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TNEB One of the best performing Power Utilities

REVENUE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY IS AT 99% TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION LOSS IS LOW AT 18% MAXIMUM WINDMILL CAPACITY 3456 MW (4TH PLACE IN THE WORLD, 1ST PLACE IN INDIA) INCIDENCE OF POWER THEFT IS VERY LOW PLANT LOAD FACTOR OF THERMAL STATIONS ARE VERY HIGH ONE OF THE FEW STATES, WHICH DO NOT HAVE POWER CUTS (courtesy:Power Line magazine, June-2007)

TNEB
POWERING TAMIL NADUS PROGRESS
Glorious Past Dynamic Present Promising Future Over 50 Years (1957 2007 ), Tamil Nadu Electricity Board has powered the State of Tamil Nadu to become one of the most progressive States in our country in socio economical aspects as well as in all the fronts (viz.,) Agriculture, Industrial Production and Service sectors. On this occasion of its GOLDEN JUBLEE on 1st July 2007, it reaffirms its, commitment for the sustained and fruitful services to the state of Tamil Nadu. (courtesy:Power Line magazine, June-2007)

TNEB TNEB STEPPING IN THE GOLDEN JUBLEE YEAR ( 1957 2007 )


INSTALLED CAPACITY IN MW

HYDRO THERMAL GAS WIND MILL PURCHASE TOTAL

2174 2970 423 1361 4257 11185

WIND PRIVATE SECTOR 1297 MILL 1361

INSTALLED CAPACITY IN MW
HYDRO 2174

CENTRAL SHARE 2960 GAS

THERMAL 2970

TOTAL 11185 MW

423

INSTALLED THERMAL CAPACITY


STATION NO OF UNITS 2 2 2 3 5 4 5 EACH TOTAL YEAR UNIT MW MW 15 30 1953 30 60 1958 60 110 210 210 210 120 330 1050 840 630 1970 1972 1979 1987 1994

1.Basin Bridge (Dismantled) 2.Ennore 3.Tuticorin 4.Mettur 5.North Chennai

PROPOSED THERMAL PROJECTS


STATION NO OF UNITS 1 CAPACITY MW 500

North Chennai Metter Ennore Tutucorin

1 1 2

500 500 500

GAS / COMBINED CYCLE


STATION BASIN BRIDGE KOVIKALAPPAL VALUTHUR KUTTALAM
GAS STEAM TOTAL

MW 4X30 70 60 64

MW 37 35 37

MW 120 107 95 101

YEAR 1996 2001 2003 2004

PURCHASE OF POWER
STATION NO OF EACH TOT YEAR UNITS UNIT MW MW MADRAS ATOMIC 2 235 470 1983 POWER STATION (KALPAKKAM ) NEYVELI TS-I NEYVELI TS-II NEYVELI TS I (EXPANSION) 6 3 7 2 50 100 210 210 300 300 1470 420 1962 1967 1986 2003

INDEPENDENT POWER PROJECTS


STATION GMR VASAVI (BB) SAMALPATTI PILLAIPERUMAL NALLUR SAMAYA NALLUR NEYVELI ZERO UNIT ABAN POWER LTD FUEL MW YEAR Naphtha 196 1998 Diesel 106 2001 2001

Gas / 321 Naphtha Diesel Lignit Gas 106 250 113

2001 2002 2005

ATOMIC POWER STATIONS


STATION NO OF EACH TOTAL YEAR UNITS UNIT MW 2 235 470 1983

MADRAS (Kalpakkam) KAIGA

220

440

2000

TAMIL NADU ELECTTRICITY BOARD


METTUR THERMAL POWER STATION

IS / ISO 9001:2000 CERTIFIED POWER PLANT

METTUR THERMAL POWER STATION


INSTALLED CAPACITY 4 X 210 MW Mettur TPS is the one and only inland thermal power station of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. The station is situated in the left flank of the Ellis Surplus course of the Stanley Reservoir, Mettur Dam

METTUR TPS UNITS COMMISSIONING DATES


INSTALLED CAPACITY 840 MW ( 4 X 210 MW )

Unit No

Date of first synchronisation

Date of first coal firing

I II III IV

07.01.1987 01.12.1987 22.03.1989 27.03.1990

25.04.1987 30.12.1987 10.06.1989 29.03.1990

THERMAL POWER PLANT


THE PROCESS IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT MAY BE BROADLY DIVEDED INTO THREE BLOCKS 1. STEAM GENERATION IN BOILER 2. ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURBO GENERATORS 3. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSON THROUGH TRANSFORMERS & HT LINES

MAJOR EQUIPMENTS IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT


BOILER & ITS AUXILRIES TURBINE & ITS AUXILRIES GENERATOR & ITS AUXILRIES CONDENSER FEED PUMP WATER TREATMENT PLANT COAL HANDLING PLANT ASH HANDLING SYSTEM COOLING WATER SYSTEM CONTROL ROOM SWITCH YARD AND ELECTRICAL LOAD DESPATCHING

COAL HANDLING PLANT MAIN EQUIPMENTS WAGON TIPPLERS CONVEYORS PRIMARY CRUSHERS SECONDARY CRUSHERS COAL STOCK YARD STACKER CUM RECLAIMER MACHINES

COAL LINKAGE
Mettur TPS is getting its coal supply from Mahanadhi Coal fields, Orissa. Coal from Paradeep Port, Orissa is conveyed through ship to Ennore Port and from there by Rail to Mettur. 4 Nos. Wagon tipplers have been erected to tip the coal wagons. The coal is fed into the coal bunkers through mechanical conveyor system. There are two streams of coal conveyors with 1500 T/hr capacity each.

COAL LINKAGE TO MTPS


TALCHAR COLLIERIES TO PARADEEP PORT - BY TRAIN PARADEEP PORT TO CHENNAI PORT - BY SHIP CHENNAI PORT TO METTUR THERMAL

WAGON TIPPLER

PRIMARY CRUSHER
CAPACITY :1500 TPH OUTPUT PRODUCT SIZE :150 mm SCREEN DIA :4082mm MOTOR :260KW SCREEN PLATES :158 Nos LIFTING SHELVES :40 NOS SPECIAL BEAM RAIL :18 NOS SCREEN RPM :13 RPM

PRIMARY CRUSHER

SECONDARY CRUSHER
TYPE : RING TYPE GRANULATOR 2NOS IN ONE MACHINE CAPACITY : 850 MT/HR OUT PUT SIZE : < 25MM DRIVE : V BELT DRIVE WITH GUARD MOTOR : 1000 HP,1440 RPM CRUSHER ROTOR SPEED : 600 RPM CRUSHER RINGS : 32 Nos TOOTHED, 30 Nos PLAIN

COAL STOCK YARD & STACKER CUM RECLAIMER MACHINE

The daily requirement of coal for the Station is 14000 T There is a coal yard with a space to stack 4.5 lakh tones of coal which is sufficient to meet one months requirement of all the 4 Boilers There are two stacker-cum-reclaimers machines in the yard to stack the crushed coal and to retrieve the coal to the bunkers whenever necessary.

STACKER CUM RECLAIMING MACHINE


CAPACITY STACKING : 1500 MT/HR RECLAIMING : 1000MT/HR BUCKET WHEEL SPEED : 5.42 RPM BUCKETS : 8 NOS VOLUME : 600 LTRS CUTTING CIRCLE DIA : 6.5 MTRS

BOWL MILL
Bowl Mill Type : XRP 803 with classifier X : Supply Frequency (50 cycles/sec) R : Founders Name (Raymond) P : Pressurized Mill 80 : Diameter of Bowl in Inches 3 : Number of rollers No of Mills/Boiler : 6 Nos Base Capacity : 39.68 T/Hr Mill Motor : 340 KW 6.6 KV 990 rpm

UTILITY BOILERS
Steam conditions used have been mainly sub-critical although a significant number of plants were built during 1960s and 1970s with super-critical steam conditions. From Non-RH Type, The Technology today has Advanced to Double Reheat Type. However, the Preference has Come Down Over The Years For Double Reheat. Operating pressures have also increased to above 300 atmospheres. To achieve better efficiencies. Boilers have been designed to take care of the deterioration in coal quality over the years resulting in bigger furnaces, large size pulverisers and large size auxiliaries.

INDUSTRIAL BOILERS
Unit sizes have grown in capacities from 10 t/h. to 300 t/h., pressure from 15 ata to 120 ata, temperatures from 200oc to 530oc, burning various types of fuels. Industrial boilers are designed with bi-drums or single drum depending on the pressure. For paper plants, unit size of chemical recovery boilers have increased to burn about 675 tons per day of dry solids from 140 tons/day of dry solids.

MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF POWER BOILERS


SUB-CRITICAL DRUM TYPE NATURAL CIRCULATION SINGLE RE-HEAT TILTING TANGENTIAL CORNER FIRED DRY BOTTOM BALANCED DRAFT DIRECT FIRED PULVERIZED COAL WITH BOWL MILL COAL IS THE PRIMARY FUEL & OIL IS USED AS SECONDARY FUEL THE FUEL FIRING IS DONE BY BURNERS FROM THE FOUR CORNERS OF THE FURNACE. THE POSITIONING OF THE GUNS ARE SO DESIGNED THAT THE FIRING OCCURS TANGENTIALLY

MAIN EQUIPMENTS
BOILER
The boilers of the Power Station were supplied by M/S B.H.E.L., Trichy. Main Parameters Capacity :700 T/Hr Temperature : 540C Pressure : 137 kg/cm2

BOILER

BOILER CIRCUITS
WATER AND STEAM CIRCUIT AIR AND FLUE GAS CIRCUIT COAL AND ASH CIRCUIT(Supporting fuel LDO & HFO) COOLING WATER CIRCUIT

FEED WATER TO STEAM


Drum vents Economiser Vent To IPT inlet Steam to HPT inlet SH attemperator 13 14 2 7 3R
Platen SH RH FINAL SH

RH attemperator

Steam from HPT outlet

Drum

Uprisers 1 11 12

3L 10

D o w n C o m e r s

LTSH

9 W A T E R W A L L W A T E R W A L L 6
Economiser

EH I/L

4L 5 4R 8

EH O/L

Furnace

To SH / RH Attemperation
E C O R C

E2
E C O D R A I N

E1

LLCV

FLCV A

Bottom Ring Header

FLCV B

Feed Water from BFP

FLOW DUE TO DENSITY DIFFERENCE

WATER CIRCUIT Consists of 1. Economiser 2. Boiler Drum 3. Water Wall Tubes

CIRCULATION RATIO =

TOTAL FEEDWATER FLOW THRO CIRCUIT TOTAL STEAM GENERATED IN THE CIRCUIT

STEAM GENERATOR
Steam Generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economiser

SCHEME OF STEAM GENERATION IN BOILER


- Process of steam generation in boilers (Water pre-heating to the saturation temperature is done in an economizer, the formation of steam takes place in evaporating heating surfaces and steam superheating is carried out in a super-heater) - In these process water in the economizer and steam in the superheater come only once in contact with the heating surfaces - The economizer offers hydraulic resistance to the motion of water, which must be overcome by provision of high head in the feed pump - The pressure developed by the feed pump must exceed the pressure at the entry to the zone of steam generation by the magnitude of the hydraulic resistance of the economizer - The motion of steam in the super-heater is due to pressure gradient between the zone of steam generation and the steam turbine - The combined motion of water and steam in evaporating tubes which has to overcome the hydraulic resistance of these can be effected in various ways:

ECONOMISER
Function: Absorbing the flue gas temperature to heat the feed water to its sensible heat. Arrangements:
Staggered (fin or plain tube) In-line (plain)

ECONOMISER BANKS

Eco inter headers

REPLACEMENT OF ECONOMISER ASSEMBLIES

DRUM & ITS INTERNALS


Function:
Separating the steam from steam water mixer and discharging it It houses all internals used for steam purification after being separated

DRUM INTERNALS
Turbo separators (100 Nos.) Screen Dryers Economizers feed pipes (2 Nos.) Continuous Blow Down(CBD) collection pipe Emergency Blow Down(EBD) pipe Phosphate dosing pipes

BOILER DRUM WITH OPENING FOR RISERS

DRUM

OPENING FOR RISER

Water Wall Tubes


FUNCTION: It forms the furnace wall eliminating exposed refractory surfaces. heating & evaporating the feed water supplied to the boiler from economizer. It consists of vertical tubes connected at top & bottom headers. 50% of the heat is absorbed by water wall by radiation

WATER WALL PANEL TUBES

WATER WALL TUBES

FLAME

Combustion in Tangential Corner Firing Furnace

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


The furnace pressure in the boilers is maintained by the use of both forced draught fans and induced draught fans. The circulation of water is natural, i.e. from the drum through the down comers and then through the upraises to the water walls . As the water flows down through the down comers and fills the water walls, due to the firing in the furnace it gets converted into steam and rises due to lesser density.

STEAM CIRCULATION SYSTEM


This system consists of
Riser tubes Super-heaters Re-heater & De-super heaters etc.,

Riser is a tube through which water & steam mixture pass from an upper water headers to drum.

SUPER HEATERS
Classified according to the position or heat received from flue gas:
- Positioning of Super heater: Mainly depends on steam parameters and the arrangements of evaporating tubes. - SH coil ends are welded to round-section headers. - SH tubes are bent into coils with a bending radius of not less than 1.9d. - Multi-pass coils are employed in high-pressure boilers. - With multi-pass coils, there may be not enough places on a header for welding the tube ends. Furthermore the header wall may be weakened. - Depending on the direction of flows of steam and gas SH may be parallel flow, counter flow or mixed flow. - A counter flow SH develops the highest temperature gradient between steam and gas, which makes it possible to diminish the heating surface area and metal used for fabrication.

RE-HEATER
Steam after expansion in HP turbine is heated to the rated temp 540 C at constant pressure. It consists of pendant assemblies and placed in medium temperature region. It consists of CRH, HRH lines, Desuperheating and safety valves.

BOILER TUBE LENGTH & AREA


WATER WALL ECONOMISER LTSH PSH FSH SCW RE-HEATER TOTAL 21.21 KM 19.5 KM 37.29 KM 10.6 KM 9.9 KM 13.1 KM 26.1 KM 137.62 KM

FANS
A fan continuously moves mass of air, gas or vapour at the desired velocity by the action of its rotor. For achieving this objective there is a slight increase in the gas pressure across the fan rotor. However, the main aim of a fan is to move a gas without an appreciable increase in pressure.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


PRIMARY AIR FANS (PA FAN) The purpose of primary fans is to provide air that is used to transport the pulverized coal from the mills and also to warm up the coal to remove any moisture content that might present in the coal. The primary air flowing out of PA fan is divided into 2 portions, one portion enters the regenerative air preheater and comes out as hot air,while the 2nd portion is cold air and both sent to the mill.Depending upon the temp.requirement of the coal at mill outlet the flow of primary air is controlled by dampers.

PA FAN-SPECIFICATION
Type : NDV 22 TIEFSTACK ND Radial fan V Single suction simply supported fan 22 Nominal Diameter of Impeller in dm TIEFSTACK Type of impeller Capacity : 1250 KW Fan make : BHEL Flow : 70 m3 / s Speed : 1480 RPM Discharge Pr. : 1210 mmwc Regulation : Inlet Damper Control Direction : Clock wise from MNDE Bearings : Journal Bearings Lubrication : FDE - Forced lubrication : FNDE - Sump lubrication No. of fans : 2 Nos.in parallel

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


BOILER AUXILIARIES
FORCED DRAUGHT FANS (FD FAN) The main function of forced draught fan is to provide air for combustion in addition to the air supplied by the primary air fan.The air from the FD fans known as secondary air, is supplied to the furnace through regenerative air pre-heater, wind box and finally through secondary air damper controls. Two FD fans are provided for each Boiler It supplies secondary air to furnace for complete combustion of fuel for more than stochiometric ratio 4% It also supplies inlet air to scanner air fan for scanners cooling and oil guns cooling

SPECIFICATION
TYPE : AN 18 e 6 AN - AXIAL NON PROFILED BLADES 18 - NOMINAL DIAMETER OF IMPELLER IN DM e6 - TYPE OF DIFFUSER Capacity : 1250 KW Flow Speed Regulation Direction Fan make Bearings Lubrication No. of fans : 132.2 m3 / s : 1480 RPM : Inlet Guide Vane Control : Counter Clock wise from MNDE : BHEL : Anti friction Bearings : Grease lubrication : 2 Nos.in parallel Discharge Pr. : 665 mmwc

INDUCED DRAFT FAN It induces the exhaust flue gas through chimney to atmosphere It controls the balanced draft system VARIABLE SPEED HYDRAULIC COUPLING It supports ID fan motor to overcome its initial torque It regulates the speed of ID fan as per unit load SPECIFICATION OF HYDRAULIC COUPLING Type : 1150 SVNL 21 18.5 T Working oil pr. - 16 bar Lub oil pr. - 0.3 to 0.6 bar Primary coupling - HBK 180 Secondary coupling - SBLK 180 Motor Speed - 740 rpm Full load slippage - 3.8 % Max output speed - 711 rpm

INDUCED DRAFT FAN SPECIFICATION


Type : NDZV 31 SIDOR ND - Radial fan ZV - Double suction simply supported fan 31 - Nominal Diameter of impeller in dm SIDOR - Type of impeller Capacity : 1500 KW Flow : 230 m3 / s Discharge pr. : 400 mmwc Variable speed : 710 RPM max Regulation : Variable speed Hydraulic coupling (VOITH make) Direction : Counter Clock wise from MNDE Fan make : BHEL Bearings : Journal bearings Lubrication : Sump lubrication No. of fans : 2 Nos.in parallel

Most popular design is Two-pass.


- Because, fuel is supplied and gases are removed at the bottom which is convenient for the removal of liquid slag. - Draft fans are mounted on the zero level so that their vibration is not transferred to the boiler structure Disadvantages: 1. The heating of convective surfaces and the concentration of ash over the cross section of the convective shaft may be uneven because the gases are turned by 180 deg. 2. Convective shaft and second-pass pressure parts erosion is more due to gas direction.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


INDUCED DRAUGHT FAN The Induced Draught Fans are provided to evacuate the flue gas and to maintain vacuum inside the furnace to ensure effective combustion. The ID fan is driven by a constant speed induction motor. The speed variation of ID fan is effected using hydraulic coupling. The oil used in the hydraulic coupling is cooled by water which is circulated by a separate pump.

AIR POLLUTION
Life on earth, weather it is of human being, of animal, or of vegetation, is affected by air pollution. One of prime causes for the air pollution is mushroom growth of industries the developing and developed countries. Thermal power stations which burn coal as fuel and handle huge quantum of ash, may greatly pollute the environment, unless otherwise the particulate matter content in the flue gas is separated-out fully. In order to restrict the emission within the limits, thermal power stations are bound to upkeep there ash precipitator in good condition .

TYPES OF PRECIPITATOR
Mechanical type of precipitators Electrostatic precipitators ADVANTAGES OF ESP Low pressure drop in the flue gas stream, Less power consumption Easy control Sustained high collection efficiency Capacity to handle particles of all sizes Easy maintenance. BAPCON B : BHEL A : Advanced P : Precipitator CON : Controller

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP


CORONA DISCHARGE The emitting electrode being a wire of small diameter with radius of curvature, creates a high intensive electric field surrounding itself.The electron in the outer orbits of flue gas atoms which travel close to the electrodes gain sufficient energy by virtue of the high intensity electric field. When atoms collide with each other or with the surface of the emitting electrode, the outer orbit electrons acquire adequate energy to get themselves released from the bondage of these atoms. The electrons thus liberated, are accelerated towards the collecting plate due to the local electrical field.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP contd


As they move,they gain more energy and bombard on other atoms which results in liberation of more number of electrons.Moreover, the atoms which lose electrons, become positively charged and are attracted by negatively charged discharge electrodes . When they collide with these electrodes, they make enough radiation to ionise the gas molecules. Thus, some sort of chain reaction takes place, nearer to the discharge electrodes resulting in a flood of electrons which starts moving towards the collecting electrodes.This process is known as the corona discharge.

ELECTRON NAUTRALGAS MOL POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION DUST PARTICLE UNCHARGED DUST PARTICLE

FIELD CHARGING
While the electrons stream away from the discharge electrodes, the encounter with flue gas molecules and dust particles.When gas molecules receives electrons they are ionised with negative charge and migrate towards the positive electrode, they get collected over dust particles which obstruct their way. The dust particles go on collecting the ionised gas molecule and once it has accumulated sufficient negative charge, they are attracted by the positively charged collecting electrodes.

SPECIFICATION
NO. OF RECTIFIER NO. OF FIELDS NO. OF HOPPERS NO. OF COLLECTING ELECTRODES NO. OF EMMITING ELECTRODES NO. OF CRM MOTORS NO. OF ERM MOTORS : 24 Nos. / Boiler : 24 Fields / Boiler : 48 Nos. : 5292 / Boiler : 31104 / Boiler : 12 Nos./ Boiler : 24 Nos./ Boiler

SPECIFICATION
GAS FLOW RATE DUST CONCENTRATION TYPE OF PRECIPITATOR COLLECTION EFFICIENCY PRESSURE DROP VELOCITY OF GAS TREATMENT TIME POLUTION LIMIT : 363.1 m3 / s at 145 0 C : 51.18 g / Nm 3 :FAA-6X36-2X72125-2 : 99.64 % : 15 MMWC : 1.0025 m / s : 21.55 sec : 150 mg /Nm3

ASH DISPOSAL
A dyke has been constructed across the Perumpallam valley over an area of 1268 acres. The dyke consists of Upper Ash Dyke, Lower Ash Dyke and Two settling ponds in series. The ash slurry is pumped into the dyke.Ash settles down and the water flows into the primary pond and then to the secondary pond from where clear water is let into the river Cauveri. The effluent water is tested for very high degree of purity in accordance with the standards fixed by TNPCB.

DRY ASH DISPOSAL THROUGH SILOS


90% of the ash content in the coal is collected as dry ash MTPS got the National award for the second place in Dry Fly Ash utilization for the year 2005-06

AIR PRE HEATER


IT PREHEATS THE PRIMARY & SECONDARY AIR FROM THE WASTE EXHAUST FLUE GAS LEAVING AFTER THE ECONOMISER TO IMPROVE THE BOILER EFFICIENCY

SPECIFICATION OF REGENERATIVE ( LJUNGSTORM TYPE ) APH 27 VIM (T) 1850 (2000)


27 - Nominal diameter of APH in feet VI - Vertical Inverted M - Modular design (T) - Tri sector 1850 - Heating element depth including 3 layers in mm 2000 - Heating element depth with Future Element in mm

ADVANTAGE OF AIR HEATER


IN ADDITION TO INCREASE IN BOILER EFFICIENCY THE OTHER ADVANTAGE STABILITY OF COMBUSTION IS IMPROVED BY USE OF HOT AIR. INTENSIFIED AND IMPROVED COMBUSTION. PERMITTING TO BURN POOR QUALITY COAL. INTENSIFIED COMBUSTION PERMITS FASTER VARIATION AND FLUCTUATIONS. HOT AIR CAN BE USED FOR DRYING THE COAL AS WELL AS FOR TRANSPORTING THE PULVERIZED COAL TO BURNT.

GENERAL LAYOUT OF THERMAL POWER STATION


SUPERHEATED STEAM TO HPT STEAM TO LP TURBINES

DRUM PSH RH LTSH ECO

HPT IPT
RE-HEATED STEAM TO IPT

LPTS GENERATOR

Steam to heater

STEAM
GENERATOR

CONDENSER

DEAERATOR HP HEATERS LP HEATERS BOILER FEED PUMP

CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP

TURBINE
Main technical data: Rated output (measured at generator terminals) : 210 MW Rated main steam and reheat steam temperature : 535 C Rated main steam pressure : 130kgf/cm2 Max. Steam Flow(at valve wide open) : 670 tons/hr No. of heaters in regenerative feed water heating cycle : 8(including Deaerator) No. of extraction lines :7 Final feed water temperature : 242 C Overall length of Turbine : 20307 mm Overall width of Turbine : 8530 mm Total weight of Turbine : 560 Tons General :The steam turbine of BHEL make is a condensing type, tandem compound, three cylinder, horizontal, disc and diaphragm (impulse) type with nozzle governing. Turbine is coupled to directly driven A.C. Generator.

MAIN EQUIPMENTS - TURBINE


LMW-TURBINE
The Turbo Generators were supplied by M/s BHEL Hardwar. The turbine is a three stage turbine. Speed of the Turbine :3000 RPM Temperature : 535C
TURBINES

TURBINE

HP TURBINE No.Of STAGES: 12

IP TURBINE No.Of STAGES:11

LP TURBINES No.Of STAGES: 2 X 4

MAIN EQUIPMENTS OF TURBINE 1. Main Turbine. 2. Oil system. 3. Condenser 4. Cooling water system. 5. Hot well & Condensate system 6. HP Heaters & LP Heaters 7. Feed Water system

Feed water heaters


1. OPEN HEATERS: bled steam is allowed to mix with feed water Deaerator is one of the open heater 2. CLOSED HEATERS: (steam is not allowed to mix with water) Feed water flows through the tubes in the heater and the bled steam condenses on the outside of the tubes in the shell. The condensate sometimes called HEATER DRIP, then passes through the next lower pressure heater High pressure & low pressure heaters

TG BEARINGS & OIL SYSTEM


Seven journal bearings. Thrust bearing is located at HPT along with the journal bearing. An oil system from turbine MOP or SOP provides lubrication to the bearings. During supply failure, DCLOP provides lubrication to the bearings. Jack Oil Pump(JOP) is used to lift the Turbine shaft for Barring gear operation. Main Oil Tank(MOT) is for storage of oil system, support JOP, AC & DC Lube oil Pumps & Starting Oil Pump (SOP) and receive the drain oil from the bearings. Oil coolers are used to reduce the oil temp before admitting to the bearings. Oil vapour fan removes vapour in the oil. Governing oil is supplied from Main Oil Pump (MOP) /Starting Oil Pump(SOP)

WHY CONDENSER IS REQUIRED


The steam after doing work in LPT was converted into water in Condenser and send back to the Boiler. By recycling, the requirement of DM water & cost is reduced. Higher the condenser vacuum, higher the work done in the Turbine. Act as a storage tank for CEP. Dissolved air and non condensable gases in the water was removed in the condenser.

COOLING WATER SYSTEM


OBJECTIVE OF COOLING WATER: a) To condense the steam from LP Turbine b) To cool the plant auxiliary equipments. c) To flush the ash hoppers. SOURCE OF COOLING WATER: River water taken from the Cauvery river

How vacuum created in the condenser.


When condensing the Exhaust steam in Condenser as water at a vacuum of 0.9 ksc, 15,000 times volume reduction is taken place between steam and water. Due to this high reduction of volume while condensing, vacuum is created inside the Condenser. Initial vacuum was created by Steam Ejectors/ Vacuum pump. Air was sucked by Steam Ejectors/vacuum pump through the line taken off from the condenser.

CONDENSER DETAILS
Condenser is located beneath the LPT. The used up steam from LPT is directly sent to condenser for condensing the steam to water. Cooling water received from CWPH is passed thro the cooling tubes to condense the steam. A Vacuum around 665 mmHg is maintained inside the condenser. The condensed water(condensate) is collected in the hotwell The condensate is pumped to De-aerator thro Low Pressure heaters (LPH) by CEP Loss in the system was make up at condenser.

CONDENSER (FRONT)

CONDENSER TUBES (7810 tubes on each side) PARTING PLANE AIR COOLING ZONE HOT WELL CEP

CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP (CEP)


Mainly used to pump out condensate from Hot well to De-aerator through LP heaters. It will maintain the De-aerator level . Two nos. pump available out of which one pump is standby. Driven by Electrical Motor of 500 KW capacity Develops a pressure of 20 Ksc Multistage (5 stages) vertical Centrifugal pump of Capacity 675 T/Hr.

BFP BOILER FEED PUMP


The main function of BFP is to supply feed water to Boiler drum which is under a Pr. of 160 Kg/Cm2 and to maintain the drum level . Each pump can deliver 400 T/Hr. Water from De-aerator at a pressure of 7 Kg is connected to BFP Booster pump suction line which develops 15 Kg/Cm2. There are 3 nos. BFP available out of which one pump is standby No. of stages : 6 Driven by a Electrical motor of 3500 KW rating thro a variable speed scoop coupling. Feed Water from BFP is passed through HP heaters to pickup heat before admitting into the Boiler via Economizer. Certain minimum water flow will be established thro RC lines when the water flow to Boiler drum is less. Hydraulic coupling is provided a.) to decouple when the pump ceases. b.) To save energy & c.) To vary the flow & Pr

HIGH PRESSURE HEATERS (HPH)


The F.W pumped by BFP passes thro HPH 5, 6 & 7 in the tube side to pickup heat . Extraction from HP outlet CRH is used in HPH-6 at shell side. Extraction from IPT is used in HPH-5 in shell side. The drain condensate is cascaded from HPH-7 to HPH-6, HPH-6 to HPH-5 and then send to de-aerator. Protection to isolate the HPH independently if the shell level goes to Very high level to protect water entry into the turbine. The regenerative Feed Water Heaters increases the cycle efficiency

PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE PUMPSETS

2000000
N U M B E R O F P U M P S E T S

1567317

1768052 1645329
1st 1951-56 2nd 1956-61 3rd 1961-66 4th 1969-74 5th 1974-78 6th 1980-85 7th 1985-90 8th 1992-97 9th 1997-02 10th 2002-07

1500000
1033556 1277501

1000000 500000 0
33440 117695

681205 256594

805616

10

PLAN PERIOD

MAIN EQUIPMENTS
GENERATOR Make M/S BHEL Voltage : 15.75 KV Capacity : 210 MW Coolant : Hydrogen gas

Stator water in let and out let line ( turbine end)

EVACUVATION OF POWER AT METTUR TPS SWITCHYARD

Neutral

HYDROGEN GAS COOLING SYSTEM ADVANTAGES OVER AIR The density is lowest of all gases and is of that of air
Lesser windage and friction loss due to less density Requires less fan power Increase in efficiency

The heat transfer capacity of hydrogen is about twice that of air


Increase in pressure increase in out put For every 1.0 ksc pressure increase 0.5% increase out put But more pressure will increase the density of gas in turn will increase the windage loss

ADVANTAGES OVER AIR


High thermal conductivity and specific heat ensures effective heat removal from heated surfaces ( approx. 10 times that of air) Reduction of machine size Reduction of size of hydrogen coolers The degradation of insulation process cannot occur in hydrogen atmosphere Dirt and moisture free atmoshphere Increase in machine life

HYDROGEN GAS CIRCULATION


The stator core and the rotor conductors are cooled by High purity of hydrogen gas Hydrogen enters the generator casing through an axially oriented distribution pipe at the top The rotor fans circulate hydrogen over the end windings and through the stator core, while parallel flow passes through the rotor. Four hydrogen coolers are located horizontally inside the casing for cooling the hydrogen gas Regenerative heaters are provided for removing moisture from hydrogen gas.

Why Generators are cooled by Stator water ?


Since , electron flow in a conductor in Zig Zag path, conductor heats up If temperature increases, resistance value also increases, which in turn limits the voltage In order to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductors To reduce the degrading of stator coils and insulating materials

EVACUVATION OF POWER AT METTUR TPS


FEEDERS 8 Nos.
GOBI INGUR
15.75 KV 230 KV

230 KV TUNNEL DAM PH

GENERATOR

SALEM 400 KV-I


POWER TRANSFORMER

SALEM 400 KV-II METTUR AUTO SS SINGARAPET

INSTALLED CAPACITY Vs SUSTAINED DEMAND


7513 6290 7924 6687 8268 6957 9319 7228 9531 7473 10031 8209

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Though the installed capacity is more than the demand, actual generation is less due to i)Hydro Station are monsoon dependent and irrigation based ii)Statutory overhauling of Thermal & Hydro Units.

6908

6908

6090

6158

6578

6916

7120 5196

92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Installed Capacity ( MW) Sustained Peak Demand(MW)

3676

3948

4360

4424

4875

PLAN

4918

5580

7204

PROGRESS OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS


1st 1951-56

N U M B E R O F T R A N S F O R M E R S

200000 150000 100000 50000 0


3773 10004 17360 37453 43666 63667 84225 111522 140860 167120

2nd 1956-61 3rd 1961-66 4th 1969-74 5th 1974-78 6th 1980-85 7th 1985-90 8th 1992-97

10

9th 1997-02 10th 2002-07

PLAN PERIOD

METTUR THERMAL POWER STATION-A JOURNEY TO EXCELLENCE THE GOVT. OF INDIAS MERITORIOUS PRODUCTIVITY REWARDS & GOLDEN SHIELDS FOR THE OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE
Sl.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Year 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1999-2K Reward Rs.15 Lakh & Certificate Bronze medal Bronze 10. Silver medal 11. Silver medal Bronze medal Silver medal 12. 13. 14. 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2003-04 2002-03 Sl.No 8. 9. Year 2000-01 2001-02 Reward

Gold medal Gold medal Gold medal Gold medal


Target achieved Target achieved Target achieved

Some TNEB firsts


FIRST TO DEVELOP Wind power in the country A high head hydroelectric scheme (Pykara hydro station) Cascading-type hydroelectric station in a hill area (Kundah system) Cascading low-head barrage powerhouses across the Cauvery river Pumped storage hydro scheme to meet peak power demand (400 MW Kadambarai) (courtesy:Power Line magazine, June-2007)

Some TNEB firsts


FIRST TO COMMISSION Extra high voltage, gas-insulated substation in Chennai Distribution control centre with SCADA in Chennai 230 KV grid with a load despatch centre in Erode

FIRST TO INTRODUCE RCC poles in LT and HT line work Power line carrier communication in grid operation Wireless communication system to attend to fuse-off calls in Chennai Complete rural electrification (courtesy:Power Line magazine, June-2007)

USEFUL POINTS TO IMPROVE YOUR QUALITY OF LIFE BE HONEST AND BE FRANK TO BE ABLE TO SPEAK THE TRUTH DO NOT EXPECT OTHERS TO DO WHAT YOU DO NOT WANT TO DO BE A WILLING STUDENT THROUGHOUT YOUR LIFE LEARN EVERY DAY IF YOU DONT KNOW, ASK DO NOT PROCRASTINATE

KNOW SAFETY NO PAIN


NO SAFETY KNOW PAIN

Er.R.GABRIEL GERMANS, M.E., F.I.E. Chief Engineer / Mettur Thermal Power Station TNEB / Mettur Dam-6