiti

epi
5ulya
GREEK BASIC COURSE
to kendro !n(e)
sas pol8
1 ex1
ta .aUna !n(e) akr1w.
aft.ea !ne akr1W&.
B4m.w 6 -10


kat8st1aa


k8ero inan

e11.naa

to kat8at1ma ine
1 prezv!a !n(e) makr18
1 1tal!a !ne t1& oree& ti8.
tna pukimiaa.
ta tu SB& exun _
polu. kalu.
ta tu pl)'8nun kras!
tus _ (pl.) tu patera tua.
_______aftu tu !ne orees.
_________ !ne poll ttin8
!ne
areai att! ?
----
ek81 &t1(m) b&tra.
at1n mskete pMda
t.u aresun 1 pol8a _
kat.8la"';no _ _ attu tu nau.
at1n pol!
111181 t1n ;ya
sta pinume kafe.
prepi na pit.e saft!(n)
prep1 na m118te .e
1 ex1 poll meyalo
eel\8le na sas.
t!yate pote
yame
saf'ti t1(n) daverna vlepete polus sas.
135
r8rt1&


duzw











pelatls
GREEK BASIC COURSE
maresi aftis tis yinekas.
stin i ta1la
afto to 1e1 pote
!xan panda efxaristes
ioame to(m} batera sas.
yUsto
kali


simera ta psarya ine
to kat4stima m:ia plld.l!a
exete pulc8misa.
1ta_ton.
freskos


ine to fai sas1
It1JDos
a!'t8 ta ine

t.&l1oa
i fili pol!
ta ton ine
ixame mazi mas.
118J'esi poU to a1'tu sas.
pr8pi k8erete ine
i elines ine 1aOs.
i t8xni af'tOn ton ine
-------
i italia Bxi y1nekes.
_ _ ton akri
i en oaus.
i ine.
8 as arisi i
i Mitera S88 ine y1neka.
i mu ine ipilili.
ta !ne poU
i ti a!'t:ts tis ine pol!
to
Verb8
etxhistos




n6st18)s
eeni1aSa

aMnatoa
0&0.



8ksipnos

Mn
aftos
xr1mata
610 to kras:t.
1)6


GREEK BASIC COURSE
e&:I& &tin e1ACla prin
ta 8a8 88&
xei8?
attu CIul,yi llti.
n kenU1'yes foreIS;ru.
pr!n 8na ya t1.n eliCIa.
----
6 - 10
akUo
arnzo
ayor4zo
_________ na st1n 18 piad.a.
to sti.
k10 rU.koa st1(n) davema.
to krasf?
(.. prepi na k8nete?
an.:t . .t1n 1taUa, ina
-..------
e.:l1I na to
to tu fore&.
pd stin aeinai
.n. prep1 na to ....
------
.. xee. po18 pra'YUta.
------
pd na pi;y8D81ie t.a

---_.-
tu n!k08 pii na 8t1n
pSs ( tu8 811nes7
-------
..t. &40 eUn1D.
t:! t.o xees .t1(a) b8trat
na enCI1ariron
t:! to pra-yUJ
1)7


xr1.:1a4ho
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Harrative





1n a while,
l1ttle, fev
to arr:ive
P1raeus











cnxMora,
nLcXTO


KL'aVTOt KL'
YLcX
ii-&EMV YLcX EIvaL
EIvaL






138
GREEK BASIC COURSE 6 - ,0
npwt



. ,



139
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Unit 11









-r6
6K-rw
-r6 -r6



WEnPEnE






, ,
140
to
used to
(the) bank
'nIe Nat10nal Bank Oreece
years ago at Nat10nal
Bank Greece.
uaed to start
unt11
. (the) .rternoon
used to start (IIG") at 'clock
lIIOm1ng [and vork] unt11 the
aEternoou.
to
fore1gn, fore1gn8l'
to cbange, C8_h, 8XChange
had. to ('It D8C8_sary t.hat
serV8 ,) a lot Eore1gners
to exchange the1r money.
lIIOst (adj.)
Host had their lIIOney' dollars.
to be vorth. to be value. to
deserve
anyone
G BASIC COURSE 11
U Eva


-6

-6













Mt





dollar 18 worth drachmas and vith th18
{much] money one can do many th1ngs ln
Greece.
obvious
European (per80n8)
It 1.8 obvious that the
the Amer1cans kncw that Greeee 18 an
1nexpens1'V9
to come
they CC11118
( the) thousand
by tbe thousands
And for that [rea8on] th8y by tbe
thou_and8.
vhen they
(the)
(the) cUmate
(the) ant1qu1 ancient
to return
And. vhen they COM and 888 beauty,
and 1ts the7 to
back here again
1ndeed
'rh18 very {Ib8d
a lot interest'} imeed.
G R S c RS








to offer, to 8uggest
better
( the) salary
to
But WaS offered they offeroo me') a better
poeition with more sa1ary. (Recause) you
they dldn't pay me weU 1n that
(and) 80 1eft.












101
102
110
200
300
400
500
600
700

900
1000
Responae DriU





..

142
f. \) La.

.6


G REEK BASIC COURSE
1mIT "




















Narrative


.ei






iU9kx6

-6





a1rplane
to to
1s1and
natura1.
to
to C8sh
check
for example
,

G REEK BASIC COURSE



L kilocram
etKOOL
pack (of cigarettes)







30

lva



Respons8
-----------_.




tfVOL







t L
GREEK BASIC COURSE
"


v ;
OL


v'






C1u8 Verb8. Cont1nu0U8 (Imperf'ect.1w) Put.
6(,0 qo _rked 1n t.be b8ak.

to atart D7 vork.
The Put describe8 _ hab1tual or .tate or _ct.ion 1n the pa8t
1UII1 to Engl1.huaed to do so-nd-eo.
'1'b8 Pa8t the Cla8a 18 .r01'Md. by ar.r1xLng paat peraonal
endinp to the .tea the verb, the strea. pattern the (11
are tbe ..... Paat, e.g.

U8ed to begin
etc.
IpXIoCc



or


U8ed to
etc.

(

or

The Cont1nuoU8 18 _1va18 'regular'. Some verbs (such and and
othere) baw one _paat. t8nae tom, Vh1ch may e1ther pertect1ve (S1mple Past)
or (ContinuoU8 Past) lDean1ng.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Note 11.2 Verb: Past tense the verb
'to
---------
Tbe past tense the verb
"
18:
Sg. had Pl. we had
you had you had

he (she
J
had they had
Verb: 'lbe verb


'to come'.
And for that reason they come by thousands
to Greece.
The 'to come' 15 '1rregu1ar' Class vcrb.
Cl.ass verbs be discuS3ed :later un1ts. this stage
J
hO'",ever
J
the student
shou1d already be able to use this verb in 1ts three basic forms which are fo110WS:
Present Tense
,.
2.







1 etc.
1 came etc.


or




q
or
Perfect!ve
--------------------
1. or

2. cr
3. or

..
'l'he Future and the Subjunctive forms this vcrb are constructed by the
and the Perfect1ve stem with the partic1es and
shou1d be noted the S1mp1e and Perfective stems this verb a150
be respectively. 50 that may hear came' and
'he'll paralle1
Other forms this verb wi11 be discussed in 1ater units
J
togethcr with other Class

146
G REEK BASIC COURSE "
Adject1ves denoting nat1ona11t1es.







It's obv1oU8 t.bat the &1ropeana
the Amer1cans lmov that Greece i8
1nexpens1ve
; hov perfect the ancient Grcek art
that. the anc1ent Qreeks real art1_t8.
Adjecti'V88 d8n0t1Dg nat1onaUti_ have tvo depending vbet.her they perSOM
or th1ngs, e.g. (,) but (.)
'an 'an A8er1can _tatian.'
Other





va:6c;


French doctor
a Spanish sailor
8 profe_8Or
8 Russ1an student.
a French
a Span1sh
art

JdjectiW8 tbe f1r8\ {i... tho8e peI'8OD8) are 8l8o U88d, Un
1n _l18h, .. e.g.






With 8 except.1ona the adjectivea (or nouns) ot the tirst. categor,y have
tonu in e.g.


,47
Greek VOI'W\
French
GREEK BASIC COURSE



Houn: languages.

5panish woman
German
Russian
study Greek.
e.g.
The languages various countries




Greek language
the French language
"the language,
the Rus81an 1anguage, etc.
are a180 1'8terred to as




"areek
French

Ruas1an... etc.
Note that these nouns a1'8 UBed in
Cireek 18 d1rr1cult.
Spanisb 18 -87.
French 18 a beaut1tul







148








GREEK BASIC COURSE
nfPVCJL

.


&PXLCav
"

XL


t


'E<J(j

nfPVCJL.
.

ItL .ed



'Ec1Ett
lp&o\lv
Correlation DriU8
------..--.------------------------
U8e the 8IId change the pa8t.


4EL'&1
'EaEtt nL1t'I'

_










G REEK BASIC COURSE



r


)


)
Exercis8











xat
1S0
G REEK BASIC COURSE
tmit 12
12






George
George ('VOC)
to look, 1;0
seel lookJ
Georce, vho
I
t.he cioor.



(the)
(the) telegr_
(the) let.t.er




themai1Jr..an Qeorge. You
a and a registered let.t.er.




to wait
wait!

a coming right.




------------
15'1
here it 181

to 8ign
G REEK BASIC COURSE



Here 18 your letter and the telegram. They
are from America. Sign here,please.





-r6
to
that you
to throv (tbrow it!]
(the) box
(the) post ofnce, _11
(the) stamp


xou-rt



-r&

vfcx 6
Do a favor. can you this letter for
Put i t i t') in the
at ('of
l
) the poet ofrice. It has stamps.
10ud1y,
(the) neV8

read them 10ud1y, George, 15 the
('your brother vrit.es you').


lnLaXEcpo&Tj
-r6
to hope
to
that he visit .
( the)


'[6

He says that he hopes to visit. us this


(the) girl
to be
G REEK BASIC COURSE ,a
that he be





Ncf
*xt
And soDleth1ng e18e. He vanta to get urried.
('he vanta ua to find h1JD a g1rl so that
he her')
band8cne
he doesn't
(the)
He "18 [he vanta her] to be good and
pretty and be doesn't eare about the ckNr,y.


d




d cn6v
cn6v
d -rou


Ncf -rou -rou

-rTjt; -r6 .. w


-r6 ...
wu ..

npot...
Ilu'rat.1w
--_._--
_m.PA'.
6
a-r6
-r6

abroad
GREEK BASIC COURSE
























.
to pass, spend (t1me)
howewr
ne1ther; nor; even
unate, poor
he s1ts
as as
to be sorr,y
noth:lng
1nter:i.or
to send
order
8ddre88, d1rect1on

telegraph o!'f"1ce
NewYork






154
G REEK BASIC COURSE
t.

..


50
'rijc;

'"
Response Dr1ll
-----------

MIi.fe

ClU-roc;
lla:pw:

6 ;
vcI
lXE't.
crr6




'.
1'6
50
d crr6

Ma! MOy'ri
lote8
-----------------
10181 Vocat1V8.
nOL6c; elvaL


pLE rLGipyO
tSS
.88 V!1o. at the doorJ
Mr. George, you have a registered letter.

G REEK BASIC COURSE
Maria, ceae qu1ckly.
These il1ustrate the use the vocative in Greek, vhich is used in
calling or addressing someone. As can be from the above nouns in the vocat1ve
case are used Vithout articles.
First declen$ion:
a) Masculine nouns in bave the vocative like the accusative, e.g.
Vocati
It should be noteci, that nouns in especiall7 denoting a h1gher
soc:i-al or proressional position rom their vocative in (a8 1n katharevusa)
VO"-Atiw : pror"aorl
b) MaacuUne in bave the voeative alvays l1ke the aceusative,
Vocatiw;
c) All and neuter nouns ot the !1rst d8cleaaion ha,ve the vocative like the
8.1.
, daughterJ ch1lciI

nouns 1n (except proper bave the vocativ8 in 8.g.
S1rJ, CaptainI
b) the '9'Ocat1ve l1ke the accusat1ve-, e.g. GeorgeI
Verb: Clas8 Verbs:


.
SeeJ
W81t a
'1he above ex.amples il1ustrate tbe use !orm).
The in Greek can be either 'perf'ective' or '1IIIperf'ective'.
'do the action the verb' vhile th8 Imperat.ive IDean8
'keep doing the action the verb'. bas a (2nd pers. singU1ar)
and a pol1te or plural 0118 (2nd person plural).
The 'perfective' Imperative vill be referred to as 'Imperat1ve' and the
Imperative 'cont1nuous' Imperative.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
,a
Imperat1 (perf'ect1
1s f'onned 1n Greek by adding the sutlix (tam1liar f'onn) or (polite
or plural f'onn) to the perf'ect1ve the verb.
:
readJ ( read.]

s1gnJ
1:0 s1gn.]
8eel ( to ]
verb8 with 1rregular perf'ect1ve stem Note 6.4)
Verb




88,.
drinlc
...
t1Dd










Continuoua
Cont1nuoua (tkeep do1ng 80-and-sol') 18 by 8dd1ng the sutt1x -
(tud.l1ar or (pol1te or plural torm) to the 1Jnpertect1ve Btea the




keep read1ngl
k8ep look1ngl
ete.
Verbs with vovel 6.3) haw the t8lll1l.1ar f'onn 1n and
tbe pol1te tOl1ll 1n

-rpw-


2t

on1,. (cOnt1nuous) Imperat1 f'onn:

7fTJyatvw
Verb

aay
Note the verb

'Ihe Imperat1ve lonn the verb
Sg.
.
1s:

* The f'onn
English 'helloJ'.
18 n the telepbone only equ:ivalent to the
,S7
G REEK BASIC COURSE

Verb: Impersonal verb
'1'.0 care'.
He doesn't care about 1'.he dowry.
The
iB used 1.e. in 1'.he )rd pcrson s1ngu]a r as follows:
Present Pas1'.
------
11 don11'. care
d1dn 1'. care
you dm' 1'. care
you didn11'. care
etc.
etc.









Drilla
------------------

..
Dou

KUPtez
6

-:6

Min.

G.D.1


1Se













GREEK BASIC COURSE










12
lxovv

av

SUbst1tution
Subet1tute the appropr1ate 1'o1'lllB 'the wrb for the underlined /prlJp1/
phrasea 1n the sentencea.












1$9
G REEK BASIC COURSE






-----------------


..E







-rou ni-rE

160
GREEK BASIC COURSE
'3


EtvaL




aT6

-6
EtvaL

(,)



UpfnEL






npfnEL

,61
(the) servant
(the)
Our husband 18 a sallor.
(the ) (ocean )liner
world (adj.)
(the) hope
He works an the (oeean) 'Wor1d

H15 life, so she tells us, '98r7 bard.
to up
ear:q
to clean
(the) deck
He bas up ear:q and clean the
deck.
afterwards, later,
to w1pe, ....ep, bru8h
(the) cab1n-
prepare (the bed),set (table)
(the) bed
Atterwards he to sweep the cab1n8
..ke the beds.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
(uaed af'ter

6




(1)







fxE1.








nou &ci

af'ter
1'.0 tinish
(the) capta1n
(the) otticer (un1t0J:Wld)
Atter he tinishes this job he has to clean
the cab1n those tbe
otticers.
1'.0 tee1 pa1n, io hurt
tired
1'.0 sleep
tbat be 81eepa
At h1s body hurta 80 {1IIUc:b], and
he 18 80 tired that he can t

that 18 ('these has')
he saya can ve do,
tbat'. the l1te a aai1or
l

to plan, 1'.0
He plans 1'.0 J88I'8 tbe ...
he viU .8".
a _11 s1'.ore
And vith the 1DOD81 tbat he he wiU
buy 8 store.



162

G REEK BASIC COURSE
1)
nOL6


TC







C







-rOV
-rwv

-r6 -rou
-r6v Mv-ra:
-roii

Xp6VLtX.


Narratiw




d


-r6

-6


16)
Greece
port, harbor
cook
tour18t (adj.)
GREEK BASIC COURSE

<ta:
YLci


Au<t& <ta

Ain6 <t6 L


ltalian
)
to stop
to last
ruu
joy
a<t6 -rou
-av<t6 l:n<tci
"EXEL
-rou


EtMOaL
YLci
1I4t .
1CIIt

cn6
V 1.0;



"EXEL


164

t

ElvCXL M4t noAv
M4t



GREEK BASIC COURSE 13


C

Notes
lote 13.1. Verb: Class 11 Verbs. Present Tense.



He has to vake Up wry ear]y.
night his body hurts 80 that he
can't sl.eep.
'lhe above sentences the use Class 11 verb8 1n present tense {see a1ao
'D1e c!'.aracter1stic the th1s class they ther erxi 1n
stressed 1n the1r citation (Uke 't,o be able') have t1Io a1ternate
1n and 1n (Uke / /
Accord1ng1y, the Cla8S n verbs have two sets personal end1ngs 1n the Present tenses

Plur.
1.

or
a. or
-EtorE


3.
or

-
'Jhere are three of class ot 'gerbs:
verb8 vhich have altemate fo1'll8 1n the f1rst person s1ngular and
plural 8J'Id 1n the th1rd person plural. 'D1e altemate used 1nterchangeab]y by the
nat1... Oreek, e.g.
Verb 't,o 1888'
,
fonr..
1. or
2.
3.
165
Plur.
-----

or

or
G REEK BASIC COURSE
comprises Class verbs which are used in both alternate fonns 1nterchangeab1y
1n aU persons, e.g.
Verb (or 'to speak'

Plur.
fonn fonr: tonn
,.
2!

or
2.



or

3.

21:

or

Class verbs which have alternate forms e.g.
,.
2.
Verb



lto be able'
Plur.



Class verbs: Future and Subjuncti'V8
Future and the SUbj_ct1w Cont1nuous tbiB class are
qy ecf and respectively, e.g.



1'11. be spealdng f!1Very day.
U keep uldng 10\1 a1l t.be
l' 11 be s88111g 10U da7.
!0t8 '!-.! C1a8a wrb8. Iiotat.1en.
BegUm:Sng ,4 verb. be1ODg5ng to t.be Group , 11111 be (,) Sn tbe buUd-upe,
to Group a v1Ube (2) 8nd V8Z'b8 be1oDg1ng to th8 Oroap 3 WiU be
(,). 8.1.
"' ..

CW
(.) to up
(a) to thanlc
(3) to 11'98
1'he Perfective st8 will be given :1n parentheses as for the Class 'gerb8:


,66
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Drills
13
























--------------------------
Change the personal end1!'1gB underUned 1rerb6 to agree v1th the (or
11sted













167


)



)
.





G REEK BASIC COURSE



rLaTt


6


6










tpxoVTaL



0'.
1Wc; ElvclL _t
.ftcrc.
-Bxcc.

..
168


G REEK BASIC COURSE
tm.t ,4
-------
(the)
(t.he) street
14


Officer, where 18 street,

(the) block, )


T811 (tar) here.
(the) barr8Ck
EtVaL 1t'5 r1Bht beyand the barracks.


EtVaL
KL







old, aged, elder).;r
Oh, 13 too far for an o1d l1ke _.
cbaufteur
danIt
to
( the)
the (katharnu8a

Don' t worry, 'm the chaufteur ot
tbe _bassad.or. 1'11 giw you a
('take you th car ).

(3)


( the) sectiCll
oonaider,
(the) visa
to give a visa
GREEK BASIC COURSE









'f6

(,1
cn6





..
(1)




Thank you very much. d like to go t.he
Consu1ate, to the Visa Section
('to the 8ection that thel give visas').
(t:'1e) son
(the )jnvitation
have a jn Ameri.ca 8ent me an
1nvita't'.iClll 1;0 go and
to t..'tjnk, to in
{the) otfice, de8k
{the) consul
ask tor, look
50, -1'11 go ('1 have 1n m1nd to got) and
t.he and ge't'. ('ask')
some
to appear
80 he appear

to help
have a fri81d over there vho tura out
to be U8efUl and helptul to ;you.
to
hope goes f1ne [for
you].

.t
KUpta
G REEK BASIC COURSE
14
























Narrative













171
the last. reC81t.
wealth
opportW11ty

:impress1on
frightru1. dreadful.
terr1ble, tremendous
GREEK BASIC COURSE





''EXE'rE


'e!:2-.
w



1n!luence


1t 18 lo<:ated,
s1tuated
to be tound
'"
av-m 1IOU MoVro
N4t
Ixouv
_k m 'ffi'
'" ..
'r6
_,
'r6
O'W ctvcn.

-






nou

"Exouv fxouv
GREEK BASIC COURSE






















Nightclub.
reads U8 a sentences
Grammatical Notes
Noun: Tb1rd Declene1on.
F8dn1ne nouna 1n:
1) (Th1rd Declension 1n katharevusa)
2 ) - t , ('lhird Declension - t , in ka )
) (Third Decleos1on in
Th1rd Declension nouns in (unstreSSed)
t Untortunate1y the doctors in ('of') our city
bospital aren't good.
uYaoEpa then askB U8 quest1ons.
He sent me an invitation.
---------



the underlined nouns in the above sentences belong to vbat traditional1y called
'Th1rd Declension'.
This particular group third Declension nouns consists femin1ne nouns vhich end
in an unatressed
17)
G REEK BASIC COURSE
these no1.mS have an altermative 'dh:imotiki' fonn 1n and nouns every
day usage, such as for exanple, have s1ngle fonn in while the fonn
1& used 1n wr1tten katharevuaa only.
80th have one set plural endings, but two altemative singular 8ets.
:

Plur.
*
G.



#

*

*
should be noted tha10 the katharevusa fenin1ne a.rt1cles 1n the and Acc.
plural are and respect.1vely. <aee 14ter un.1.ts ).
The 11810 ot case emings tb1s group th1rd Declension 18:

Plur.
ll.

#


#


#

#



Houna 1n - C -& / -


Ne vorks on the ocean liner 'World Hope'.

Two ....eeks
In first sentence the Greek vord for 'hope' U8 used 1n its katbarewsa !onn because
1t 18 8 part proper IWorld. Hope'.
All nouns in and have their katharevusa counterpart8 1n
and respect1ve1y (e.g.
These have been replaced by the Greek -&00
to...
nouna are decl1ned like f1rst Declens10n feMinine nouns 1n (su.ch
u
) ....ith the sing1e exception that the end1ng thS&8 nouns
1.8
---------
G REEK BASIC COURSE




.

G.





14
It's right beyond tbe barTacks.
O!!icer, "here 1s street, please2
't"cx '1be tailor "i11 take your and
't"ou his ski11 to make your su1t
perfect.
Feminine nouns in are declined like those 1n (Note 14.1.2), i.9.

6 't"a


G.
1.6 't"a



The katharevusa counterparts tbese nouns end :in.t , e.g.
(8ee later
Masculine Nouns in deri t-he Thi.rd Declension katharewsa nouns 1n
and



'Jhese examples 111ust.rat.e tbe use nouns in der1ved the katharevusa
th1rd declens10u nouns in and 'Jhese nouns are dec11ned like the !irst
declernsion nouns in
vhich 18 never stressed
-.-------------
(e.g. ) except !or the
the policemen' to
the .sergents').
The nouns and are
kathareVUBa.
in
'Jhe katharevusa !orms these as well as those enumerated in Notes 14.1.1,2 and 3
vi11 be discussed t.ogether vith other Jrd. declension nouns in units dea1ing with katharevusa

Declension 'three' and I!our'.
175
GREEK BASIC COURSE


TI1e above ex.amples sbow that the numerals
and 1n case with nOW1S
'1hese n\llllera1s are declined as fo110118:
and agree 1n gender


(i.


G.
Ae
Anotber 'declinable'

'one' discussed 1n thit 7.1
!xamples:




, -

L


vife a friend
\ie th1rteen good doctors.
houae your tbree brothers.
'1'be 1uggage ot tbose tour touri8t8 18
here.
We h8d t'0U!"teen hour de1a)".
three _a110rs go the

'Ihe examp1es that the n..ral.s
'three
'
'iour' but also the1r CCIIIpO\1DCI8 8uch
,
tbree' etc. agree 1n gem.. and 1n case vitb D01WI
other 1 to 199 are 1.8. the;y baw
'Ihe fran 200 up be discussed 1n 18ter un1ts.
F1r8t case end1ngs in katharewsa.
the chau1'feur.
In the footnote to Hote 5.7 &tated that a small number tbe f'1rst dec1ension
IBascul1ne nouns 1n (such f'or aa etc.) are
GREEK BASIC COURSE
o!ten used 1n the:lr katharevusa
'1he .et case endings such nouns is as
UNIT 14


11.






Plur.
---



J}.

Dr1l1a
------------------



YL&
&faL








EtVaL
















GREEK BASIC COURSE














'



.


'
























'twv
lX
"C'6

0

0

0




178
GREEK BAS1C COURSE
14








d
.








Lwv


Drill
the in for t.he \81derl1ned vord each sentence us1ng
plural foras necessary.








d



(




)


(

the nmerals 1n parentheses for tbe underl1ned anes using the1r
179
G REEK BASIC COURSE
tcm8 to agree vith the no1Wl t.bey 1IOd1f'y.




EIvaL


EIvaL

EtvaL

(2),)
( 4)
( 1)
( 4)
(33)
( 4)
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( ,)
EtvaL
crr6
W tXEt.



ciplaEL




84
dpfaEL


,80
GREEK BASIC COURSE




to th1nk
dadd;y, paPA
to obl1ge
ton1ght
'S
,
XL
don't bel1eve,father, you're going to make
us stay aga1n tonlgbU


t

&11, far
1n accordance
to go out
outa1de
"OxL,
EIvaL

'"
'"




"E&VLJW

DOt all. 'l'he ('accorcUng
to ."". plaM 1t s for us to go out.
(the) c01mn
(t..'1e) newspaper
to advert.1S8
(the) spectacle
Look up 1n the the
DeWBpaper (I1ook tbe 00118\
1n the;y advert1se nr10us
spectac1es ' ) .
National [theatre]
plq,
GREEK BASIC COURSE
stingy,
(the) actor
to take, get, recei
f!: (the) place; toi1et
to take part, participate
excellent
Tbey're P\1tting on 'The M1ser' tbe
the part1c1pate :1n 1t.)
are excellent..
TIItEI.


(,)



1" '(IItE 8& 0"(6
..
'(6
0.1.
to telephone
(the) theatre
keep, reserV8
to
vhat
(the) telephme
'U can the tbeatre to l'88eMe
(1)
(1)



'(6
-11,
-6




182
to forp\
to 8po1l., breaJt cIown, d88tr07
to f'u
yet,at.1ll
Oh, to 1Ou
It's out order and they haven't t1xed
)'8t.
in charge
(adj.)
(the) a88oc1ation
(the) pennission, leave, l1sence,
vacation
(the) vacation
(the) interrupticn
G REEK BASIC COURSE
'5




,.,
d




,.,
,.,


vho does th18 ldnd job
1n chargel) for ('of') the
18
vhere e]se
'Jh81 elae can go1
(the) t.ragedy
(tbe) tourist
Not to preek] tragedy because 1t v111 be
h11
certa1n,
8ucb, this k1nd ot
(tbe) beat
(the) 80ul
be 8Ure tbat 1n such hot veather
(theat
t
) there be JJoul there.














-----
,00,
aooo
5000
,0000
20000
,00000
1000000
,
GREEK BASIC COURSE

J.
Tt
Tt
Tt YL



npfnEL d


8& La


6
UOTL

L, li
EIvaL






UnfPOXOL.
llpfnEL

''OXL,

lYLvE


JInopouv

liv



OTL

G REEK BASlC COURSE
Narrat1ve




-6






6



-6

-6
d




UNI'L 1S
1t pleased. ('useci to
o
.)
last, past
cla.81cal
play,
depth
role
as 00. as

poar
to gether, cOllect, take 10
to acldew, 8Ucceed

d
because
-6
d acqualotance
lfv t although, thougb
natcouv


185
GREEK BASIC COURSE










;










Ma









166










G REEK BASIC COURSE
, S

Notes
Note ,5., Cla88 11 Verbs:
--------



and W1th tbat he saves ('"iU
save') be'll buy a 81118.U store'.
1'11 phone [and ask to seDd to me.
Perfective 8te1n Cla88 11 verbs 18 by add1ng o,f the ,formative su.r,f:1xes

or the Present the e.g.
Verb Present Per,fecti St8n
'1:.0 speak'
lto be able'
11:.0 laugh'
'to consider "orthy'
'1be grea1:. major11:.y Class 11 verbs the1r Perfective fonns W1th the sutfix
only a n_ber verbs have the sutfix
F'oUOIfing 15 the Us1:. Clas8 11 verbs vtu.ch have already occurred in th15
J
(3) 1:.0 "orry
(2) to help
(3) 1:.0 last
(3) to lDeaD
(3) toexplain
(2) to
( (2 ) 1:.0 please
(, ) to ask for
(3) to
(3) to oonaider
( ( 2)
1:.0 hold
(2) to speak
( (3) to be able
(
( ,)
to ,forget
t\Jnvw (, )
"ake up
(2) to save
187
GREEK BASIC COURSE
( (,) to beg
(, ) pa88
(, ) be hUDgry
(, ) hurt
( (, ) to preter
(, ) to
(, ) to 8ak
(, ) to stop
(a) to excuse

(.) to agree
(2) to mall
(2)
to telephone
( (1 ) to deatroy
Aa can be above 11at the verb8

and have tbe
ve tOJ'118 and respect1\'8ly; 1.e. both verbe loae their
f'1nal /a/ tbe pre8ent a't8B.
Clua Verbs: Fut1d'8 and
SDple hture and tbe SUbjunct1w tormed by' ccmb1n1ng the vord8 .ea and
rupect1ve17 vith the pertect1ve the verb.
The end1Ags l"uture and. Subjunct1\'8 are the &8 those the Pre8ent
verb8 except; tor the the and per80D S1ngular.
the are and

ask
.ea
.ea etc.

.ea
Claaa Verbs: S1Jrrple Past.


We tound a guide expla1ned to us the
arch1tecture temples.
The underlineci verb 1n the above aentence 1llustrates the use the S1Jnple Past a
---------------------------------------------------
* '1he 1 at pers.pl. end1ng 1a somet:1JDes used 1n
1nBtead
,88
Glass verb
GREEK COURSE
'to explain'.
15
The S1mple Past the Class verbs 15 fomed by aff1x1ng past tense personal
endings to the perfective and shifting the stress to the third syllable fran the end.
If the syllables 15 less thall three a stressed pref1xed to t.he verb.

Class
Verb: (2),

(3)

(1)

(3)

1.
1>.
3.



(
(

( ( ( ) (
(
(
(


Claas 11 Verbs: Cont1nuous Past.

1t didn't please (I1t 1fasn' t pleasing')
her
'l'he above example the use the Cont1nuous Past Class verbs.
'1he Cont1Duous Past this Class 15 by add1ng the sutf1x to
tbe stem the verb. 'l'he personal end1ngs are those whicb used tor the Past
tense. 'lbe sutr1x 15 al.,ays stressed.
2.




Plur.



Continuous Past in
nov with the money sav1ng
,89
GREEK BASIC COURSE
example 111UBtrstes the UBe another !onn Cont1nuous Past vh1ch 1s constructed
by the unstressed surr1x and the Past tense personal endings. e.g.
Plur.
1.
2.
). (

'lhis !om of Past 1.8 uaed 1n 11eu t.he 1n
'Ibe wrb !onns its Past l1ke the verb -(see

Plur.
1.
2.
3.
( (
Hote 15.5 Declens10n Neuter 1n
---------

'tou.
'Ibe tail.or pays spec1al attent10n ('8hows
great 1ntere8t.
1
) to h18
Neut.er 110uns 1D (in are decUned as !oUows:

Plur.






Ad.ject1'Ve8: SbU't st.ress on adject1ves v1th
. end1ng in a
Nd

You 8ure that 1n 8uch hot veather
there vm' t a soul there.
In the sentence above the adjective is stressed on the second
8711ab18 fraa t.he end. vhlle 1n the the SBDle adject1ve the stress 18 on
the third 8711able t.he end:
The sh1.tt stress to t.he syllable the end 1n fOl'llls t.he
adject.1ves vit.h 18 regular 1n katbarevusa. or not
190
GREEK BASIC COURSE
be shi.fted in e.g. or or
15
Noun: 'Indec1inable' novns.
n1lllber nouns borroved foreign languages <most3.y fran French) are
1.e. varied by inflectional
G.




Other :1ndecUnable are:
.







elevator
rad1atcr
sport
etc.
Dril1s
------------------
OL








vd





191
G REEK BASIC COURSE
,,"C

YL ,,"6
XfPL,
6
6


nfPUCH


,,"6 ,,"6


c.
..
tou
..


6 au,,"ou ,,"ou

IJiv,,"a




192
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Transformat1on-8ubst1tution Drills
'S
Change t.he verb fonns Cont. Past to S1mple Fut. using the words 1n parentheses
or them for the words where necessary.




anCTL







(aUPLO)
(aUPLO)


(aUPLO)

(aiJPLO)



Subst1 vorda 1n parentheses for the wordB 1n the follov1ng sentenc88
change the verb 1nto past.













193

Xp6VLa)

LK&)





EtL

GREEK BASIC COURSE
Drill
t.he underli!'led verbs into Past:


Mf
C L

Tpfvo.































Tov



cnIjv


C ;

d

llOLO( Tov




194
GREEK BASIC COURSE Rev1ev " - '5
Fill m each blank vit-h the proper or t-he vord given t-he r1gbt. 11' 11'. 18 a
noun, use the appropriate the article.
tJouns










_________

















"






















195
GREEK BASIC COURSE
0' _
_
lxEL _
ElVL _



0
npfnEL

0
0

ElVL

EtL 0
;
_
_


Tou 0
16 _
o
EtVL

lKEL 0
XLp6 0
uAv

196


t



























GREEK BASIC COURSE Reviev 11 - 1$
,
0

_
't6v
tfPE'tE
't
av't6v _


_
__________ EtVaL
EtVaL
La .__
'tCnO'ta.
'tpCa Xp6VLa _
Mv'ta 't6v
't6
TH'tav
._
'tov, YL'av't6 't6
Adje<:ti
------
'tpCa
__________
Av'toC EIvaL
EIvaL



AV't6 't6 Epyb EIvaL

197











t'taLpCa














GREEK BASIC COURSE
_________ HaLp6

_
EIvaL
EIvaL
naCtEL



_________


txovv EIvaL

Hat
---------
Verbs






__-----__


nplnEL


- --------

50
nplnEL



























L


GREEK BASIC COURSE




Review 11 - 15



























-m
0


199
GREEK BASIC COURSE


xaC

d


---------
Narrat1ve
--------








w v

xat

xat
w
fYLvE. ""

v

vcf
d xat
MC

fYLvE
MaCC
dpxai:a xat m

xaC
vcf
xaC
d xaC vcf
200
G REEK BASIC COURSE
11 - 15



Nfa









201
GREEK BASIC COURSE








ro1Ung
( tb8) aot.1on,
(tbe) tratt1c

s tbe tratt1c this
.om1ng.




'f6





( the)
at present, r1ght

about, aga1Jlat,
accorc11ng to, dur1ng,
-u.

terr1.bl., a1aerable,


pret'ty r1ght bIlt t.ovarda
\181.1&111' get8

-6


(the) m18tortune. b8d 1uck
halt (adj.)
balt past e1s'V8D
1'1rst, 1'1rst 01' a11,
to begin 111th
(the )un1vers1ty
202'
GREEK BASIC COURSE ,6
(the) Scoo1 Techn010g,y
npfnEL


Wbat a s1nce (first) have to go to
the 11:30, and tben be
500001 Technolog,y noon.


HAv

1f vere
vould go
vere you ('1n your place
1
) r'd va1k
('go by [tbere].

(a)

-6

I'd like to
to stroll,
to take a
(tbe) ra1n
po8sib1e, straDa
1mpossible(edv.)




(6)
'f6






'd l1ka wry to take a valk, bat. tb
this ra1n it 's Dp08sible.
besides,
a l1ttle
at least
( the)
Be81de8 it t.ake _e leut 4S
to get there.
besides, 1n tio,
apart
80 (8dj.)
(tbe) pedestrian
(tbe) sidevalk
6

-6
6
GREEK BASIC COURSE
(the) crosa
(the) :intersection, cros_road
central
(the) road., st.reet

nECot
xat

Because :in addition to tb8 heav tratlic
(tlII8JV' caars there are too pedestrian.s
on sidevalks and tbe
inter8ections.
you ... ) have 1D JI1Dd,
70U p1aan1ag
Then \lbat are you. ('p1anning') to do7



,,6

to poatpcne

(the)

,,6
'U call and po8tpane rq appo1ntMnt8



6
(the) 1d8a
UlJllhere, ....
(\be
(the)
xat
,,6
xa t
&& d
'1bat's a good ideal you.
it's 0001 :In Athens :in the attem.oon
and besides that bel1eve '11 ha..., S<81
('will out) 1n a
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Usetul words
,6
6
(1)


--

to ansver
todec1de



tf 6
6



'" 6


(2)
Hu






6
llpfnEL
6


205

expens1veness, accuracy
G REEK BASIC COURSE
/






!1:!!!2e2.!:










8&

(3)
","6










206
gasoline
to take out
beyond, over, the
other side
to ends meet,manage
rich

ship
eitheror
to run
speed
to mean
pol1ce
to
to put, place, lay',
perhaps, be


self, alone, single,
the one
strength, power
G REEK BASIC COURSE
(1)














16
to 8urp&SS, exceed,

&ccident
1D'1tll
one,
any CIOe,
one, nobod;y
vh1chever

slOW'1y

bapp8Ded

nEPLaa6,,"Epa

NaV,,"LKOV
lva


ttVOL,
Av,,"6
YLa,,"t
txovv YLa,,"t
M&,,"L. a't"Tjv
aV,,"OKLvTj,,"OV.



GREEK BASIC COURSE












&t
Hotes
- _.- ----------
tOX'88C1
1C.L
KOV-M
LCI


vell and )"OU2
Hear tb.

Wa1t a DI1nute, 1'11 right avq.
ab0'98 tbe use tormed adject1ves. adwrb8
81tber :1n :1n
adverbs end:ing :1n -a a180 correspond1ng :1n e.g. /
LCI.
bave e.g.
Adverbials t:1Jne.

208
late1y
all the
G REEK BASIC COURSE
last week
16
this month
denot;1ng time are used 1n tbe accusatiw case to correspond 1n Engl18b
ad_rb1al phrases 'last week', Inext month', lat n1ght
l
, etc.
Other


.6

and Ad.verbs:



6
,.

next year
n1ght
n1ght
Re81des 1t
l
s least ten b1ock8 ."'ay.
M08t ot th_ are
'lhe Partbenon 18 tbe b1ge8t 1n
Acropol1s.
He wants to dr1'V8 t'aat.er.
'1he above example8 1l1ust... ...t.e the ot torms adject1Y88 and ad'V8rb8.
'1he ve 1n Greek 18 1n tvo way&:
1) by' putt1ng the betore the adjective or adverb, e.l.
1.6 b1gger
ta8ter
2) by' atr1x1ng the 8utt1x to the ne11ter tom tbe
the adject!wl 18 replaced by the J!!. e.l.


-6

,

-6
-6
-6
209
GREEK BASIC COURSE
adject1ves !om tbe1r 1rregu1arJ3, e.g.


fol" t.b8 IDglish 'than
I
, e.g.
'bad'

Greek 118811



'old






U Y'OU valk t.hezoe.
1ik. '9817 aucb tak8 valk.


S\IP8Z'lat.1w
-------
1he Superlat.1" m Greek 18 tbe preceded b7 art.icle, e.g.



('l'he superlat.i.,., t01'll8 are 1n later
JIote ,6., Verba
-------
- C10V ici

fj.eM
Qt ici vcf are the only cio
...
vit.h tbe Pas1; 1s used ind1cate tbat. tbe the verb
aa potent.:lAl 1.e. Fngl1sh 01" vou1d


'U' senteDces v1U be 1n 1n later un1ts.

f).&EM vcf
. -

vcf
3cf
i4
2,0
vould like very auch to go t.here.
vould like JRuch to
It Dloney go to Greece.
vou1d please very much.
GREEK BASIC COURSE
16
Adject1ve: katharevusa neuter fonn 1n
It's :i1!Iposs1ble go there.
-ov the regular ending neuter adject1ves in katharevusa" adjectives are
used 1n th1s in spoken Greek.

a"r6
"Av
"r6

"r6
vd nEPM"rci"rE;


vd
vd

nO"rf
"Av
Y(VOV"rI.
Kt
lloU

noU
dptaouv

21'
GREEK BASIC COURSE
tJa1t. 11
-----.
C )





'ft 6

(

, v 'f6v
'fOV 'ft v4


1.4 'f6 'tIX t
yoV(1'fO




.12
to 118 qu1et.,
(t.be)
to let. alone,
1et.J JII8 a10118J 8top 1t.,
aca (d.o that.)
(t.be) comenat.1ca, talk
Mar1a, be quiet. tor a .eCClldI DonIt talk'
Let hear tatber 18 8q1ng to
0.1. dgn 118 d1dD Xrtc1d to
iDterrupt. b1a [exact.17]
doe8 be vant to ten
1.8 qv.e8t.1ca 1.8,
the pobtt. 1n 18

be bas 1n to talJc to you
about 70V1' tr1p to
11'
to approw

to use, to to treat.
used

G REEK BASlC COURSE
17
to persuade, to conY1nce









(1)













t C

(3)
813
What it be doesnIt approV8 (and)
tr1ed everytb:1ng (rused all tbe 1188D8 )
to p8rsuade
to torture, to teaae
a little
( the) approval, CC8188nt
1; t.lW1k
tatber, be vant8 to tea8e a
11tt.le betore be g1 bi8
to acqu1.re,

tMnk he has b1s tor 401Dg
1t...... He 408811 U8 to take
tor (rthat
..
to aooept,
be accept8
1;0 e&ea,to apprec1at8
(tbe) vortb, value, C08t
He ('acC8ptI) at once
vbatever ve aak (rtell h1a, because he
V8Dte to U8 apprec1ate tbe '981118
(t.be) bapp1ness
to t1nd j07 and happ1n888 :in
to
tvw

G REEK BASIC COU RSE
wh11e, vben, vhereas
(tbe) 1ntent1on, purpoee

tvw


-6
-6




Wl t

Indeed7 ADd ID08t of
t1Jne, wh1le poor [father]
80 ('1188 such a good. 1ntent1on').
(the) peraon
go1deD
low

(the) f8lll1q
Be such a per8CD. He baa ('111 )
a golden heart. tull (extrce) low lDd


----.--















lIhen the7 ;you
to s1t
to caU

vo1ce
G REEK BASIC COURSE




8cf Ha C





11
res_ble
COU81n
cous1n (t.)
--
w'Uj
C 'fOU
vcf
vcf
'f0'U



AiI'f6

d unoup'f6c;





AU'f6c;


Mr.
/kl.rV:J.,
M1n1ster
00188, trouble,
GREEK 8ASIC COURSE












U



-6
E'f6 uw
'f6





1nt8D81"
uagerat1ca
8neral
pMC8,
'fOU vcf
vcf 'fpC a'f6 vcf a'f6
u'f6
vcf vcf
'fOV
a'f6
C

vcf
GREEK BASIC COURSE
17
HaC
HaC
ed
DapCaL HaC
'ttf

HaC
,optt Ha C

-


'EYKpCVEL

AtEL

dmrv0r8


n ....

\18.
'1'h8 11l\l8trate8 tbe ... ot tbe Cla88 n 'Nrb8.
L1ke tbe n wrb8 ... perfeeuw aDd
'1be ... r.perat1... 18 ba8ed the pr888Dt 8te the wrbJ the
perfect1ve ... OD perreeu 8t.8. 'lhe p8Z'8CD 81ngular and plural
are 8Dd tbe and and for the perfect1... ... ,
at7
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Verb:

Sg.

Pre8ent St8:
Pl.
Pertect.
Sg.


VerbI
to &81'\'8'




l"8rtect. Sta:

,. HeD the abcmt the &t.reS8 18 on the (next to syl3Able)
_cept for tb8 81ngular ot the perfect1ve 1Ihere 1t 18 QC the antepemlltJJnate
(th1rd tbe ea1) 81Uable th8
18 ana1.1l' 1n tb.e 8Dd
tbe elu8.. tbe lII&3or1ty botb 1D87 be used
howewI", bn8 0D8 vb1eb -.v be e1ther
perfeot.1... ....
Decl1Jaab1e 800
ID Rote 1".' tbe 8Dd t.hdr ..
1llu8trate tb8 C81'dmal trc. aoo up.
1 to 199 , pat the1r are 1Ddecl1Dable
.....
EtWI. are _, 8DIS
cb11dren there.
W'i:KEC; _t
Ve 888 10001181, 1000 1000
- t ch1ldren.
Ve ... aooo __, 8000 aDd aooo
ch1ldren.
'1boae are the boU888 ot 1 ..,
t 1 1IOIDIID and 1 ch11dren.

a1e
GREEK BASIC CvURSE
'Jhese that the Cardinal 200 througb 1999 agree vith the nouna
they moc:I.1f;y Uke regular adject1ves (plura1 1''onn).
Tbe plural 1000 ) is and or mill10as
('t6 1.0, 'tcf

is &!!!l! neuter. '1he rest o:r the
vith the noun






'tpta
AlterDat1'98 pertect1w of tbe 'V8I"b

Wben they 1'011 they V111 call :you.
is another perfect1ve stc !om the wrb 18 uaed
witb

't6
crrf)v


"Av .e4 v4 vef vcf

VUX'tEPLVf)
L v4 v4
8lPE'tE
ant'tL !XE'tE
nO'tf
"Av vd YLcf
219
GREEK BASIC COURSE
,8
----


6
-6
6
(3)
d
6 d







Kt,






&d

280
.,. after
(1ohe)

_1otaotW
1;0 d.epart;, 100
_ h1s tr1eod the R_Y8l
Attach& ",,8U are 1;0 tb8
da;y aner Rave)'OI1.wr been
tbere (, 1;0
_ ,.
to qaD
(tbe) WDder,
(uaecl
1''98 been tbere 8e'98ral t1ae8.
_1oter ot t_c1o 1 ... about. to (I...q 1;0')
80 tbere tbe betore
lf,'8 - 1fODderh1 p1ace, bat 70U C8R'f,
tb8re b7 tra1n.
to teaae, ottea4
D8'f8r
Ifner ve M'98D'\ _c1ded. ,..\ bu10 1
tb1nk 'd r_tber there b.r bu8
G REEK BASIC COURSE

18





.ed




-cf, -6

C



1)




to surter, undergo, susta1D.
(the) car
-YOU th1nk
to spcd
What happened to ;your car ('1our car
underwent
'
)2 Dan't tell YOU're
worry.i.ng (1th1n1dng
l
) about the ;rou
vould spend OD ga8ol1ne.
do 70U th1nk
to be bored
(the) t:i1'e
01d (th1ngs
old pal. Who do 70U th1Dk
( bored') dri and be81de. the
t1res car are a l1ttle a1d.
or 1888
About 10ng doe. 1t tak8 to there
bu8 ('bov bours <10.. the tr1p lut
b7 b.
(tbe) .top
to need
18 nece888J7
to to prot1t
(the)
F1ve hours 1nc1udiDg the Just enough
GREEK BASIC COURSE



-6



t







(1&8 nece88&ry t) tor U8 to enj01 the n811
1DOOn.
to d1aappo1nt

(the)
to diaappo1nt 7OU, bat.
(Idcnlt th1nk1) thU 18 too lc:ae (Itoo
8t\Y [hOur8] 1n 8uch 8Dd b18llid.
(18Uch t)'r

b7 aU 1n aI\Y C888
to be/let t.1recI
1t get t1red
to turn around, back
beh1nd,back
ect 3CI Ve'll 888. velll 10 tbere 1n c:ue,
1\1 3CI 1t ". t1red _111 CCI88 back CID
6
60'1.., t
cn6
_!!-

'1'be veather Vell th8l1, baw
a and donlt to 888 tbe


Mcnd.a,y

Tuesdq


Vedne8dq

'DNredq
2




GREEK BASIC COURSE
week
Saturday
Sunday

-
18

llOLOt





Tt




NarraU".

L




EtvaL
-6
yd



hevorlc8
to vork
..8

eccnom1ca1,
to o!ter
ease, relaxat1on,
G REEK BASIC COlIRSE



elvaL


-6


3<t

L vcf
-6
vcf
L
EtvaL

ft&eMv vcf

he decided
vice CQ1Sul
situation, conditiCB
alwal's
acces81ble, reach
next., CCII1ng
experi_C8, pract1C8
to be d1aappo1nt.ed
..
vcf rI.
vcf

d

tH
L L
rI. vcf vcf
vcf KL'
vcf

G REEK BASIC COURSE


MtVEL YLd


nptnEL vd KdvELj
!XELj

v
nOL6v

L
3d
lXEL
Rote8
'8
Verbs Cla88 1 8Dd Clu_ 11 Verb8: Present Pertect.
nO'ft Have 70U 8V81' be8D

1D D81pb1.
ndE1. ba". _eY8r8l tDe8.
L 'Ie ba'V8D't 7et.
1'be_e are Prea8D1o Perfect teD8e 1n Qreek.
'I'be Pre_8Dt Perfect( '1 have dane 18 expre__ed 1n Greek, .. 1n b7
Pre_ent telD8e verb 'have
'
b;y ".rb8l f01"ll vh1cb 18
equ1val8n1o to Part1c1ple' 1n giV8D, -10 C81I&ht,
and -d (sold, held, had). '1'h1a verbal.fom 18 pertect1". plU8
(l1b 3rd 81.ngu1ar pertect1 _t_ f01"ll).

Verb


1 )
(2)
Pertect.1ve




aas
Pre88Dt Perfect




Verb
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Perfective St8 Present. Perfect.
--------------


!xo"v
18 the tb8 verb
,


<tpxtO'Ei.
in Present. Per!ect.a
V'3rba vith pret1xes
maber Oreek occur 1n cClDb1nat10n Vith pref1xea undergo certa1n
the 18 118811 m the Pa8t. t.en8e (both Simple Qmt.muous). th8
tbe8e '98rb8 a1'e to katbarew8a contsxts they viU be m deta11
1n lat.er un1ta.
'98rb8 vith tbat have occured 1n our UD1ta are:

Pa8t
------





to dec1d8


to


to
t.o obl1p
\'nEXplw\ICI


to 1Dtere8t
Cla88 11 baw tbe pret1xe8 the Pa8t.
cb8np th8 Pa8t JD katharnuaa 8.g.
Put
---------
to obt.a1n

-. -


-----------------------------------------------------------------
aa6
G REEK BASIC COURSE URrr '8
Put A1JPII1t l-
AD paat teDae Ctor the st.ressed aupaent s" Note ,0.,) be
prefU:ed 1;0 lIIf7 or put verbal tora begiDn1Dg v1th a CO""Clala1t, tbat 18 1;0
uq t0J'8" et.c. lU7 OCCNI' puoaUel 1;0
etc.

------------
tb8 1Dto PreHDt. Per!ect.

YL
d


t (;.
vd













-------









GREEK BASIC COURSE



tp'YO.
d







t

vd
Dov

vd

"1"

'f'



crrf)v



aaa
G REEK BASIC COURSE 18

nOLd


dpfaovv
dpfaovv

llOLd

rt nOL6v

!v 6

G REEK BASIC COURSE

Uov







Oood Kostas. baw )'OU beeo 'l
III18sed you.
to be ab8eot
1fasn' t here {...... ab8ent). ....117 1n
('bad gone to') Crete for 'S dq8.
8u1table, t1t.
to bu1ld
tou
&1".1.
CJOU;
D1d :rou llk. tbe 18laD41 Do tb1ak 1t.'
8U1table place for 10U to b1d.ld
houH!


..

(tbe) nature
( the) 8DUDta1n
(tbe) pla1n
(the) 8ea-ebore



230
bel1eve 1t
'
s JnOst (1qu1te
1
)
su1table. has natural beauty (Ivandertul
nature ,), plain8 8Dd shOr8S.


GREEK BASIC COURSE
you (tam.) had v1a1ted
(the) paat
19



Raw you ('had you r) ever viaited th1a 1ahnd
be!ore ('in the past') or th1a the
the first








bad passed
(the) vinter
(the) sh1p,
T.i.a1ted
prev10ua17,
passed by there a in but
I'w via1ted there before.










(the) 1nhab1tant
proud
bosp1table
to ge't. buay, to be ocoup1ed
the;r are bu8y
I'w heard that inhab1tants are VfIr1
proud and hoap1table [people]. rJbat'a
the1r occu.pat1an ('v1th vhat are
thq OCCQp1ed')1



(the) V1llage
(the)
pl.
23'


G REEK BASIC COURSE
(the)
educated












d
Iv"

rtVOVT"'
cn6v
In the v1llages the people are
eitber or 1n the
tbere are profes81caal ('educated1)
people.
(the)
(the) eng1neer
(the) vr1'ter
[such a8] doctors, 8Dd
vr1tera.
to 118 t880U8, to be
tbey are tuaous, ve1l
bravery, va1Dr, courage,
(the)
( the) var
'1'hey are ail, hovever, [particular:q] 11811
tor one th1ng - the1r

-
Uo6 d
Tou






2)2
GREEK BASIC COURSE





-6











d


-6
Mfvouv







'9
(c1t1ea of
Crete)
healthtu1
8011, earth, grouncl
tert1le
cap1tal c1t7
econaQ'
to
ol1ve 011. 011
1'ruit
the CretaD

d1tterent
Fe_toe
8pring
autunn
M1noans
fH

233
GREEK BASIC COURSE













noL6





!.,ote '2t'. Verba Class and Verbs: Pertect.
avq 1n (Ihad gone Crete "
days.
,"OU visited that island 1n the past?
The urxier1ined verbal are 'Past Perfect1w
Past Pertective 18 like the Present Perfective except that the perfect1ve
in is preceded by' the Past tense the verb , e.g.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
19
The Past Perfectlve 18 used to descr1be an action wh1ch (,) occurred 1n the d1staDt
past (very orten w1th Ibefore', 'ever 'never before', '1n the past', etc.) or
(2) wh1ch the occurrence other subsequent act.ions.
Verb: Class 111 ve) verbs.


He doesn't approve.
You (t_.) thi.nk.


s0"7.
'1hey are
The above examples 1llustrate the use Class Verbs. The great major111Y these
have e1ther a (1.e. repres8nt the subject the recelver the
e.g. 'to be loved', be k111ed', 'to be wr1tten' etc.), or a
(1.e. denote an act10n that 18 d1rected back Upcc1 the subject, e.g. 'to waah ODesel!', 'to
etc.). the verbs this Class, however, are s1JDp]y 1ntrans1t1ve verbs
(e.g. , to 'to work') or even trans1t1ve
that 18 to verbs tbat can have a d1rect object, e.g.
'. 1II8r1")"1ng Mary.
All Class verbs end 1n 1n the t1rst s1ngular Present (c1tat1on
or

-0-
Sta Sutt:1Jt
-------------------
1) Verbs 1n
2} Verb8 1n - .. 1n katharevusa)
3} Verba :1n or
Class 111 Verbs - Sutf1xe8.
'1here are three the Class Verbs 1n accord.1ng to the
three Sutt:1Jtea:
Class 111 Verbs 1n - are tonned like the vo1ce the Class
Verbsj tbe sutt:1Jt - 18 add.ed the s't8 the verb, e.g.
Class Verb

tormat1ve Class verb
----------- --------- -----------
(.&ctlve) sutt:1Jt (Pass1ve)

'to read'
-0- 'to be read'

'towr1te'
-0-
'to be written'

'to buy'
-0-
'to be bougbt'

'to
-0- 'to be sa1d'
235
GREEK BASIC COURSE
C1.a88 verb8 U8ual]y the1r Pu81ve Vo1ce (Cla88 verb8) u
Verb8 belc:ng1ng to -
'D1ose tbe

- (

l1ke 1,; ,


(1)

'to be loved'
'to be
( 3)
'to be

Cla8s Vc18 - Pre88lt teaae.


'l'be preaent cgt1Dg8 Claa. m nrb8 are u

1.

.s.

-O'cz

8.



(PX-CTCZ..
n.
-



a) -

a.

..


&yczn-Llaorc

3) Verb m /

1.
2.
,. ..
..
..
.. .. .. ..
* '1'he kat.harewaa 18 used.

Verb 1n
G REEK BASIC COURSE
(
'9

2.
3.
5g.
Ito be





,

..

'lhe prep081t1on used tbe fOl'II!S. :1n mean1ng to Pngl1sh 'byI.
18 or
Future and SUbjunct1
'1be and Cont1nuOWl 5ubjunct1 the Class verbs are b,y
of' the part1cles and respect1ve]y put bef'ore the present tense the
e.g.



we IU be com:1.ng eigbt
ewry day.
C1a88 Verb8 - Perfect1V8 FODD.
'Jhe Pertect1ve St8a the Cla88 111 verb8 are by of' the 8Uffix
) att1xed to the pertect1w of the verb and the e.l.
,.

2.
,. -fj
'1be the perfect1 al1 tbree cla88e8 wrbs 18 :1n
C1a8S - Fu'l;ure and SUbjunct1w.
hope be be d1sappo1nted.
'lhe above sentence i11u8trates tbe use of Subjunct1ve the C1as8 verbs.
'lhe Fu,l;ure and SUbjunct1ve are formed qy means -&6 and pu'l; before tbe
perfect1ve st8a the 'Yerb.
231
G REEK BASIC COURSE
---- -_..... _----
Class verb8. Notatlon.
Beginn1ng '11th Unit 20 the per!ectlve fonns the Class verbs will be given
1n the build-Up8 1n parentheses.
18 the l1st Class verbs which have a1ready occurred 1n Units 1 through 19:
Verb Perf
--------------
























238
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Drill
--------------------
Change the tmderl1ned -verbs 1n the sentences Actiw to Passive and
change the direct object the sentense 1nto the subject the new sentence.







-&faTpa.





noTf.














noTf



239
UNIT 19
GREEK BASIC COURSE




WAv nOLav

otKOyfVELa
EtVaL

YLa

240

't"6
GREEK COURSE
Unit 2!D
(tbe) propert7. fua
(the) tie]d
20


't"ou;
't"6
't"6 't"OU

't"6 't"ou

't"(
't"6

Jabn. do you by cbance vho Oeorge
80]d h1s property and tie]d to1
(t.he)
It 1 _ not he sold th. t8N to
a tru1t [but] t
about t.be f1eld.
(the) k1nd
ot 1Ibat

(the) apple

(the) orange
't"6
(t1'. pear
't"6
(the) t1g
't"6
(the) cherry

(the) peach
(the) apricot
G REEK BASIC COURSE



bad an 1'ru1t, 8uch apple.,
oranges, pears, f'iga, peacbes
apricota.
'"
EtVCXL TtTOLO

stup1d1ty, 811J1'
a p1ty tbat be _uch _ taa. It
_ 81113' th1Dg to do .('he _ big
stupid1ty' ).


-6


-6


'"
't6
'tou


'"

'"
be got scared
at the tbat
next; door adjacent
(the) fara
(tbe) rook
c:Ir7
(the) p1ece
to cat.eh, grab, .eize
(the) 111"8
that, b1t he scared vb8R tbe
vb1ch rocq and tall
dr7 1fOOd caugbt 111"8.
jU8ut1cat1aa,
pretext
au't6




... -6
But 1Ibat 'w heard th1s 18 on1y an
George to 8tay 1D
the countr,y
ovn
side b,. s1de, beside
G REEK BASIC COURSE URIT 80
'tOU to bu1ld b18 0181
a'tOU 'tOU to h1a brother'. tbe c1V.

(,)
Tou

au't6



T6'tE
'tOU
to
Be l1k88 c1V becaua8

a UtU8
1887. Be bu 1t [
h1
-e1.t] to
IUIIV' [people].
probab:q
(the)
(tbe)

-
't6 't6 'tOU;
fpOU'tCI 't6 'tOU;
",6
't6

'.'

8& 'tou

-6

au'tou 'tou &pxatou
Au't6 't6
GREEK BASIC COURSE


-6



L








XPLa'tOVYEvva.



EtVaL
YLaYL&



ElvaL







taste, flavor, prett1Des8
exceUent
quant1ty,
grap8

durat10n
dur1ng
bol1dq
to celebrat8
UDcle

urrled
uutil. uP to
n1ece
grandch1l.dreD


G REEK BASIC COUkSE
granddaughter
20




u Eva






3Ero












GREEK BASIC COURSE
Notes
Verb: Perf'.'!ctive Stea.
Cl.ass Verb8.
In Note 6.2 was stated that 1II08t pred1ctable Class 1 verbs (8S far as the
the1r 18 concerned) are those whose ends 1n
Here are other categor1es oJ: lDore or less'pred1ctable' perfective of th1s
clase verba
,) st.ans 1n f:1nal consonant
(01' consonant clust.ers) to
Verb
'to cut'
'to
'to spead'
'to d.1818s'
'to
Pert.St8
-----





'to teacb'
'to op8a'
'to
'to
'to p3q'
a) end1ng:1n and 1n -c- cbange tbe1r t1nal
(01' cCD8CllWlt cluster to 8.1.





3) st._ 1n v- are leas prediet.ableJ the to
_ 8C1118 retaiD the and others 1088 e.g.
'to los8'

'to send.'

'to bring'

Note aO.1.2 C1.a8S Verb8
--------.
'lhe the Perfective stems 1n Class n 'V":Tbs d1SCU8Sed 1n ,5.,.
'lhese are: 01'
246
GREEK BASIC COURSE 20
Class Verbs.
are the D10st pred1ctab1e 1'OOt oonsonant changea vh1ch 1ak8 place :1n the
tbe perfect1ve this ClaS8 verbs before the sutfix -fJ-/-'t- (Rote
19.,3)
Verb

Perf.Stc
----------
change. to 'to be read'
''to be pla:yed' LxfJi;;
-'1'-
'to be h1dden'
-u-/Y / -'1'- 'to be .pent'
-'1'- 'to be 1eft'
L L
'to be taught'


'to be Opened t
sero
''to be shown' LxfJi;;
2.
'Ihe - the perfect1w (Active) - aDd - 108t before the
sutf1x -.1}- but 18 reta1ned 111 the 111 e.g.
'to be 10ved'
'to be forg1ven'



'to be at
t




Verbs ClaS8 - Past.
't6'tE 't6 'tou
'Pw'tLcX.
He got scuP.d 1fhen the ne1ghbor1ng farm
caU(;ll t f't..re
'Ihe Past the 18 fomed by' affixing the unstre8sed stiffu
and the Past tense end1n88 to the the e.g.




241


GREEK BASIC COURSE
Verb: Cla.88 Verbs - Cont1nuoU8 Past.


'Jbe orange8 Crete been alway.

'Jbe Paat personal Class verba are aa
Verb8 111 -2Y1!g! al'Id Verbs 1n -
1.
2.

3.

'lbese endings are att1xed to the the verb.


Dr1U
-----
Use the word8 1n and change the tense the underl1ned verbs accord1ng1y.













(cf


(""OV


(""OV
248
GREEK BASIC COURSE
20


KaM(youmade out.well),

(you























GREEK BASIC COVRSE
REVIEW
----------
l"1U 1n each b:JlaDk v1th proper tbe g1ven the It 18 a
DOUD. WM appropr1ate tbe art1cle.
ROIID8
-




_________



_
...
_


- ---------


















________ e

r (

liPEaE fKava

G REEK COURSE Rev1ew 16 - 20
_



a'rfJv




_________


_


.


_


_
_
















_


_ 0
tXEL











GREEK BASIC COURSE
_

"

"

"
_
_






















_
"
6

NAv ,
'f)cn)

_

"
"
"

__________
_

txovv , ,
_________ , , "



GREEK BASIC COURSE
Rev1ew ,6 - 20








________


_





_
_




35





_________
_

.

_
_
_


25)



















GREEK BASIC COURSE







_________






_



_


_
..



_







L
























G REEK BASIC URSE

YLci



---------.
__________






_



_
ELvaL

Verb8
--






_.


. YLQ

Review 16 - 20






























GREEK 8ASIC COURSE












yvpCCw

n.










100


._



. _
,



to make a
256
GREEK BASIC COURSE
Harrat1ve



/
















Reviev ,6 - 20
h1story
fort.ress
vhoewr, vh1cbever
s1gn1f1cant, 1Jnportant

to ga1n, eam, prof1t

th:1.rst
to del1ver, to
....8I1t
0011181, p1llar
1eac1.er,
begi.nn1ng,or1g1n, pr1nc1p1e
818.,.

1ead
bul1et
to Idll
to r8l1nd
generositq
&& 1821,
al








GREEK BASIC COURSE

















W
C2000


YLA atatPE, v&


2.Se
G REEK BASIC COURSE
tbit 21
UNIT 2'







(1)
-6







i&








259
(the) barber shop
to have a ha1rcut
(the) pr1est
George, ve'd bett.er t1Dd a
barbershop and.go get a ha1rcut. We both
look ('are l1ke pr1esta.
tolaugh
natural
8ince, tor, because, long ..
about
Don't laugh. It'. 8urpr1s1ng, 81nce
been 1n tb18 1sland tor a IIOnth.
(the) ne1ghborhood
(the) tactory
Wbat vou1d ,"OU 1t go to
the barbeJ' 1n this ne1ghborbooci, the
next to the tactory1
(the) worker
'lhe on1y th.1.ng 18 "e'l1 have to va1t 8 Uttle,
because there are always SOMe vorkers tbere.
(the) advantage
(the) d.isadvantage
GREEK BASIC COURSE






0
'tf,v
't&


-f" -6
't6
'tf,v au'twv
'twv
't&

But there are advantages too.
(the) barber
bes1deS, 1n to
to cut
to sbave
'1he barber 18 pretty good and be81des vh11e
he 8& cutt1ng your ha1r and shaY1ng
regard1ng, concem1ng, about
electi0D8
poUt1cal
party. fact10n
you'U be able to hear tbe
tboe8 ord1nar1 people about tbe eleCt10D8
pol1tical part188.
(,)

.oU 't6 't&
Ev


to cbal18up, r0U88
:1D 8f3 C88e.
You're cur10aiV (v1th


got to to that b81'ber
b.r aU ....





to be careful. to vatch out,
to attentlon

1nd1.f'f'erent
to escape. to &Up
(the)
260
GREEK BASIC COURSE
21





Be caref'ul, not to get exc1teci
(.t,o be :1nd1f.ferent') because 1.f you let
someth1ng sUp (. vord out you').
(the) or
they !1nd out (Iunderstand tbat youlre
the brother a ot Parl1cent.



!YLVE
nOL6
''Av nOL6

llOLa
fxaVE
L








YLa




261
beauv
b1gh soclev
t1Dor, _torq

elevator
to enter
apartment
modem
G REEK BASIC COURSE



ato&ouaa

, ,










-6

't'6
't'6







nav't'a
't'6




-6
262
haU, salon, parlor
vaiting
furn1shed
a piece

8III&ll table
11&11
pboto,
co1!ture
ta_h1CD
I8OU8tache
beard
poU:te
talkatlve
G REEK BASIC COURSE





UNIT 21
theme, sUbject, matter,
question
athlet1cs, sport
80cial
tact

George,



at-








.6





aL&Ouaa

26J.
Oeorge
GREEK BASIC COURSE

'\"ou

Hotes
!2!:!_!!:.!. Houn: Neuter Nouns 1n
We never 8&11 tbose p].aces.
are the best ld.D1a.
'l11ese shw the use the 3rd declens10n neuter nouns 1n
'Ihe parad1.1,11 t.h1.s nouns 18:

'\"6
'\"ou
'\"6
!2!:!_!!:.! Houna U8B
!!.



TC '\"6 What 1dJ1d. fru1t d1d th18 have%
had SON of fru1t8.
'Ibe 18 otten used 1%1 case even 18 the subject or the
obj.et tbe 981'b. e.g.

TC
JdJId of th1ng8 are tbese%
k1nd do you se.%
have a of th1Dp.
construct1ons 8uch 1888 frequentJ3r
are al80 po881ble.
!!!!.!!.%1 Verb: Cla88 Verb8 -
(1.e. 2Dd pers.S1%1g.) eu:Ung this Clas8 verb8 18
8Dd that the .poute. (1 pers.P1ur.) 18
#

:lausuaIllv based OD the act1ve perfect1w and the poUte the
pas8i'V8 perfect1'V8
Class lI1dch do have an act1ve fom the1r famiUar
the bas18 t.h8 root consonant cbanges discussed :1n 20.1.3
264
GREEK BASIC COURSE

;;;;;,...
Verb
Act.:f.ve Pass1ve Perf.Stem Polite
---------------- -----------------
--------
---






th1s c1ass haw 1rregu1ar e.g. the the
18
'!be 'pollte
I
the wrb
cme 18 2!:
18 and the
Note 21.11 Ad.jecUw: 'l'be US8 -6 'oneIa 01ID'.
------
to go and build h1s
adject1'V8

alvays UBed together v1th the possess1ve
pronOUD C1otJetc. and agrees v1th the noun 1t modit1es or the noun 1t re!ers to.
In the 1atter case 1t corresponds in to the &1g1ish possess1'V8 'youra
h1B ete:.






AV't'6




__
__
brother.
Re 18
Your daughter.
Sbe 18 yours.
H1s OIID ch1ld.
lt 18 h1s.
brothers.
1b8y are
ovn
'lhey are 70U1'8.
'1he1r ch11.dren.
'lhey are the1rs.
G REEK BASIC COURSE
Reeponse E1erc1ae
-----------------








0'.6
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G REEK BASIC COURSE
Un1t 82
22

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34
to be 1n a buJ"I'7
Dcm't be 1n a 1nr17, Lak1.
b1' a CU" ( ..... C8I' cut ;you').
to anUc1pa_, to 1n

haw to catcb tbe bus, because otberv18e
I'U

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267
d1dnIt tbat vere to traV81
1n aucb bad veather. are you
1nternat1coal
(the)
report,
( tbe) a1.rport
the Fa1r 1n
have to be at tbe a1rport b.r eight.
(tbe) epocb, 888.011, era
Do you think the p1aD.. are alvay8 crovded
GREEK BASIC COURSE


lK,
lt


this
(the) caU8e, mot1ve

!or that reason, because
to doubt
(the) bad veather
lt





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KL

beC8U8e the 8Xh1b1t1cn.
doubt tbi8 ewn1ng v1th th1a bad
veather. Wb7 don't you 70U1' tr1p
unt.1l
DQlUJense
to th1n1c too to pq too

your8elf, h:1mself, etc.
(the) queet1OD, po:lJlt, 188U8
(the) t1ancM
Don't be ('don't

1011
C81'8
But the tact 18 that rq t1ano4e 18
tor tbe a1rport..
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lnt
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lt


268
OD, dur1ng, by, under, tor
at 188t, A1\V rate
to delay, deter
aJV' rate, do vhatever you vant (ltMnkl).
don't vant to keep (Idelayl) you 80 that
you111 miss the plane becaU8e me
exact

GREEK BASIC COURSE
UNIT 22







nLaorEUw OTL ElvaL


Have a nice trip. Run 50 that 1011'n be
on t1Jne. because how 1mpatient
yoar tiancee 18.
on tbe
patJ,ent
1n 8DY c...
to owr 8ga1D
Don 8.,. tbat. Ob th. bel1e...
.he '. 'nI'7 pat.1ct. In cue. FOdb18
POV. w. 'U talk 1t apjn 0188
back.






YL6




N8n'at1"
ElvaL



8treetcar

G REEK BASIC COURSE














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YLa



YLa
(2)
EtvaL



(they) ensted
yellow, pale
to feel
luxury
sard1ne
l.1ne, tall
to near, to approach
part1cle used to express
certainty the part
the speaker.
mad, 1n8ane, crQ1'
ep1sode, 1nc1dent,
1n va1n
(bu8) conductor
trolley bu8
to be flattered
v1ah vere able
carriage, cart
to start, to set out
qu1et
vannth
GREEK BASIC COURSE
22












ot











Hotes
...--------------
1!2..'t!_!!:.!. Adjectives: Adject1ves 1n

::71
'. '981")' pol1te
GREEK BASIC COURSE
EtaaL

Run 90 you '11 be (ex.act)on
Internat10nal Fa1r 1n 'lhe9saloniki.
abo.. the adjectives 1n ()l'd declens10n
1n katharevusa).
Saae ad.ject1ves 1n sucb tor 'polite' bave an alternate
1n - LKTj (Clt LXLa), ( See a180 3.')
plural 81d1ngs these adject1ves are the Dl8aculJne t8ll1n1ne and
tor the neuter,
Pl.





'1he lcatbarews& ot these adject1V88 be d1scussed 1n 1ater
Verb: Class verb8: Proh1b1t1ve


Dan run 80 t&stJ
Don
prcb1b1t1v8 1Jnperat1ve 18 tcmDed b1 the put betore tb8 2Dd per-
.... Preact Aspect) or (Pertect1ve A8pect).
_.). Verb:
_.. ---

'Jbe perf8Ct1ve at.a th18 verb &Dd the Past 18
&ci


&ci vci
ot the word
'1he L plua 18 used to expr8SS w1sh!'ul thinJdng.
'1118 vorb tol1ow1ng L may be ther 1n the Past or 1n tho
Subjunct1vo.

nlpuaL
272
w1sh had been able to come th to
Greece last summer.
G REEK BASIC COURSE



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GREEK BASIC COURSE

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(the) bakery . )
(tbe) butcher
(the): !ru1t-vegetable store )
(the) grocery
(the) tWmnac,y
Do know by chance, where a rbread
vemor
r
a rmeat vendor
l
, rgreen-grocerIs
shop a rprovi.s1on store and a pharmac,y
(tJ1e) own
(tbe) shop
(tb8) f'X'u1t-nptab18 8tcn
(tbe)
You the bakery, the butcher 8hop, the tru1t
ud vegetable store and the groC81'7f
(the) _arket
(tbe) t1sh
(the) t1sh market
TheyIre 1n the oenter the market near
tbe t1sh market or n8h 'lOU

(the) town. aquare
(the) Hall
G REEK BASIC C,-, URSE UNIT 83
(the) pier