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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,

Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

Variational Principle and Lagrange's Equation for Particles
Fields under the Influence of Gauge Potential

Dr.Sami. H.Altoum
(Ph.D Mathematics)
samialtoum@hotmail.com

Umm Al Qura University- Saudi Arabia
university College- Al Qunfudha
Department of Mathematics

Abstract

This paper introduces variational principle on particles fields. A variational principle is a scientific
principle used within the calculus of variation, which develops general methods for finding functions
which minimize or maximize the value of quantities that depend upon those functions. For example, to
answer this question: "What is the shape of a chain suspended at both ends?" we can use the variational
principle that the shape must minimize. Also, this paper introduces the theory of fiber bundles and gives
an application of fiber bundles: Gauge theory and variational principle. We formulate Lagrange's
equation without coordinates. Our treatment is global since fiber bundle is employed.

Key Words: Principle of fiber bundle, Particles Fields, Gauge Invariant, variational
principle.

1.Introduction
This paper introduces Lagrange's equation for particles fields. The action density is a measure of the
superfluous manifestations of the fields involved, nature obeys the principle of least action, that means the
only fields allowed by nature, that leave the integral of the action density fixed to first order with respect to
all suitable variations of the fields Al Fred Grany(1998) Aubin Thierry(2001), this condition is equivalent
to require that the field should satisfy a certain differential equation, known as Lagrange's equations(see
David Bleaker (1981)). This equation is derived and it is found that it is most natural to regard it as
equation on the bundle space P .In this paper we formulate the principle of least action or stationary for
particles fields under the influence of a gauge potential. According to Vladimir.G.Invancevic
&Tijana.T.Invancevic (2007) and Torsten.A Maluga & Carl.H.Brans (2007),the particle field is shown to
obey this principle if and only if satisfies Lagrange's equation. The physicist may wonder why the
derivation of Lagrange's equation is more involved than usual. Physicists are used to pulling the equation
down to M, by a choice of gauge. Also this paper introduces principle fiber bundles, particle fields, gauge
invariance, Lagrange and gauge invariance, variational principles and Lagrange's equation.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

2. Principle of Fiber Bundle:
A principle Fiber Bundle (PFB) consists of a manifold P called total space(M.Lee.John,2002), Aurel
Bejancu &Hani Reda (2006), a Lie group G. a base manifold M and projection map M P [: Such
that 1,2 and 3 following:

1- For each G g e there is a diffeomrphism P P R
g
: ,we write ( )
g g
P P R = ) ( such that
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
g Pg g g P = for all G g g e
2 1
, and P p e and G ee is identity element P pee .Suppose
that p pe = for some P p e and , G g e then . e g =
2- The map M P [: is onto and ( ) ( ) G g pg p e = [ [

,
1
.If M x e ,then ( ) x
1
[ is called the
fiber above x .For each ( ) x p
1
[ e there is a map ( ) x G
1
[ given by pg g .This map is a
diffeomorphism by (1) but it depends on P .Thus, all the fibers ( ) x
1
[ are diffeomorphic toG .

3- For each M x e there is an open set U with U x e and a diffeomorphic,

( ) G U U T
u
[
1
: , (1)

of the ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) p S p p T
u u
, [ = ,where ( ) G U S
u
[
1
: ,has the property

( ) ( )g p S pg S
u u
= for all
1
,

[ e e p G g .

The map
u
T is called local trivialization (LT) or in physics language a choice of gauge. The foregoing is
abbreviated like that . : M P [ a PFB with groupG .If N is a manifold and G is a Lie group, we can
form a PFB N G N [' : with group G by setting ( ) n g n = [' , and ( ) ( ) g g n g g n ' = ' , . .This is
called product PFB of N withG .Note that (3) states that for M x e ,there is neighborhood U of x
such that the restricted PFB space ( ) U U [ [
1
: can be identified via
u
T with product PFB of G .

2. Particle Fields and Guage Invariant:
A particle field can be regarded as a section of bundles associated to some PFB,or equivalently ,as a
vector valued function on P ,with certain transformation properties(Olever.P.J,1993).Examples include
the Schrdinger wave,Klien Gordon field and Dirac electron fields. A real-valued function (called the
action density).Particle field satisfies a differential equation (Lagrange's equation)obtained by setting the
first variation of the integral of the action density equal zero. In other words, particles fields obey the
principle of least action.

2.1 Particles Fields and Representation:
Let M P [: be PFB with group G.Suppose that G act on some manifold F .For each
G g e ,there is a map F F L
g
: or ( ) f L f g
g
= . such that ( ) ( ) f g g f g g f f e
2 1 2 1
. , . = = and
the map F F G ,given by ( ) f g f g . . ,is

C .If F is a vector space V and V V L

g
: is a
linear ,then the homomorphism ( ) V GL G given by
g
L g is called a representation of G .Two
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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

representations ( ) V GL G and ( ) V GL G

say
g
L g and
-

g
L g ,respectively are called
equivalent if there is a linear isomorphism
-
V V T : ,such that

1 -
= T L T L
g g
for all G g e (2)

2.2. Particles Fields:
If G acts on F as just stated then ( ) F p C , is defined to be space of all maps F P : t ,such
that ( ) ( ) p g pg t t .
1
= ,note that ( ) F p C , is naturally isomorphic to the space of sections of the
associated bundle M F P
G
with fiber F (Edmund Bertschinger,2002)(U..A. Abraham,2008) .In the
case where the action of G ,the representation is ( ) V GL G , the elements of ( ) V p C , are called
particle field.

3. Lagrange's and Gauge Invariance:
Let M P [: be a PFB with group G and ( ) V GL G be a representation. The space of 1- jets
of maps from P to V is

( ) ( ) { } V P T and V v P p v p V P J
p
e e : , , , , , , , u u (3)

is linear David Bleaker (1981). The space ( ) V P J , can be made into manifold in a natural way. A
Lagrangian is a map

( ) 9 V P J L , : , (4)

for all ( ) ( ) G g and V P J v p e e , , , , , u ,we have

( ) ( ) u u , , , . .
1
1 1
v p L R g v g pg L
g
=
-

(5)

Given a Lagrangian ( ) 9 V P J L , : ,there is a well defined function : ( ) ( ) M C V P C

, given
for ( ) P p and V P C M x e e e , , , with ( ) x p = t by

( )( ) ( ) ( )
p
d p p L x , , = (6)

From (6) let be the space of connection on P ,the function can be written by:

: ( ) ( ), , M C V P C

(7)

and

( )( ) ( ) ( )
p
D p p L x e
e
, , , = where e is connection, (8)

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

for ( ) ( ) V P C x p M x , , ,
1
e e e

t and e e ,but also gauge invariant, in the sense that for
( ) P GA f e then

( ) ( ) =
- -
) , ( e f f ( ) e , , (9)

then ( ) ( ) M C

e e , is called action density of the pair ( ) e , .

4. Variational Principle:
Here we formulate the principle of least action (or stationary) for PFB, under the influence of gauge
potential. The particle fields are obeying this principle if and only if it satisfies Lagrange's equation.

4.1 The Principle of Least Action:
Let M P : t be a PFB with groupG and let ( ) V GL G be a representation. Let h be a metric
tensor defined on. M for simplicity assumed that M is oriented ,so that there is a well defined volume for
on M associated with h .Suppose that ( ) 9 V P J L , : is a Lagrangian and e is fixed connection
on P . Recall that defined a function,

: ( ) ( ), , M C V P C

then

e
: ( ) ( ), , M C V P C

(10)
where ( ) =
e
( ) e , the action density of ( ) V P C , e would be
}
M
( )
e

For M U cc ,defined the action of ( ) V P C , e over U to be

}

U
( )
e
}
U
( )
e
. (11)

For ( ) V P C , e defined the projected support of to be closure of set ( ) ( ) { } 0 , = e P M P t then
( ) V P C , e is stationary relative to
e
,if for all M U cc and also ( ) V P C , e o with projected
support contained on V then

dt
d
( ) o
e
t
U
+

0
0
=
= t
. (12)

Equivalently say that obeys the principle of least action, ( ) V P C , e is stationary if and only if
satisfies a certain differential equation (Lagrange's equation).

5 .Variational Principle in Classical Mechanics

5.1.System-with Finite Degrees of Freedom:
In classical mechanics the motion of a system with n degree of freedom
n
i
i
x
1 =
(Edmund
Bertschinger,2002)(U. Abraham.A 2008) , ( motion of point mass ),can be expressed by the variational
principle
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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

0 = S o , (13)

where the action S is a function of the motion ( ) t x x = of the system given by the Lagrangian
|
.
|

\
|
=
-
x x t L L , , Report Hermann(1968) (Nail.H.Ibragimov,1996)

}
|
.
|

\
|
=
-
x x t L S , , (14)

from the principle (11) ,then the following equation of motion in the form of Euler-Lagrange equations

0 = |
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
i i
x
L
dt
d
x
L
. (15)
Equation (15) is Euler's Lagrange equation in classical form.

6. Lagrange's Equation:
Let ( ) 9 V P J L , : ,be Lagrangian and let ( ) V P, . denote the space of linear maps
V P T
p
for any ( ) ( )
p
V P v p , , , . e u then the connection is defined by the following:

( ) ( )
p
V P v p L , , ,
3
. e V u ,
where

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | u | u t v p L
dt
d
v p L h h
p
+ = V , , , , ,

0 = t
. (16)
For ( ) V P C , e we define V -valued 1-form
( )
e
D
L
c
c
on P by:

( )
( ) ( )
p
p
D p p L
D
L

e
e
, ,
3
V =
c
c
; (17)

Similarly for ( ) ( ) V P J v p , , , e u we define ( ) V v p L e V u , ,
3
by the equation
( ) ( ) ( ) u e e u , , , , ,

2
t v p L
dt
d
v p L h + = V
0 = t
. (18)

If ( ) V P C , e ,then valued V function
c
cL
on be defined by:

( ) ( ) ( ). , ,
2 p
D p p P
L

e
V =
c
c
(19)
From (12) and (17) we can deduce that ( ) V P C
L
, e
c
c

and
( )
( ) V P
D
L
,
1
. e
c
c

e
,

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

according to (11),(12),(17) and ( ) ( ) V P C V P J L , , , : e 9 t it can be deduced that

}
U
dt
d
( )
( )
} (

c
c
+
c
c
= +
U
L
D
L
h t , ,

t

o t
e
e e
(20)

integrating both sides over U and the particle fields ( ) V P C , e is stationary for Lagrangian
( ) V P J L , : 9 and fixed connection e on P if and only if Lagrange's equation holds:

( )
. 0 =
c
c
+
(

c
c

o
e
e
L
D
L
(21)

Equation (21) is Euler's Lagrange's equation on particles field, it is equivalent equation(15) in classical
mechanics.

Conclusion:
This paper discussed variational principle by analytical methodology and concluded the followings:
1- Utilized methods of global analysis such as differential geometry.
2- Using the language of fiber bundle to deduce Euler Lagrange equation.
3- The new expression is global and free of coordinates.
4- The new expression deals with global analysis applied to physical
problems.
5- The classical formulae is constrained by coordinates.

References:
 Abraham Albert Ungar Analytic Hyperbolic Geometry and Albert Einstein's Special
Theory Relativity-World Scientific publishing Co-Pte.Ltd (2008).
 Al Fred Grany,Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica,
CRC Press (1998).
 Aubin Thierry, Differential Geometry-American Mathematical Society(2001).
 Aurel Bejancu &Hani Reda Faran-Foliations and Geometric Structures,Springer
 Bluman G.W & Kumei.S , Symmetry and Differential Equations New York :Springer-
Verlag(1998).
 David Bleaker-Gauge Theory and Variational Principle, Addison- Wesley Publishing
Company(1981).
 Differential Geometry and the calculus of Variations, Report Hermann-New York and
London (1968).
 Edmund Bertschinger-Introduction to Tenser Calculus for General Relativity (2002).
 . M.Lee.John-Introduction to Smooth Manifolds-Springer Verlag-(2002).
 Nail.H.Ibragimov: Elementry Lie Group Analysis and Ordinary Differential Equations.
John Wiley Sons New York(1996).
 Olever.P.J, Application of Lie Groups to Differential Equations. New York Springer-
Verlag.(1993).

 Vladimir.G.Invancevic&Tijana.T. Invancevic Applied Differential Geometry-World
Scientific publishing Co-Pte.Ltd (2007).
 Torsten Asselmeyer Maluga&Carl.H.Brans-Differential Topology and Space-time Models-
World Scientific publishing Co-Pte.Ltd (2007).
 Manuel De Leon&Paulo.R.Rodrigues-Methods of Differential Geometry in Analytical
Mechanics-Elserviier Science Publisher (1989).
 Serge Lang-Fundamental of Differential Geometry-Springer-Verlage(1999).
November Issue Page 30 of 88 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.5, 2011

Dr. Sami Hajazi Mustafa received his PhD degree in Differential Geometry from Alneelain
University, Sudan in 2007. He was a head of Department of Mathematics in Academy of
Engineering Sciences in Sudan. Now he is Assistant Professor of Mathematics, University college
of Alqunfudha, Umm Al Qura University , Saudi Arabia.

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