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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMTED

JHANSI

PROJECT REPORT
ON

COMPUTERIZED NUMERICALLY
CONTROLLER MACHINES & PROGRAMMING LOGIC CONTROLLER

GUIDED BY:
Mr. Vijay Verma Sr. Engineer, WE&S

SUMITTED BY:
Abhinav Gupta Electronics & communication B.Tech (III year) Amity University Rajasthan

Table of Contents
BHEL - A BRIEF INTODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 6 Manufacturing Units of BHEL ........................................................................................................................ 7 First Generation Units ............................................................................................................................... 7 Second Generation Units .......................................................................................................................... 7 Units through Acquisition and Merger ..................................................................................................... 7 New Manufacturing Units ......................................................................................................................... 7 The BHEL JHANSI Unit ................................................................................................................................... 8 Sections of BHEL Jhansi Unit ......................................................................................................................... 8 The Product Profile of BHEL Jhansi Unit ....................................................................................................... 9 Growth of Production and Milestones ....................................................................................................... 10 Rotation Report........................................................................................................................................... 11 Transformer Commercial (TRC) .............................................................................................................. 11 Transformer Engineering (TRE) ............................................................................................................... 12 Power transformer.............................................................................................................................. 12 Special transformer ............................................................................................................................. 12 Fabrication .................................................................................................................................................. 13 BAY-0 ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 BAY-1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 BAY-2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 BAY-3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 14 Machine Section.................................................................................................................................. 14 Copper Section .................................................................................................................................... 15 Tooling Section .................................................................................................................................... 15 BAY-4 ....................................................................................................................................................... 16 BAY-5 ....................................................................................................................................................... 17 BAY-6 ....................................................................................................................................................... 17 BAY-7 ....................................................................................................................................................... 17 BAY-8 ....................................................................................................................................................... 18 Instrument Transformer ..................................................................................................................... 18

BAY-9 ....................................................................................................................................................... 21 Locomotive Production (LMP) ............................................................................................................ 23 Locomotive Manufacturing (LMM) ..................................................................................................... 24 Bus Duct ...................................................................................................................................................... 25 Central Quality service: ............................................................................................................................... 26 Introduction to CNC .................................................................................................................................... 27 The MODAC................................................................................................................................................. 27 The PLC part ................................................................................................................................................ 27 MODAC connection to the outside RS 232 ports ........................................................................................ 28 SCSI Interface .......................................................................................................................................... 28 Ethernet Interface ................................................................................................................................... 28 CNC-PLC................................................................................................................................................... 28 Working Principle ........................................................................................................................................ 29 Servo Drive Units......................................................................................................................................... 29 Feedback Device ......................................................................................................................................... 30 Linear Scales ................................................................................................................................................ 30 Programming Logic Controller .................................................................................................................... 31 Features .................................................................................................................................................. 31 System Scale............................................................................................................................................ 31 The Central Processing Unit .................................................................................................................... 32 The Input/output System ........................................................................................................................ 32 PLC Memory ................................................................................................................................................ 33 User Interface ............................................................................................................................................. 33 Communications ......................................................................................................................................... 33 PLC compared with other control systems ................................................................................................. 34 Digital and analog signals ............................................................................................................................ 35 Programming .............................................................................................................................................. 37 CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 38

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I pose my copies gratitude and like to than the entire staff of BHEL, Jhansi for their help and kind cooperation during my entire training program. I am extremely thankful to them for providing me with vital information about the different units, industrial structure prevailing in BHEL Jhansi. I was a neophyte to an engineering industry but after my teaching I felt that I have a clear sight of basic engineering process.

I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Santosh Mishra, H.R.D. for his kind cooperation and help, which he provided throughout the training period.

I would like to thank my project guide Mr. Vijat Verma, Engineer, WE&S, for giving gis valuable time to help me to know various concepts on CNC machine and their programming.

At last but not least, I would like to thank my parents and all my peers who have been a constant source of encouragement and inspiration in every walk of life.

Mohit Kumar

PREFACE
The summer training is an integral part of the B.Tech degree program.

As a matter of fact every engineering student, has to undergo practical training in an approved organization, under the guidance of professionals, to enhance the practical approach and to get the in depth knowledge of various machineries.

During the course of training, the trainees are expected to use and apply there academic knowledge and gain valuable insight of cooperate cultures with all its environment operational complexity, the said training offers, a valuable of the trainings to meet their academic knowledge with the real world situation. I undertook my training in BHEL (Jhansi unit), which is one of the NAVRATANS of India. ISO-14001 and OHSAS-18001 Company. During the training period as a project trainee, I visited various departments

BHEL - A BRIEF INTODUCTION

BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related infrastructure sector, today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. The company has been earning profit continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77.

BHEL manufactures over 180 products under major product groups and caters to core sectors of the India Economy viz., Power Generation & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy etc. The wide network of BHELs 14 manufacturing divisions, four power sector regional centers, over 100 project sites, eight service centers and 18 regional offices, enables the company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and servicesefficiently and at competitive prices. The high level of quality & reliability of its products due to the emphasis on design, engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its own R&D centers.

BHEL has acquired certification to Quality Management System (ISO 9001), Environmental Management System (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety Management System (OHSAS 18001) and is also well on its journey towards Total Quality Management.

Manufacturing Units of BHEL


First Generation Units
Bhopal: Heavy Electrical Plant Haridwar: Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant Hyderabad: Heavy Electrical Power Equipment Plant

Second Generation Units


Triuchy: High Pressure Boiler Plant Jhansi: Transformer and Locomotive Plant Haridwar: Central Foundry and Forge Plant Triuchy: Seamless Steel Tube Plant

Units through Acquisition and Merger


Bangalore: Electronics Division Electro Porcelain division

New Manufacturing Units


Ranipet: Boiler Auxiliary Plant Jagdishpura: Insulator Plant Govindwal: Industrial Plant Rudrupur: Component & Fabrication Plant Bangalore: Energy System Plant

The BHEL JHANSI Unit


The unit of Jhansi was established around 14 km from the city on the N.H. No. 26 Jhansi Lalitpur road. It is called second generation plant of BHEL se up in 1974 at an estimated cost of RS. 6.22 crores inclusive of Rs. 21 crores for township. Its foundation was laid by Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi the Prime Minister on 9th January 1974. The commercial production of the unit began in 1976-77 with an output of Rs. 53 Lacs since then there has been no looking back for BHEL, Jhansi. This plant of BHEL is equipped with the most modern manufacturing processing and testing facilities for the manufacture of power, special transformer and Instrument transformers, Diesel shunting Locomotives and AC/DC Locomotives. The layout of the plant is such that it is well streamlined to enable smooth material flow from the raw material stages to finished goods. All the feeder bays have been laid perpendicular to main assembly bay and each feeder bay raw material smoothly gets converted to sub assemblies which after inspection are sent to main assembly bay. The raw material that are produced for manufacture are used only after thorough material testing in the testing lab and with strict quality checks at various stages of productions. This unit of bhel is basically engaged in the production and manufacture of transformer of various types and capacities with the growing competition in transformer section, in 1985-88 it under took the repowering of diesel, but it took a complete year for the manufacturing to begin. In 1987-88, BHEL has progressed a step further in undertaking the production of AC Locomotives and subsequently it is manufacturing AC/DC locomotives also.

Sections of BHEL Jhansi Unit


BHEL has many departments, while production and Administrative departments are separate. Broadly speaking BHEL, Jhansi Has two production categories: Transformer Loco

The Product Profile of BHEL Jhansi Unit


PRODUCTS 1. Power Transformer 2. Special Transformer 3. ESP Transformer 4. Freight Loco transformer RATING Up to 220 KV class 250 MVA UP to 110 KV 100 KV, 1400mA 3900 to 5400 KV & 6500 KVA (3 Phase) 5. ACEMU transformer Up to 1000 KVA 25 KV (1 Phase) 1385 KVA (3 Phase) 6. Dry Type transformer 7. Bus-Duct 8. Instrument transformer 9. Diesel electric Locomotives 10. AC/DC Locomotives 11. Over Head Equipment cum Test car Up to 3150 KVA Up to 15075 KV Generating voltage VT & CT unto 220 KV class Up to 2600 HP 5000 HP

Growth of Production and Milestones


YEAR 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 MILESTONES Start of Instrument Transformer production Start of Traction transformer and Power transformer (up to 132 kV) Start of HFTT type freight Loco commissioning of 2,500 kV DG set (due to server power cuts) Start of ESP Transformer Start of 220 kV Power Transformer Achieved Break Even Start of Bus-duct Start of dry type Transformer Re-powering of Diesel Loco Started Start of new Diesel Loco Manufacturing Manufacturing facilities for AC Loco Crossed 100 crore targets Successful design and manufacturing of 450 HP 3 Axel Diesel CCI Manufacturing of First 2600 HP Diesel for NTPC Successful Design and Development of 5000 HP Thyristor control Locomotives Unit has been awarded ISO-9001 certificate for quality systems 240 MVA Power Transformer produced first time AC/DC Locomotives first time in India 100th Loco Manufactured 250 MVA Transformer produced first time Developed over head equipment cum test car. Exported one Diesel Loco to Malaysia

Rotation Report
Transformer Commercial (TRC)
The objective of the department is interaction with the customers. It brings out tenders and notices and also responds to them. It is this department that bags contract of building transformers. After delivery regarding faults, this department does failure and maintenance. All such snags are reported to them and they forward the information to the concerning department. One of the major tasks of this department is to earn decent profits over all negotiations. Transformer industry has become very competitive. The company offering the lowest price gets the contract but this process may continue does the work on very low profits. To avoid such a situation, a body by the name of India Electrical Manufactures Association (IEMA) was set up. This association helps to maintain a healthy competitive atmosphere in the manufacturing of electrical appliances.

The main work of the TRC is classified as:

Tenders and notices. Interaction with design department. Place of the work. Approximate cost of the work. Earnest money. The place and time where contract documents can be seen. The place and time where tender documents can be obtained. The time up to which the tender documents will be sold. The amount if any to be paid for such documents. The place and the date and the time when tenders are to be submitted and are to be opened.

Transformer Engineering (TRE)


The transformer manufactured in BHEL Jhansi range from 10 MVA to 240 MVS and up to 220 KV. The various transformers in this unit are:Power transformer a.) Generator transformer b.) System transformer c.) Auto transformer Special transformer a.) Freight loco transformer b.) ESP transformer c.) Instrument transformer d.) Dry type transformer All above types are oil cooled except dry type, which are air-cooled. The generated voltages at the power station are 6.9 KV, 11 KV and 13.8 KV but due to certain advantages like economical generation 11 KV is the most widely used. For this voltages needs to be stepped up. Transmission at high voltages is desirable because it results in lesser losses, needs thinner wire and hence is economical. If the current is kept high the copper losses become very high but iron losses are practically constant. In certain cases the required voltage may be less than the output voltage, so in order to obtain it we may be tapped in 4 or 6 equal steps. The type of tap changer depends on the application of the transformer. Where a continuous power supply is not required an OFF Circuit Tap Changer (OCTC) may be used. Where a continuous power supply is a must e.g. at a substation in cities etc. on Load Tap Changer (OLTC) used.

Fabrication
Fabrication is nothing but production. It comprises of 03 bays i.e. Bay-0, Bay-1 and Bay-2.

BAY-0
It is the preparation shop while the other two bays from the assembly shop/ This section has the following machines: Planner machine - To reduce thickness Shearing machine CNC/ANC flame cutting machine To cut complicated shaft items using Oxyacetylene Flame Bending machine Flattering machine Drilling machine Nibbling machine Pantograph flame cutting machine

BAY-1
It is an assembly shop where different parts of tank come from bay-0. Here welding processes are used for assembly, after which a rough surface is obtained Grinder operating at 1200 rpm, is used to eliminate the roughness.

BAY-2
It is assembly shop dealing with making different objects mentioned below 1-Tank assembly 2-Tank cover assembly 3-End frame assembly 4-Foot assembly Before assembly, short blasting (firing of small materials i.e. acid picketing) is done on different parts of jobs to clean the surface before painting. After assembly some tests are done known as NON DESTRUCTIVE TEST 5- Cross feed assembly 6-Core clamp assembly 7-Pin and pad assembly

1.) Ultrasonic Test: To detect the welding fault on the CRO at the fault place high amplitude waves are obtained. 2.) Die Penetration Test: Red solution is put at the welding and then cleaned. After some time white solution is put. Appearance of red spot indicates a fault at welding. 3.) Magnetic Crack Detection: Magnetic field is created and then iron powder is put at the welding. Sticking of the iron powder in the welding indicates a fault. 4.) X-Ray Test: It is same as human testing and the fault is seen in X-ray film.

BAY-3
Here are basically three sections in the bay: 1. Machine section 2. Copper section 3. Tooling section

Machine Section The operation to form small components of power and traction transformer is done in this section. The shop consists of following machines: i.) Central Lathe: It consist one tailstock, headstock, lower part of tailstock is fixed and tail stock spindle is moving. On this machine facing, turning and threading is done. ii.) Turret Lathe: Its function is same as central lathe but it is used for mass production. Here turret head is used in presence of tailstock because turret head contains many tailstocks around six. iii.) Capstan Lathe: It is belt drive. iv.) Radial Arm Drilling Machine: It is used for drilling and boring. v.) Horizontal Boring Machine: It is computerized and used for making bore, facing etc. vi.)Milling Machine: Horizontal milling machine: It is used for making gear and cutting operations. Vertical milling machine: By the machine facing cutting and T-slot cutting is done

Copper Section All the processes related to copper are done here. i.) Tube Slitting Machine: This machine is developed here and is used for cutting the tube along its length and across its diameter. Its blade thickness is 3mm. ii.) Shearing Machine: It is operated hydraulically and its blade has V-shape and thickness of 15mm. iii.) Die and Punching Machine: It is also hydraulically operated and has a die and puck for making holes. iv.) Hydraulic Bending Machine: It is used for bending the job up to 90 degree. v.) Shearing Machine: It is fully mechanical and is used to cut the job along its width. vi.) Fly Press Machine: It is used to press the job. It is operated mechanically by wheel, which is on the top of the machine. vii.)Bend Saw Machine: This machine is used for cutting job having small thickness. It has a circularly operated blade, around 5.1 m long. viii.)Water Cooled Brazing Machine: It contains two carbon brushes. The sheet is put along with a sulfas sheet and the carbon brushes are heated. A lap joint is formed between the sheets as sulfas sheet melts. ix.)Lancing Belt Machine: It creates a smooth surface. x.)Hydraulic Press Machine: To press the job. xi.)Solder Pot Machine: It has a pot that contains solder. Solder has a composition of 60% Zn and 40% Pb.

Tooling Section In this section the servicing of tools is done. 1.) Blade Sharp Machine: It sharpens the blade using a circular diamond cutter. Blade of CNC cropping line machine is sharpened here. 2.) Mini Surface Grinder Machine: It serves grinding purposes. It has a grinding wheel made of Aluminum Oxides. 3.) Tool and Surface Grinding Machine: This is specially used to grind the tools used in Bay-7. 4.) Drill Grinding Machine: To grind the drills.

BAY-4
It is the winding section. Types of winding are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reverse section winding. Helical winding. Spiral winding. Interleaved winding. Half sectional winding.

There are four types of coil fixed in a transformer, they are 1. Low voltage coil (LV). 2. High voltage coil (HV). 3. Tertiary coil. 4. Tap coil. The type of winding depends upon job requirement. Also, the width and thickness of the conductors are designed particulars and are decided by the design department. Conductors used for winding is in the form of very long strips wound on a spool, the conductor by cellulose paper for insulation. For winding first the mould of diameter equal to inner diameter of required coil is made. The specification of coil is given in drawing. The diameter of mould is adjustable as its body is made up of wooden sections that interlock with each other. This interlocking can be increased or decreased to adjust the diameter of coil. The moulds are of following types:1. Belly Types. 2. Link Types. 3. Cone Types.

BAY-5
It is core and ouch section. The lamination used in power, dry, ESP transformer etc. for making core is cut in this section. CRGO (cold rolled grain oriented) silicon steel is used for lamination, which is imported in India from Japan, U.K. and Germany. It is available in 0.27 and 0.28 mm thick sheets, 1 met. Wide and measured in Kg. The sheets are coated with very thin layer of insulating called carlites.

For the purpose of cutting and punching the core three machine are installed in shop 1. Slitting Machine: It is used to cut CRGO sheets in different width. It has a circular cutter whose position can be changed as per the requirement. 2. CNC Cropping Line Hydraulic: It contains only one blade, which can rotate 90 degree about the sheet. It is operated pneumatically. 3. CNC Cropping Line hydraulic: It is also used to cut the CRGO sheet. It contains two blades, one is fixed and the other rotates 90 degree above the sheet. It is operated hydraulically. M4 quality sheet 0.23-0.33 mm thickness is used.

BAY-6
Single-phase traction transformer for AC locomotives is assembled in this section. This Freight locomotive transformers are used where there is frequent change in speed. In this bay core winding and all the assembly and testing of traction transformer is done. Three-phase transformers for ACEMU are also manufactured in this section. The supply lines for this transformer are 6500 KVA. The tap changer of rectifier transformer is also assembled is this bay. Rectified transformer is used in big furnace like the thermal power stations and plants (TPP).

BAY-7
This is the insulation shop. Various types of insulations are AWWW: All Wood Water Washed press paper. The paper is 0.2-0.5mm thick cellulose paper and is wound on the conductors for insulation. Pre-Compressed Board: this is widely used for general insulation and separation of conductors in the forms of blocks. Press Board: This is used for separation of coils e.g. L.V. from H.V. It is up to 38mm thick.

Udel: Indemnified Electrical Laminated wood or Perm wood. This is special type of plywood made for insulation purposes. Fiber Glass: This is a resin material and is used in fire prone areas. Bakelite Gasket: It is used for protection against leakage. Silicon Rubber Sheet: It is used for dry type transformer.

The machine used for shaping the insulation material is:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cylindrical Machines Circle cutting machines Scarping machines Punching press machines Drilling machines Guilletin machines Bench saw (spl for ID) Circular saw Lansing machines

BAY-8
It is the instrument transformer and ESP transformer manufacturing section.

Instrument Transformer These are used for measurement. Actual measurement is done by measuring instruments but these transformers serve the purpose of stepping down the voltage to protect the measuring instrument. They are used in AC system for measurement of current voltage and energy and can also for measuring power factor, frequency and for indication of synchronism. They find application in protection of power system and for the operation of over voltage, over current, earth fault and various other types of relays. They are of two types: 1. Current transformer (CT) 2. Voltage transformer (VT)

CURRENT TRANSFORMER It is a step down transformer. High current is not directly measured by the CT nut is stepped down to lower measurable voltages. Body: The main body is a bushing, which houses the winding and also acts an insulator. The CT has a bottom and top chamber. The top chamber is cylindrical tank of mild steel. It has terminals for connection of HV coils. It also has a glass window to indicate the oil level. Below the top chamber is the bushing made of porcelain. It has several folds or rain sheds to provide a specific electric field distribution and long leakage path. Some bushings are cylindrical while modern ones are conical as amount of oil porcelain used is reduced without any undesirable defect. Bottom chamber houses the secondary winding. There is also connection box to which the connection of the low voltage (LV) coil is made.

Windings The primary winding consist of hollow copper/aluminum pipe bent in form of a U aluminum is used for low rating. For higher rating a set of wires is passed through the pipe. For still higher ratings, a copper pipe is used and for highest rating highest rating copper pipe with copper wires passing through it is used. This arrangement depends on the current carrying capacity. The bent portion of primary as in the bottom chamber where as the free end is the top chamber. The straight potion lies inside the bushing. The primary is wound with crepe paper insulation. The thickness of the insulation goes in increasing as we go downwards in the bottom chamber. The free ends are provided with ferrules, which are, small hollow cylinders through which wires can pass connection to the primary are made through these ferrules. The secondary is divided in number of coils for different set of tapings. Connections are different tapings are made in connection box. Each coil has an annular core of CRGO (silicon steel). The wire use is insulated copper wire. The windings may be done both manually and by machine. After winding the coils are covered with paper tape insulation. The coils are then slipped into both the legs of the primary winding and connections are made in connections are made in connection box for different tapping.

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER: This is also a stepped down transformer. The outer construction is same as that of the CT that is also has a top chamber, bushing and a bottom chamber. The difference is only in the winding. Windings: The primary winding is of the thick wire having a few turns. The winding is heavily insulated with paper insulation. It has a hollow cylinder passing centrally through it, which houses the secondary winding. The clean and painted with either enamel or epoxy paint. The customer gives the choice of paint. Epoxy paint is generally used in chemical plants and seashore installation. Terminals are then mark and ratings and diagram plate is fixed. The job is then sent to the shipping department, which takes care of its dispatch by packing it in the wooden boxes.

ESP TRANSFORMER: The Electrostatic Precipitator transformer is used for environmental application. It is used to filter in a suspended charge particle in the waste gases of an industry. They are of particular use in thermal power stations and cement industry. The ESP is a single-phase transformer. It has a primary and secondary. The core is laminated and is made up CRGOS. It is a step up transformer. An AC reactor is connected in series with primary coil. The output of the transformer must be DC which is obtained by rectifying AC using bridge rectifier. A radio frequency choke is connected in series with the DC output for the protection of the secondary circuit and filter circuit. The output is chosen negative because the particles are positively charged. The DC output from the secondary is given to a set of plates arrange one after the others. Impurity particles being positively charged stick to these plates, which can be jerked off. For this a network of plates has to be setup all across the plant. This is very costly process in comparison with the transformer from bursting it higher pressure develops, inside it. It is the weakest point in the transformer body. An oil temperature indicator and secondary supply spark detector are also provided. One side of the transformer output is taken and other side has a marshalling box which is the control box of transformer.

BAY-9
In this bay power transformer are assembled. After taking different input from different bay 0-9 assembly is done. Power transformer is used to step and step down voltages at generating and substations. There are various ratings-11KV, 22KV, manufactured, they are a.) Generator transformer. b.) System transformer. c.) Auto transformer. A transformer in a progress of assemblage is called job. The design of the transformer is done by the design department and is unique of each job; depends on the requirement of customer. The design department provides drawing to the assembly shop, which assembles it accordingly. The steps involved in assembly are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Core building. Core lifting. Unlacing. Defacing and end-frame mounting. High voltage terminal gear and low volt terminal gear mounting. Vapor phasing and oil soaking. Final servicing and tanking. Case fitting.

Core Building It is made of cold rolled grain oriented steel CRGO. The punched core is sent to this shop from core punching shop. Here it is assembled with the help of drawing a set of 4 laminations is called a packet. The vertical portion of the core is called a leg the horizontal one is called yoke. Packets of both are interlinked. It is undesirable to keep the X-section of core circular to provide low reluctant part without air space. Spaces left are filled with thin wooden rod. After core building the end frames are bolted. The bolts are bolted. The bolts are insulated.

Core Lifting The core is lifted by a crane and I placed vertical. The rest of assembly is done on the core in this portion.

Unlacing & Core Coil Assembly The yoke of the core is removed using a crane. Bottom insulation in form of 50MM thick UDEL sheets is placed PCB & press board are also used for filling the gap & to provide a good base for the coil to rest.

Replacing & End-frame Mounting After lowering a coil the top insulation similar to the bottom one is provide. The removed yoke is placed end-frame bolted back into its position. The connections are then made as per drawings. All the conductors are insulated using crepe paper. The following tests are done during re lacing: 1. 2. 3. 1. Mugger Test Ratio Test Meg current/ High volt test H.V.T.G & L.V.T.G: Terminal gears are accessories provided at high voltage & low voltage terminals. Main device used as tap changer. Tap changer can be on load or off load. In offload type the supply has to be tripped, then the tapings changes but in on load type the tapings can be changed while the supply is on. On load tap changer (OLTC) are used where he supply is desired to be continuous.

The upper portion of the OLTC contains mechanism by which tapping is changed. There is switch which changes tap in very small type (Micro-seconds). But there is a possibility of sparking. To get rid of it, OLTC is filled with oil. The bottom part houses the terminals and the mechanism, which makes automatic connections.

Vapor Phasing & Oil Soaking It is well known fact that water is a conductor. The job is put in dummy type & placed in a vacuum vessel. It is an airtight chamber with heating facilities. A solvent vessel is released is the chamber which enters all transformer parts & insulation. It absorbs water rapidly. All the solvent vapors are sucked out with moisture. Metals contain no moisture but a lot of insulations are provided which contains this moisture & if not taken care of, may burst the job. After moisture removal tank is filled with transformer oil and soaked for at least three hours. The job remains in vessel for three days during phasing. It is then taken out of the vessel & also out of the dummy time.

Final Servicing & Tanking After taking the job out of dummy time all the parts retightened any other defects are rectified & job is retimed in mild steel tank. After tanking, oil is filled in it.

Case Fitting The accessories are fixed & final touches given to the job. The accessories include tank cover, fixing bushing, fixing valves etc. The terminals are marked- R & D (rating & diagram) plate is fixed. Bolting 7 not riveting because it may require maintenance & opening close the tank. Bushings are hollow to provide a passage for conductor; oil is fled inside the hollow spaces for better insulation. The bottom chamber is mild steel tank with a steel frame attached to its base for earthling. This chamber houses the secondary winding. Store: there are three sections in store: Control Receiving Section Custody Section Scrap disposal Section

Functions List of materials coming in stores is prepared & quality control people are called for inspection. If material is found as per standard, SRV is issued for each material. A total of 8 SRVs are prepared. Some materials such as silicon oil, transformer oil, insulating material etc. are directly stored in bays.

Locomotive Production (LMP) There are two products: 1. Electric locomotive 2. Diesel electric locomotive shunting (DESL) Under mention are the new non-conventional products designed and developed for Indian Railways based on their requirement.

OHE (Overhead electric) recording & testing cars. UTV (Utility Vehicle). RRV (Rail cum road vehicle). DETV (Diesel Electric Power Car). BPRV (Battery Power Road Vehicle). BCM (Blast Cleaning Machine). 200 T Well wagon for BHEL Hardwar. Metro Rake-Kolkata Metro Railways.

Locomotive Manufacturing (LMM) This section deals with manufacturing of locomotives. The main parts of the locomotives are: Under frame- the frame on which a locomotive is built. Super frame- the body of locomotive is called super structure or shell & is made of steel or sheet of mild steel. DC motor Alternator Compressor Flower Static Rectifier Static Converter Exchanger Bogie Traction Transformer- it is fixed on under frame and gets supply from an overhead line by equipment called pantograph. The type of pantograph depends on the supply. This transformer steps down voltage & in fitted with a tap changer.

Work Engineering & Services


This department looks after the commissioning & maintenance of all the machinery used in the factory. It also has 3 two stage air compressors for supplying compressed air to the various bays. The department has three different divisions Electrical Engineering Electronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering

Electrical Engineering: this division looks after all the electrical machinery & power
distribution of the factory. Snags detected in the system are immediately reported to this dept by the concerning dept. WE & S takes prompt action to rectify it. The factory has a feeder of 11k. The total sanctioned for the factory is 2500MVA But the maximum demand reaches the range of 1700-2000MVA. Here are various sub-stations inside the factory, for distribution of power to different sections. SS-1 SS-3 SS-4 SS-5 SS-6 Supplies Supplies Supplies Supplies Supplies Bay-6 to Bay-9 Bay-1 to Bay-4 Boiler & loco plant Bay-5 Administrative building

Technology: this department analyses the changes taking place in the world. And suggest changes accordingly. This is very important because the products must not get obsolete in the market otherwise they will be rejected by the customer. Functions: technology functions can be classified as: Processing Sequence: The sequence of the process of manufacturing is decided for timely and economic completion of the job. Operation time sequence: It includes incentive scheme management. Allowed operation time: It includes incentive amount. Facilities identification: It includes looking for new equipment or plant or tools to increase productivity. Special process certification: Special process is the ones requiring expertise for example identifying errors, cracks, air bubbles in welding. Productivity projects compilation: It includes the initial analysis of the problem & their appropriate solution to enhance productivity.

Bus Duct
Bus Ducts are used as connections between generators & transformers. They are used in power connections over 150MV. Bus ducts are hollow pipes made of aluminum. The crosssection of these ducts depends on the requirement of the customer & is done by the design department. The cross-section may have different shapes circulars; square, hexagonal, octagonal

etc. the casing is also made of aluminum sheets. Although aluminum is not as good as copper still is preferred over it because it is lighter than copper. Moreover it is cheaper than copper. BUS DUCTs are of two types1. Segregated bus ducts. 2. Isolated bus ducts. In segregated bus ducts one casing is divided into three separate chambers for three phases. In the isolated bus duct each phase is provide with phase is provided with a separate casing. The conductor i.e. the duct is separated from the casing by porcelain or epoxide (chemical) insulators. The bus duct assembly contains three cubicles:P.T. and S.P. cubicle. N.G. cubicle. L.A.V.T. cubicle. These cubicles have the circuits and the controls of the bus duct assembly. The connections may be star or delta. The line enters from the top of the chamber. The top chamber has the neutral side and the inside. On each side there are three terminals of aluminum to provide connections. The bottom chamber is below top chamber. These chambers are provided just below the generator.

Central Quality service:


First we get acquainted with few terms concerning this department. Quality It is the extent to which products and services satisfy the customers needs. Quality Assurance All those plants and symmetric action necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy the given requirement is called quality assurance. Quality Control The operational technique and activities that are used to fulfill requirement for quality are quality control.

Quality Inspection Activities such as measuring, testing, gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirement to determine conformity is termed quality inspection.

Introduction to CNC
The George transformer lamination cut-to-length line is an electro pneumatically control line, featuring high production and long working life. In order to gain full advantage of these design criteria it is essential to have an adequate knowledge of the function of the individual sections and the correct operations, care and maintenance. The operating instructions with their associates drawings and circuit diagrams are provided to assist in giving this falter understanding. Important aspects of the design and the operation of the TBA 1000 are dealt within the following text.

The MODAC
The main part of the control is one MODAC (modular Axis Controller), which is situated on the left side of the electrical cabinet. The BODEC is in fact a light green box where olts of signals arrive and depart. How the MODAC works is determined b the software, which is loaded at the time you start up the machine. The programs are loaded from harddisk when they are loaded the MODAC can start his job in this case controlling the taro cutting line. The MODAC can be divided into the following: The MASTER part with 68060 CPU: This part operates under the OS9 control ssetm which is multi-user and Muli-tasking control system. This is where the communication takes place with the operating interface (this caontais 2 screens and the keyboard on the control desk) this is also a connection with an international PLC, controlling the automatic working of the line and can control the motor.

The PLC part


There are 4x24 inputs and 2x22 outputs, the output are protected against the short circuit. The PLC on the MODAC is used for fast functioning which is controlled by master part of MODAC. The motion part with 68060 CPU:

This part drive the mptors at the command of the MASTER connection of the servomotors (analogue output) with incremental or absolute encoder or steeping motor is provided for 12 axis. On the taro line there are 7 axes controlled by the MODAC: 1. Feeder 2. Tipcut 1 3. Tipcut 2 4. V-cut 5. The height adjustment 6. The upper belt 7. Lower belts for staking the sheets on the pile It also the position of the measuring wheel, which is mounted before the feeder(The motors are of the adjustment axis not controlled by this part).

MODAC connection to the outside RS 232 ports


Each MODAC has RS 232 separate serial ports. On the master, the ports are used to connect the two operator screens. These are infect PCs those ports are DB9X1 and DB9Xe. There are 6 more serial ports. One of those serial ports is used to communicate with the CAB-PLC. The fiber connection is also a serial connection over an optical fiber.

SCSI Interface
It is a connection with floppy disk and hard disk, which are mounted in a track.

Ethernet Interface
It is a high speed connection of MODAC or connection with other computers. In this application the user PC and error PC are connected over the Ethernet with MODAC. To work correctly on both ends a terminator of 50 ohms must be connected.

CNC-PLC
To communicate with the extensions, which are called CAN modules, we use serial port RS 232 on a DB connector, with this we can transfer data to the extension modules, it is possible to read inputs and write outputs over a certain distance from the PLC.

Working Principle
Electronics associations defines numerical control as a system in which action are controlled by direct insertion of numerical data the system must automatically interpret at least some positions of data. In simple words numerical control means control of numbers. In NC machines the main function is to control the displacements and position of slides. Spindle speeds, feed rate, selection of tools and much other auxiliary function. NC directs the machine tools to achieve all the function in a very controlled and systematic matter. Hard wired or conventional NC Computerized numerical control

In hard wired system the data input and data handling sequence, including control function only by fixed circuits. Functionally hard wired NC is a system, where any addition or change in feature needs corresponding addition or change in circuitry of the system. In hard wired NC system machine control data comes from continuously read tapped. NC systems are almost obsolete these days and have been taken over by CNC systems. In CNC system dedicated computers are used to perform all the basis NC function as per the controlled program also executive with program stored in the memory of the computer. It is executive program which makes it flexible. Unlike NC system machine control data comes from the computer memory. Because of the memory availability users can stop part programs also on the computer. The capability to add these part programs is a real advantage to the part programmers right at the machine station. Additional feature such as tape punching option, osier subroutine programs etc are also possible.

Servo Drive Units


Drive refers to the system package comprised of servo amplifier and servo motor. These are basically of two types: DC Drive AC Drive

In BHEL, Jhansi mostly CNC machine have DC drive. DC drive control motor speed through the control of armature current by varying DC voltages applied to the motor. This accomplished by controlling the point of the AC input since wave at which an SCR begin to conduct. The speed integrators regulate motor speed by summing both velocities, reference and compensated for optimum controller response. Current integrator regulates armature currnet by out putting a voltage signal of both the forward and the reverse signal from the output of the

speed integrator with the current feedback signal from the motor armature. The resultant error signal is amplified and compensated from the electrical parameter of the motor. Forward and reversed three phase firing circuit control SCR gating. The SCR gates pulse shifted and synchronized relative to the AC line so that the gated SCR produce a variable output voltage from the power bridge. The generative power bridge converts three phase AC power to controlled DC voltages, capable of powering the motor armature. Its output can be controlled by forward and reverse three phase firing circuits.

Feedback Device
CNC system requires a measuring device and measurement can be done with feedback system. Basically feedback allows the control system to compare the machine actual position with command value. The result of this comparison provides the ability of velocity and position control. Encoders, resolves, inductosyns are used as feedback devices.

Encoders
Incremental rotary encoder is most commonly used feedback device. The rotary is a shaft driven device delivering electrical pulse as its output terminal. The pulse frequently is directly proportional to the shaft speed encoder consists of a glass disk market with the precise circular pattern of alternate clear and opaque segment on its periphery. The disk is mounted on the shaft a fixed course of light is on one side and photo cell is placed on the other side of the disk. As the disk rotates light is permitted to fall on the photocell to produce the output signal which is approximately sinusoidal. Internal and external amplifier is used to amplify the photocell output to a level suitable for feeding logic circuits. Amplified signal is fed to a circuit which converts a signal to proper square waves with suitable rise and fall times to sense the direction of rotation; a two photocell system is used. Photocell is arranged so those output signals are 90 degree shifted to each other. External logic circuitry is used to determine the direction the rotation.

Linear Scales
Linear measuring system operates on the photoelectric principle either with glass scale or steel scale as measuring standard. The resolution is determined by the grating pitch of the scale in conjunction with the appropriate electronic signal evolution.

Programming Logic Controller


A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer user for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides or lightning fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines, such as packaging and semiconductor machines. Unlike general purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed on non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since outputs results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

Features
The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such as dust, moisture, heat, cold) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements. These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. PLCs read limit switches, analog process variables (such as temperature and pressure), and the positions of complex positioning systems. Some use machine vision. On the actuator side, PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic relays, solenoids, or analog outputs. The i/o arrangements may be built into a simpler PLC, or the PLC may have external i/o modules attached to a compare network that plugs into the PLC.

Control panel with PLC (grey elements in the center). The unit consists of separate elements, from left to right; power supply, controller, replay units for in and out.

System Scale
A small PLC will have a fixed number of connections built in for inputs and outputs. Typically, expansion is available if the base model has insufficient I/O. Modular PLCs have a chassis (also called a rack) into which are placed modules with different functions. The processor and selection of I/O modules is customized for the particular application. Several racks can be administrated by a single processor, and may have thousands of inputs and outputs. A special high speed serial I/O link is used so that racks can be distributed away from the processor, reducing the wiring costs for large plants.

A PLC basically consists of two elements: The central processing unit The input/output system

The Central Processing Unit


The central processing unit (CPU) is the part of a programmable controller that retrieves the PLCs memory. In essence, the CPU is the brains of a programmable controller. It functions much the same way the CPU of a regular computer does, except that it uses special instructions and coding to perform its functions. The CPU has three parts: The Processor The Memory System The Power Supply

The processor is the section of the CPU that codes, decodes, and computes data. The memory system is the section of the CPU that stores both the control program and data from the equipment connected to the PLC. The power supply is the section that provides the plc with the voltage and current it needs to operate.

The Input/output System

Input output arrangements

The input/output system is the section of a PLC to which all of the field devices are connected. If the CPU can be thought of as the brains of a PLC, then the I/O system can be thought of as the arms and legs. The I/O system is what actually physically carries out the control commands from the program stored in the PLCs memory. The I/O system consists of two main parts: The rack I/O modules The rack is an enclosure with slots in it that is connected to the CPU. I/O modules are devices with connection terminals to which the field devices are wired. Together, the rack and the I/O

modules from the interface between the field devices and the PLC. When set up properly, each I/O module is both securely wired to its corresponding field devices and securely installed in a slot in the rack. This creates the physical connection between the field equipment and the PLC. In some small PLCs, the rack and the I/O modules come prepackaged as one unit.

PLC Memory
A PLCs memory system is very complex, allowing it to store information not only about the control program but about the status of all the inputs and outputs as well. To keep track of all this information, it uses a system called addressing. An address is a label or number that indicates where a certain piece of information is located in a PLCs memory. Just like your home address tells where you live in your city, a device or piece of datas address tells where information about a field device, it knows to look in its corresponding address location. Some addresses contain information about the status of particular field devices. Other addresses store data thats the result of control program computations. Still others contain reference data entered by the system programmer. Nonetheless, no matter what type of data it is, a PLC uses its addressing to keep track of it all.

User Interface
PLCs may need to interact with people for the purpose of configuration, alarm reporting or everyday control. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is employed for this purpose. HMIs are also referred to as MMIs (Man Machine Interface) and GUI (Graphical user Interface). A simple system may use buttons and lights to interact with the user. Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. More complex systems use a programming and monitoring software installed on a computer, with the PLC connected via a communication interface.

Communications
PLCs have built in communications ports usually 9-Pin RS232, and optionally for RS485 And Ethernet, Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. Others options include various field buses such as DeviceNet or Profibus. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system or Web Browser.

PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to have individual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. These communications link are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations. Some of todays PLCs can communicate over a wide range of media including RS-485, coaxial, and even Ethernet.

PLC compared with other control systems


PLCs are well-adapted to a range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers in expressing the desired sequence of operations in ladder logic (or function chart) notation. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of mass-produced goods, customized control systems are economic due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a generic solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. For example, a consumer dish-washer would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities. A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousand of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies and input/output hardware) can be spread over many sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few endusers alter the programming of these controllers. However, some specialty vehicles such as transit busses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomic.

Very complex process control, such as used in the chemical industry, may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. Very high-speed or precision control may also require customized solutions; for example, aircraft flight controls. Programmable controllers are widely used in motion control, positioning control and torque control. Some manufacturers produce motion control units to be integrated with PLC so that Gcode (involving a CNC machine) can be used to instruct machine movements. PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a proportional, integral, derivative or PID controller. A PID could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process, for example. Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control system (DCS) would instead be used. As PLCs have become more powerful, the boundary between DCS and PLC application has become less distinct. PLCs have similar functionality as Remote Terminal Units. An RTU, however, usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. As hardware rapidly becomes more powerful and cheaper, RTUs, PLCs and DCSs are increasingly beginning to overlap in responsibilities, and many vendors sell RTUs with PLC-like features and vice versa. The industry has standardized on the IEC 61131-3 functional block language for creating programs to run on RTUs and PLVs, although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments.

Digital and analog signals


Digital or discrete signals behave as binary switches, yielding simply an ON or OFF signal (1 or 0, True or False, respectively). Push buttons, limit switches, and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal. Discrete signals are sent using voltage or current, where a specific range is designated as on and another as off. For example, a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O, with values above 22 V DC representing on, values below 2VDC representing OFF, and intermediate values undefined. Initially, PLCs had only discrete I/O. Analog signals are like volume controls, with a range of values between zero and full-scale. These are typically interpreted as integer values (counts) bye the PLC, with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors, the integer values are limited between -32,768 and +32,767. Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. For example, an analog 4-20 MA or 0-10 V input would be converted into an integer value of 0-32767.

Current Inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (i.e. from welders or electric motor starts) than voltage inputs. Example As an example, say a facility needs to store water in a tank. The water is drawn from the tank by another system, as needed, and out example system must manage the water level in the tank. Using only digital signals, the PLC has two digital inputs from float switches (Low level and High Level). When the water level is above the switch is closes a contact and passes a signal to an input. The PLC uses a digital output to open and close the valve into the tank. When the water level drops enough so that the Low Level switch is off (dawn), the PLC will open the valve to let more water in. once the water level rises enough to stop that the High Level switch is on (up), the PLC will shut the inlet to stop the water from overflowing. This rung is an example of seal in logic. The output is sealed in until some condition breaks the circuit.

| | | Low Level High Level Fill Valve |----[/]-----|------[/]--------------------------(OUT)---------| | | | | | | | | | | Fill Valve | | |-----[ ] -----| | |

An analog system might use a water pressure sensor or a load cell, and an adjustable (throttling) dripping out of the tank, the valve adjusts to slowly drip water back into the tank. In this system to avoid flutter adjustable that can wear out the valve, many PLCs incorporate hysteresis which essentially creates a dead-band of activity. A technician adjusts this deadband so the valve moves only for a significant change in rate. This will in turn minimize the motion of the valve, and reduce its wear. A real system might combine both approaches, using float switches and simple valves to prevent spills, and a rate sensor and rate valve to optimize refill rates and prevent water hammer. Backup and maintenance methods can make a real system very complicated.

Programming
PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, and then downloaded by direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. Under the IEC 61131-3 standard, PLCs can be programmed using standard-based programming languages. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable controllers. Recently, the International standard IEC 61131-3 has become popular. IEC 61131-3 currently defines five programming languages for programmable control systems: FBD (Functional Block Diagram), LD (Ladder Diagram), ST (Standard Text similar to Pascal programming), IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language) and SFC (Sequence Function Chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations. While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers, difference in I/O addressing, memory organization and instruction sets mean that PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.

CONCLUSION
To conclude numerical control is the most sophisticated form of automatic control of machine tools. With the increased automation of manufacturing process with CNC machine, considerable improvement in consistency and quality have been achieved. CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided CNC operators with time to perform additional tasks. CNC automation also allows for more flexibility in the way parts are held in the manufacturing process and the time required changing the machine to produce different component. As per the, we can say that PLCs are the faster and efficient controllers PLCs can be used in any task where we required accuracy, reliability in controlling different tasks in an efficient manner.