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Tekanan absorber=

CO2
CO
H2
H2O
CH4
O2

Benfield
G
y1

0.10%
komposisi larutan benfield
K2CO3
DEA
V2O5
Air

CO2
CO
H2
H2O
CH4
O2
komposisi gas in
kmol/hr
CH4
1.187
H2
2833.733
H20
3216.572
CO2
1115.415
CO
1334.745
O2
900
Total
9401.652
Average mol wt
densitas gas

G
yo

9401.652 kmol/hr
11.864032 %

kadar(%)
BM
0.012625441
30.14079866
34.21283834
11.86403198
14.19691986
9.572785719
100
19.02175001 kg/kmol
18.80858603 kg/m3

BM benfield
y1
CO2 yang terserap
16 benfield yang dibutuhkan
2
18
44
G
28
L
32
rho G
rho L

rich solution
Benfield + CO2
L
xo

56.0616
1%

(L/G)*(rhoG/rhoL)^0.5
0.062071577
pressure drop
1.502873591 inch/ft
360.689662 cm/m packing
G'^2*F**miu^0.2/(rhoG*rhoL*g)
0.1 u/ delta P 1.5
sangat berpengaruh pada D absoeber
Packing=raschig ring, 3 inch (ceramic)
ap
69 m2/m3
F=
37
=ratio of the density of water to the density of liquid
0.794269687
miu liquid=
5.6 cp

121.1790423
1599.137477
89650.20561
49.03634349
24.90283489
18.80858603
1259.01821

g=
rhoGrhoLg
F bla bla
G'^2
G'
A
D

32.2
2971.837783
41.47699819
7.165026191
2.676756655 lb/ft2sec
40.38675785 ft2
7.172733033 ft

delta P flooding=
delta P flooding=

G'
H
Ky a

a
b
c
h

0.12F^0.7
1.502873591 inch/ft packing

yo Hx o
1
ln
'
HG yh Hx h
(1 ' )
L

G actual
2.18627561 m
G actual
G actual

2.676756655
D atas
13.06888693
0.687049663

0.118386948

4.54999777
3.45231279
3.65286557
57.379269 m

MENENTUKAN DIAMETER BAGIAN BAWAH KOLOM ABSORBER


L = massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu + massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu
G = massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu
L=

1720.31652 kmol/hr
96443.6966 kg/hr
26.7899157 kg/s
9401.652
176831.78
49.119939
108.289818

rho G
rho L

1.174212454
78.6

59.0610482 lb/s

kmol/hr
kg/hr
kg/s
lb/s

(L/G)*(rhoG/rhoL)^0.5
0.066661579
pressure drop
0.6 inch/ft
G'^2*F**miu^0.2/(rhoG*rhoL*g)
0.09
Packing=raschig ring, 3 inch
F=
=ratio of the density of water to the density of liquid
miu liquid=
g=
rhoGrhoLg 2971.83778
F bla bla
41.4769982
G'^2
6.44852357 lb/ft2sec
G'
2.53939433 lb/ft2sec
G actual

37
0.794269687
5.6 cp
32.2

1.777576032 lb/ft2sec

D AB

7,4.10 8.(

VA

R.Tb
P

A
D

60.9199357 ft2
8.80937078 ft

2.68512887 m

D bawah

Menghitung Diffusiv
Diffusivitas Biner da

dengan :

CO2 C
CO2 - H

DCO2-

L'=LK
c
L
ap
miu L
rho L
g
aw/ap

0.11838695
6.6369617
61
83.8
69
5.6
1259.01821
9.8
0.10011699

aw

kmol/m2.s
kg/m2s
mN/m
mN/m
m2/m3
cp
kg/m3
m/s2

DL
kl

5.66001E-05 m2/s
0.000141325 m/s

ky

0.090879785 kmol/m2.s

Ct=rho/MR
Ct
kx

22.4577645 kgmol/m3
0.003173835 kmol/m2.s

6.9080723 m2/m3
0.68704966 kmol/m2.s

H* =

G'=GK

13.0688869 kg/m2s

H = H*Ct/P

0.376791382

miu G

1.5053E-05 Pa.s

y=

0.376791382 X

rho G

18.808586 kg/m3

Y=

DG

3.4553E-06 m2/s

Kya

dp

0.453 atmm3/kmol

0.424
0.021640322 kmol/m3.s

0.036 m

0.08205 Latm/molK

333 K

kg

0.00336592 kmol/m2.s.atm

5.6cp

Tinggi Absorber

G
dX

Kya Y HX

G
Y Yo Xo
L

integrasi dengan simpson rule


Yo =
0.11864032
Y1 =
0.01
m=
0.424
dY =
0.05432016
Y

X
0.1186403
0.0643202
0.01
-0.04432
-0.09864

X1 =
Xo =

Y*
0.0015
-0.3137429
-0.6289858
-0.9442288
-1.2594717

0.000636
-0.133027
-0.26669
-0.400353
-0.534016

0.0015
0.69263118

1/f(x)
factor
8.47426604
5.06721252
3.61415302
2.80872967
2.29686693

dA
1
4
2
4
2

8.474266041
20.26885009
7.228306047
11.23491867
4.593733852

0.056
0.056
0.0056

-0.15296
-0.207281
-0.261601
-0.315921
-0.370241

-1.5747146
-1.8899575
-2.2052005
-2.5204434
-2.8356863

NoG
HoG

0.02176053
5.47066479

0.11904459 m

-0.667679
-0.801342
-0.935005
-1.068668
-1.202331

1.94280944
1.6833278
1.48499222
1.32846753
1.20179325

4
2
4
2
1

7.77123776
3.366655591
5.939968889
2.656935056
1.201793248

an absorber=

27 atm
MENENTUKAN DIAMETER BAGIAN ATAS KOLOM ABSORBER

L
x1

osisi larutan benfield


30%
4%
0.60%
65.400%

0.10%

L = massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu


G = massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu - massa gas yg terserap per satua
FCH4out = 1.187 kmol/hr
FH2out = 2833.733 kmol/hr
FH2Oout = 3216.572 kmol/hr
BM
BM average
FCO2out = 1115.415 kmol/hr
138
56.0616 g/mol
FCOout = -1334.745 kmol/hr
45
O2 = 16.000 kg/s
181.6
FO2out = 900.000 kmol/hr
18
Tgas out = 1200.457 C
design reaktor
Diameter Reaktor = 3.500 m
packing raschig ring 3 inc
Pressure Drop = 0.501 bar
ap
69 m2/m3
rho
561 kg/m3
50.8

G=Gas yg masuk-gas yg terserap

9280.472958 kmol/hr
49.03634349 kg/s

g/mol
kmol/hr
kmol/hr
kg/hr
kg/s
kg/s
kg/m3
kg/m3

1727068.476
L=1.4Lmin
1kg=
1m=
108.105523
54.9007898
1.17421245
78.6

2.2046 lb
3.2808 ft

lb/s
lb/s
lb/ft3
lb/ft3

ket:
cek lagi

BM
P
R
T
densitas gas

19.02175
27
0.082
333
18.808586

y y
h
L min G 0
y
0
xh

kg/kmol
atm
atmm3/kmolK
K
kg/m3

1ft=


y y
h
L min G 0
y0
xh

lb/ft2sec
kg/m2s
kmol/m2s
kmol/m2s

xh=
G=
yo=
yh=
H=
Kya=
Lmin

0.10%
9401.652 kmol/hr
0.1186
0.001
0.1224
0.151 kmol/m3dtk
1142.24106 kmol/hr

xo xh

G
yh yo
L

xo

0.69263118

Ca*
P
H*
H=H*

0.01660986 kmol CO2/m3 solution


0.0053 atm
0.31908764

er satuan waktu

Menghitung Diffusivitas Liquid

D AB

7,4.10 8.(B .M B )

B .V A

VA

R.Tb
P

MB=berat molekul solven


R
Tb
P
miu

2 .T

.10 4

1
56.0616
0.08205
194.5
27
0.0056

Latm/molK
K
atm
kg/(ms)

VA
DAB

0.034 m3/kgmol
5.66E-05 m2/s

Menghitung Diffusivitas Gas


Diffusivitas Biner dapat dihitung dengan persamaan Chapman-Enskog

Dij

0,001858.T 1,5 M ij 0,5


P.s ij .W D
2

1
1
M ij

BM i BM j

1
ij ( i j )
2
WD

kT
44 ,54.
ij

j
i .
k
k k

ij

10 4

4 ,909

1,911.

kT

1,575

ij

0,1

0,5

dengan :
T
P
Mij

: suhu, K
: tekanan, atm
: berat molekul gabungan

sij

: diameter tumbukan gabungan

ij
(Perry)

: karakteristik Lennard-Jones gabungan, K

Hasil perhitungan koefisien difusivitas antara CO2 melalui masing-masing komponen penyusun gas umpa
Tabel 3. Koefisien difusivitas gas CO2 melalui campuran gas umpan
Komponen
CO2 H2
CO2 - CH4
CO2 CO
CO2 - H2O
DCO2-gas

ij

sij
3.0955
3.8495
3.793
3.291

WD
0.8845
1.1153
1.013
1.6467

Mij
0.5227
0.0851
0.0584
0.0782

k
84.9706
170.3136
144.568
397.412

3.4553E-06 m2/s

Menghitung Koefisien Trnasfer Massa

aw
1 exp 1,45 c
ap

GK
k g 5,23.
a p . G

0, 7

0 , 75

LK

a
p L

G DG

0 ,1

LK 2 a p

2g
L

(a p d p ) 2

0 , 05

a p DG
RT

LK 2

s a
L L p

0, 2

aw
1 exp 1,45 c
ap

0, 7

GK
k g 5,23.
a p . G

LK
k l 0,0051.
aw L
k y kg P

0 , 75

LK

a
p L

G DG

L
L DL

0 ,1

LK 2 a p

2g
L

(a p d p ) 2

(a p d p )

0 , 05

LK 2

s a
L L p

0, 2

a p DG
RT

0 ,4


L
L .g

k x kl Ct
1

1
1
Kxa
a
k x mk y w

dengan :

p
g/cm.s
kg/m.s

Indeks L menunjukkan cairan


Indeks G menunjukkan gas
: interfacial area efektif, m2/m3
aw
sC

: tegangan muka kritis untuk bahan packing , untuk metal sc = 61 mN/m

sL

: tegangan muka cairan pada suhu 70C

D
kg

: koefisien difusivitas, m2/s


: koefisien transfer massa pada film gas, kmol/m2.s.atm

ky

: koefisien transfer massa pada film gas, kmol/m2.s

kl
kx

: koefisien transfer massa pada film cairan, m/s


: koefisien transfer massa pada film cairan, kmol/m2.s

Kya

: koefisien transfer massa overall volumetric, kmol/m3.s

Po

: tekanan uap, kg/cm2

miu gas =
ap

15.0531 mP.s
38 in2/in3

1.50531E-05

tekanan upa dapat dihitung dengan persamaan Antoine


o
PCO

3103,39

exp 22,5898
T 0,16

128

massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu

0.36664089

0.3048 m

30.48 cm

4275.84384 gmol/ft3sec

9.406856 lbmol/ft3sec

333 K
27 atm

Dij

0,001858.T 1,5 M ij 0,5


P.s ij .W D
2

10 4

omponen penyusun gas umpan, dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut :


Dij

3.5671E-06
7.3810E-07
6.9339E-07
6.5566E-07

uk metal sc = 61 mN/m
83.800

Pa.s
m2/m3

mN/m

for water chemicalogic

(Coulson and Richardson, 1983)

function secref
%clc,clear
global FH2OO FCH40 FCOO FCO2O FH2o Di Dp VOID RHOB TR Do DReaktor Dekv RI FO20
DReaktor=3.5;%m nilai Re sekitar 4700an dan dP cukup baik
Di=DReaktor;
L=15;%panjang reformer m
RHOB=1070;%densitas bulk kg/m3 taken from topsoe
Dp=0.0118;%diameter partikel m taken from topsoe
VOID=0.38+0.073*(1+(Di/Dp-2)^2/(Di/Dp)^2);%void fraction froment bischoff
FH2OO=0.3860;%kgmol/s
FCH40=0.3860;%kgmol/s
FCOO=0.0224;%kgmol/s
FCO2O=0.453;%kgmol/s
FH2o=0.0233;%kgmol/s
FO20=0.5;%kgmol/s
FO=FH2OO+FCH40+FCOO+FCO2O+FH2o+FO20;%kgmol/s
%harga awal
To=600+273.15;%suhu umpan masuk K
TR=298.15;%suhu referensi K
Po=30;%tekanan atm
y1o=0;
y2o=0;
y3o=0;
y0=[y1o y2o To Po y3o 0];
Lspan=[0:L/100:L];
[z,y]=ode15s(@persamaan,Lspan,y0);
y(end,end)
y1=y(:,1);
y2=y(:,2);
y3=y(:,5);
FH2O=FH2OO*(1-y2-2*y3)+2*FCH40*y1;%kgmol/s
FCH4=FCH40-FH2OO*((y2+y3));%kgmol/s
FCO=FCOO+FH2OO*y3;%kgmol/s
FCO2=FCO2O+FH2OO*y3+FCH40*y1;%kgmol/s
FH2=FH2o+FH2OO*(3*y2+4*y3);%kgmol/s
FO2=FO20-FCH40*y1;%kgmol/s
Fsisa=FCH4(end)*3600;
Tgout=y(end,3)-273;
fprintf('FCH4out = %6.3f kmol/hr\n',Fsisa)
fprintf('FH2out = %6.3f kmol/hr\n',FH2(end)*3600)
fprintf('FH2Oout = %6.3f kmol/hr\n',FH2O(end)*3600)

1389.6

fprintf('FCO2out = %6.3f kmol/hr\n',FCO2(end)*3600)


fprintf('FCOout = %6.3f kmol/hr\n',FCO(end)*3600)
fprintf('O2 = %6.3f kg/s\n',FO20*32)
fprintf('FO2out = %6.3f kmol/hr\n',FO2(end)*3600)
fprintf('Tgas out = %6.3f C\n',Tgout)
disp('design reaktor')
fprintf('Diameter Reaktor = %6.3f m\n',Di)
fprintf('Pressure Drop = %6.3f bar\n',Po-y(end,4))
%plotting hasil
figure(1)
hold on
plot(z,FH2O*3600,'k-',z,FCH4*3600,'b-',z,FCO*3600,'r-',z,FCO2*3600,'c-',z,FH2*3600,'g',z,FO2*3600,'m')
xlabel('panjang, z')
ylabel('flow komponen, kgmol/hr')
legend('flow H2O','flow CH4','flow FCO','Flow CO2','Flow H2','FLow O2')
figure(2)
hold on
plot(z,y(:,3))
xlabel('panjang, z')
ylabel('suhu,K')
figure(3)
hold on
plot(z,y(:,4))
xlabel('panjang, z')
ylabel('pressure,atm')

function dydz=persamaan(z,y)
global FH2OO FCH40 FCOO FCO2O FH2o Di Dp VOID RHOB TR Do DReaktor Dekv RI FO20
%reaksi total combution
%CH4+2O2-->CO2+2H2O dH=-802700 kJ/kmol
y1=y(1);
y2=y(2);
y3=y(5);
T=y(3);
P=y(4);
FH2O=FH2OO*(1-y2-2*y3)+2*FCH40*y1;%kgmol/s
FCH4=FCH40-FH2OO*((y2+y3));%kgmol/s
FCO=FCOO+FH2OO*y2;%kgmol/s
FCO2=FCO2O+FH2OO*y3+FCH40*y1;%kgmol/s
FH2=FH2o+FH2OO*(3*y2+4*y3);%kgmol/s
FO2=FO20-2*FCH40*y1;%kgmol/s
FTOT=FH2O+FCH4+FCO+FCO2+FH2+FO2;%kgmol/s

%fraksi
yH2O=FH2O/FTOT;
yCH4=FCH4/FTOT;
yCO=FCO/FTOT;
yCO2=FCO2/FTOT;
yH2=FH2/FTOT;
yO2=FO2/FTOT;
y=[yH2O,yCH4,yCO,yCO2,yH2,yO2];
%pressure parsial
PH2O=yH2O*P;%bar
PCH4=yCH4*P;%bar
PCO=yCO*P;%bar
PCO2=yCO2*P;%bar
PH2=yH2*P;%bar
PO2=yO2*P;%bar
%property viscosity
miuCH4=[3.844 4.0112e-1 -1.4303e-4];
miuCO=[2.3811e1 5.3944e-1 -1.5411e-4];
miuCO2=[1.1811e1 4.9838e-1 -1.0851e-4];
miuH2=[27.758 2.1200e-1 -3.2800e-5];
miuH2O=[-3.6826e1 4.2900e-1 -1.6200e-5];
miuO2=[44.224 5.62e-1 -1.13e-4];
konsmiu=[miuH2O;miuCH4;miuCO;miuCO2;miuH2;miuO2];
miunya=konsmiu(:,1)+T.*konsmiu(:,2)+(T^2).*konsmiu(:,3);
miuavg=y*miunya*1e-7;%kg/m/s
%data kinetika reaksi
A=[1.17E15;5.43E5;2.83E14];%konstanta tumbukan
Er=[240100;67130;243900];%energi aktivasi
M=[18.015 16.043 28.01 44.01 2.016 31.999];%BM masing2 zat
R=8.3145;%kj/kmol/K
%perhitungan konstanta laju reaksi
AK1=A(1)*exp(-Er(1)/R/T)*1e-3;%kgmol/kgcat/s
AK2=A(2)*exp(-Er(2)/R/T)*1e-3;%kgmol/kgcat/s
AK3=A(3)*exp(-Er(3)/R/T)*1e-3;%kgmol/kgcat/s
%perhitungan konstanta adsorpsi CO
AKCO=8.23E-5*exp(8497.71/T);
AKH2=6.12E-9*exp(9971.13/T);
AKH2O=1.77E5*exp(-10666.35/T);
AKCH4=6.65E-4*exp(4604.28/T);
%perhitungan konstanta keseimbangan
AKP1=exp(-26830/T+30.114);
AKP2=exp(4400/T-4.063);
AKP3=AKP1*AKP2;
%term adsorption
DEN=1+AKCO*PCO+AKH2*PH2+AKCH4*PCH4+AKH2O*PH2O/PH2;
DEN=DEN^2;
%kinetika kecepatan reaksi

r2=AK1*((PCH4*PH2O-PH2^3*PCO/AKP1)/DEN/PH2^2.5);
r3=AK2*((PCO*PH2O-PH2*PCO2/AKP2)/DEN/PH2);
r4=AK3*((PCH4*PH2O^2-PH2^4*PCO2/AKP3)/DEN/PH2^3.5);
RJ=8.3145;%kJ/kgmol/K
k1a=8.11e5*exp(-86000/RJ/T)*1e-3;%kgmol/kgcat/s
k1b=6.82e5*exp(-86000/RJ/T)*1e-3;%kgmol/kgcat/s
KCCH4=1.26e-1*exp(27300/RJ/T);%bar-1
KCO2=7.78e-7*exp(92800/RJ/T);%bar-1
ohm=1+KCCH4*PCH4+KCO2*PO2;
r1=k1a*PCH4*PO2/ohm^2+k1b*PCH4*PO2/ohm;
% k1a=3.287e2*exp(-30800/RJ/T)*1e-3%kgmol/kgcat/s
% KCCH4=2.02e-3*exp(36330/RJ/T)%bar-1
% KCO2=7.4e-5*exp(57970/RJ/T)%bar-1
% ohm=1+KCCH4*PCH4+KCO2*abs(PO2)^0.5
% r1=k1a*PCH4*abs(PO2)^0.5/ohm^2

%CPdT tiap zat chem prop handbook, cp dalam kJ/kmol/


CPCH4=34.942*(T-TR)-3.9957E-2/2*(T^2-TR^2)+1.9184E-04/3*(T^3-TR^3)-1.5303E-07/4*(T^4-TR^4)+3.9321E-11/5*(T^5-TR^
CPCO=29.556*(T-TR)-6.5807E-03/2*(T^2-TR^2)+2.0130E-05/3*(T^3-TR^3)+1.2227E-08/4*(T^4-TR^4)+2.2617E-12/5*(T^5-TR
CPCO2=27.437*(T-TR)+4.2315E-02/2*(T^2-TR^2)+1.9555E-05/3*(T^3-TR^3)+3.9968E-09/4*(T^4-TR^4)-2.9872E-13/5*(T^5-T
CPH2=25.399*(T-TR)+2.0178E-02/2*(T^2-TR^2)-3.8549E-05/3*(T^3-TR^3)+3.1880E-08/4*(T^4-TR^4)-8.7585E-12/5*(T^5-TR^
CPH2O=33.933*(T-TR)-8.4186E-03/2*(T^2-TR^2)+2.9906E-05/3*(T^3-TR^3)-1.7825E-08/4*(T^4-TR^4)+3.6934E-12/5*(T^5-T
CPO2=29.526*(T-TR)-8.8999e-03/2*(T^2-TR^2)+3.8083E-05/3*(T^3-TR^3)-3.2629E-08/4*(T^4-TR^4)+8.8607E-12/5*(T^5-TR^
%panas reaksi chem prop handbook, kJ/kmol
DHR2=206200+(CPCO+3*CPH2-CPCH4-CPH2O);
DHR3=-41100+(CPCO2+CPH2-CPCO-CPH2O);
DHR4=164900+(CPCO2+4*CPH2-CPCH4-2*CPH2O);
DHR1=-802700+(CPCO2+2*CPH2O-CPCH4-2*CPO2);
%CP kJ/kgmol/K
CPaCH4=34.942-3.9957E-2*T+1.9184E-04*T^2-1.5303E-07*T^3+3.9321E-11*T^4;
CPaCO=29.556-6.5807E-03*T+2.0130E-05*T^2+1.2227E-08*T^3+2.2617E-12*T^4;
CPaCO2=27.437+4.2315E-02*T+1.9555E-05*T^2+3.9968E-09*T^3-2.9872E-13*T^4;
CPaH2=25.399+2.0178E-02*T-3.8549E-05*T^2+3.1880E-08*T^3-8.7585E-12*T^4;
CPaH2O=33.933-8.4186E-03*T+2.9906E-05*T^2-1.7825E-08*T+3.6934E-12*T^4;
CPaO2=29.526-8.8999e-03*T+3.8083E-05*T^2-3.2629E-08*T^3+8.8607E-12*T^4;
%menghitung Cp campuran
CPa=[FH2O FCH4 FCO FCO2 FH2 FO2]*[CPaH2O;CPaCH4;CPaCO;CPaCO2;CPaH2;CPaO2];
CPa=CPa/FTOT;%kj/kmol/K
%data perhitungan pressure drop+koef perpan overall
MAVG=M*[FH2O;FCH4;FCO;FCO2;FH2;FO2];%kg/kgmol
MAVG=MAVG/FTOT;%berat molekul rata-rata
mtot=FTOT*MAVG;%kg/s
G=mtot/(pi*Di^2/4);%kg/m2/s

RI=0.082;%m3atm/kgmol/K
RHOG=P*MAVG/T/RI/1.01325;%kg/m3
REP=Dp*G/miuavg;%bil Re partikel
%persamaan differensial
dy1=r1*pi*Di^2*RHOB/4/2/FCH40;%/m
dy2=(r2-r3)*pi*Di^2*RHOB/4/FH2OO;%/m
dy3=((r1+r3+r4)*pi*Di^2*RHOB/4-FCH40*dy1)/FH2OO;%/m
dT=(-FH2OO*(dy2*DHR2+dy3*(DHR3+DHR4))-FCH40*dy1*DHR1)/(FTOT*CPa);%K/m
dP=-((150*(1-VOID)/REP+1.75)*G.^2/RHOG/Dp*(1-VOID)/VOID.^3)/1e5;%bar/m
DHR=(-FH2OO*(dy2*DHR2+dy3*DHR3)-FCH40*dy1*DHR1);
dydz=[dy1;dy2;dT;dP;dy3;DHR];

O2*3600,'m')

^4-TR^4)+3.9321E-11/5*(T^5-TR^5);
T^4-TR^4)+2.2617E-12/5*(T^5-TR^5);
*(T^4-TR^4)-2.9872E-13/5*(T^5-TR^5);
T^4-TR^4)-8.7585E-12/5*(T^5-TR^5);
(T^4-TR^4)+3.6934E-12/5*(T^5-TR^5);
T^4-TR^4)+8.8607E-12/5*(T^5-TR^5);

L'
h
Kxa

xh h

H
ln
yo

L'
xo
(1
)

H
HG'
1

xh xo
Gmin L
Hx

y yo

L'
x xo
G'

steam+CO2

benfield+CO2
(rich benfield)

yh
G

CO2 yang terserap steam

steam
yo
G

lean benfield
L
xo

komposisi liquid in
BM
kmol/hr
kadar
benfield
56.0616
491.524992
CO2
44 1107.612485
total
47.7073597 1599.137477

30.7369%
69.2631%

komposisi gas in
BM
steam
CO2

18
44

MENENTUKAN DIAMETER BAGIAN BAWAH KOLOM STRIPPER


L = massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu
G = massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu - massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu
L
BM liquid

1599.137477 kmol/hr
47.7073597

xo
xh

50.00%
69.26%

Gmin

76290.62685
21.19184079
46.71953221
55.4435786
1897.74812

kg/hr
kg/s
lb/s
lb/s
kmol/hr

yo
H
G actual=1.3Gmin
G actual

83.1653679 lb/s
2846.62218 kmol/hr

xh xo
Gmin L
Hx

rho G
rho L

1.9867 kg/m3
1259.01821 kg/m3

(L/G)*(rhoG/rhoL)^0.5
delta P=0.12F^0.7

0.124028881 lb/ft3
78.6 lb/ft3

0.154588089
1.502873591 ich/ft

packing=raschig ring ring, 3 inch


F
37
G'^2*F**miu^0.2/(rhoG*rhoL*g)
=ratio of the density of water to the density of liquid
miu liquid=
g=
rhoGrhoLg
313.9071759
F bla bla
41.47699819
G'^2
1.513644621
G'
1.230302654 lb/ft2sec
A
67.59748719 ft2
D bawah
9.279625459 ft

0.2
0.794269687
5.6 cp
32.2

2.828464234 m

MENENTUKAN DIAMETER BAGIAN ATAS KOLOM ABSORBER


L = massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu + massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu
G = massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu
L

rho L

1812.498183
86469.50276
24.01930632
52.95296272
78.6

kmol/hr
kg/hr
kg/s
lb/s
lb/ft3

Gmin
rho G

62.84099202 lb/s
0.124028881 lb/ft3

G actual

(L/G)*(rhoG/rhoL)^0.2
0.178370872
delta P=0.12F^0.7
1.502873591
packing=raschig ring, 3 inch
F
37
G'^2*F**miu^0.2/(rhoG*rhoL*g)
=ratio of the density of water to the density of liquid
miu liquid=

81.69328962 lb/s

37
0.03
0.794269687
5.6 cp

0
0.234354

g=
rhoGrhoLg
F bla bla
G'^2
G'
A
D

32.2
313.9071759
41.47699819
0.227046693
0.476494169
171.4465673
14.77847321 ft

4.50453341 m

L
xh

1599.137 kmol/hr
69.26%

CO2 yang terserap steam

213.3607052 kmol/hr

lean benfield
50.00%
1kg=
1m=

P
T

y yo

L'
x xo
G'

2.2046 lb
3.2808 ft

4 atm
175 C
448 K

y yo
H
R
T
H
yh

L'
x xo
G'
0.0000736 kmol/m3KPa
0.08205 Latm/molK
383 K
0.234353685
0.10821378

0.00745752 mol/Latm

PERHITUNGAN DIAMETER DAN TINGGI KOLOM ABSORBER


G,Y1

G,Yo

L,X1

L,Xo

Kondisi Operasi Aborber


P tinggi, T rendah
P
27 atm
T
60 C
333 K
Packing=Raschig ring, 3 inch
F
37
ap
102 m2/m3
rho
561 kg/m3
Komposisi Gas Masuk
BM
flow,kmol/hr y
BM average
CO2
44
274.146 0.04817456
2.11968 0.05061281 Yo CO2
CO
28
936.794 0.16461899
4.60933
H2O
18
2426.313 0.42636609
7.67459
CH4
16
0.099 1.7397E-05
0.00028
H2
2
2053.328 0.36082296
0.72165
O2
32
0
0
0.00000
total
5416.534
1
15.12553
BM Gas
15.12553 kg/kmol
5690.68
Larutan penyerap=MDEA yang diaktivasi dengan piperazine
Komposisi MDEA
komponen x,wt
mol
BM
x,mol
CO2
0.0000
0
44
MDEA
0.3700 0.003078946
120.171
0.083820053
piperazine
0.0300 0.000348282
86.137
0.009481508
H2O
0.6000 0.033305579
18.015
0.906698439

BM DMEA
Henry, H
x
0.0000
0.1000
0.2000
0.3000
0.4000
0.5000
0.6000
slope
yo
y1
x1

0.036732807
27.266 g/mol
0.4399373
y
0.0000
0.0440
0.0880
0.1320
0.1760
0.2200
0.2640

X
0.0000
0.1111
0.2500
0.4286
0.6667
1.0000
1.5000

0.267 xo
0.0506128 slope itungan
0.0001846
0

y y
h
L min G 0
y0
xh

Y
0.0000
0.0460
0.0965
0.1520
0.2136
0.2820
0.3586
0.18956108
0.26602607

Ca* =
0.01661
P=
0.0053
H=
0.319088
H= H*Ct/P
0.439937
y=
0.439937
Y=
0.278
Ct=rho/BM(liquid)
rho L
1015
BM L
27.266
Ct
37.22585

rho G

12
0.749155

5403.49178
23101.7886

Diameter atas
L = massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu
G = massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu - massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu
G
5416.534 kmol/hr
0.39296293 G
81927.9275
Lmin
20360.915 kmol/hr
kmol/m2.s
22.7577576
L=2*Lmin
50.1717525
L
28505.28 kmol/hr
L
28505.2803
rho L
63.366041 lb/ft3
777224.974
rho G
0.7491552 lb/ft3
215.895826
475.963938
(L/G)*(rhoG/rhoL)^0.5
1.031507476
G'^2*F**miu^0.2/(rhoG*rhoL*g)
0.023
delta P
1.1739851 inc/ft
F=
26
=ratio of the density of water to the density of liquid
0.79426969
miu liquid=
2
g=
32.2
rhoGrhoLg
1528.56612
F bla bla
23.7217834
G'^2
1.48205639
G'
1.21739739
A
41.2123051
D
7.24567124
2.20850745

1kg=
1m=

kg/hr
kg/s
lb/s
kmol/hr
kg/hr
kg/s
lb/s

pall ring, 2 inch (metal)


cp

lb/ft2.s
lb/ft2.s
ft2
ft
m

1.1739851 delta P

xo xh

G
yh yo
L

Tinggi absorber

integrasi dengan simpson rule


Yo
0.0506128
Y1
0.0001846
Xo
0.0095823
X1
0
m
0.267
dY
0.0050428

X
0.0506128
0.04557
0.0405272
0.0354844
0.0304415
0.0253987
0.0203559
0.0153131
0.0102703
0.0052274
0.0001846

0.0095823
0.0086241
0.0076658
0.0067076
0.0057494
0.0047911
0.0038329
0.0028747
0.0019165
0.0009582
0

xo
xo
kalo pake x0=yo/slope

G
X Y Yo Xo
L

G
dX
Z

Kya Y HX

Y*
0.002558473
0.002302625
0.002046778
0.001790931
0.001535084
0.001279236
0.001023389
0.000767542
0.000511695
0.000255847
0

Kya
Kya harusnya segini

0.02164032
0.085
0.3

K ya KGa * P

1
1
H

KG
kG k L

1/f(x)
factor
20.8097766
23.112108
25.9872606
29.6793844
34.5943557
41.4602671
51.7263504
68.7496208
102.474102
201.142832
5416.534
jumlah

1
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
1

NoG = dX/3*dA
NoG
12.310336
HoG=G/Kya
HoG
2.3979341
Z
29.519374 m
tinggi packing

35.42324929 m

ln H=20.267-1.383*10^4/T +0.069*10^5/T2-0.016*10^11/T3+0.012*10^13/T4
ln H
-54.834792
H
1.533E-24
komposisi mdea

dA
20.8097766
92.4484319
51.9745213
118.717537
69.1887113
165.841068
103.452701
274.998483
204.948205
804.571328
5416.534
7323.48476

komponen
CO2
MDEA
piperazine
H2O

Mr
44.010
120.171
86.137
18.015

X
0.0002

kmol/hr
273.15
2390.86
270.45
25862.39

x
0.0095
0.0830
0.0094
0.8981

X
0.0096

500ppm=500mg/L
0.0005

Komposisi Gas Keluar


flow,kmol/hr
CO2
1
CO
936.794
H2O
2426.313
CH4
0.099
H2
2053.328
O2
0
5417.534
CO2 yang terserap

y
0.000184586
0.00018462 y1 CO2
0.172918896
0.447862994
1.8274E-05
0.379015249
0
1
13.15625921 kmol/hr

kmolCo2/m3 solution
atm(dari data kelarutan CO2 di udara)
atm.m3/kmol
0.4500
0.4000

x
X

y = 0.2673x

0.3500
0.3000

kg/m3
kg/kmol
kmol/m3

63.36604 lb/ft3

0.2500
0.2000
0.1500

kg/m3
lb/ft3

0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.0000 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 1.2000 1.4000 1.6000

2.2046 lb
3.2808 ft

2.068023
kmol/m2.s

pall ring, 2 inch (metal)

Diameter bawah
L = massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu + massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu
G = massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu
G
5416.534 kmol/hr
G actual=0.8*Gflooding
81927.92747 kg/hr
G actual
22.75775763 kg/s
50.17175247 lb/s
L
28523.6991 kmol/hr
20374.07 kmol/hr
777727.1797 kg/hr
28523.7 kmol/hr
216.0353277 kg/s
216.0353 kg/s
476.2714834 lb/s
476.2715 lb/s
(L/G)*(rhoG/rhoL)^0.5
1.032174
G'^2*F**miu^0.2/(rhoG*rhoL*g)
0.021
delta P
1.1739851
F=
26
=ratio of the density of water to the density of liquid
0.7942697
miu liquid=
2
g=
32.2
rhoGrhoLg
1528.5661
F bla bla
23.721783
G'^2
1.3531819
G'
1.1632635
A
43.130171
D
7.4123473

2.2593109

0.013415
0.189561
kalo pake x0=yo/slope

aw
1 exp 1,45 c
ap

0 , 75

LK

a
p L

0 ,1

LK 2 a p

2g
L

L'
c
L
ap
miu L
rho L
g

56.38672256
75
83.8
102
0.001
1015
9.8

kg/m2.s
mN/m
mN/m
m2/m3
kg/m.s
kg/m3
m/s2

a
b
c
d
e
aw/ap
aw

-1.33423072
1.880432151
1.187572724
0.205498518
-0.61229049
0.457892245 0.457892245
46.70500901 m2/m3

Ct=rho/MR
Ct

37.22584904 kmol/m3

0 , 05

LK 2

s a
L L p

0, 2

56.38672 kmol/hr

k y kg P

k x kl Ct
kx

0.021427584 kmol/m2.s
1

1
1
Kxa
a
k x mk y w

Y
Kya

0.267 X
0.163875613 kmol/m3.s

DAB

117,3.10

Series1
Linear (Series1)

erserap per satuan waktu

ft2
ft

kg

GK
5,23.
a p . G

0, 7

G DG

G'
miu G
rho G
DG
dp
R
T

5.943771074
1.50531E-05
12
3.45527E-06
0.0508
0.08205
333

a
b
c
d
kg

1698.192263
0.713380235
0.037245365
1.28991E-05 0.00058202
0.000582021 kmol/m2.s.atm

LK
k l 0,0051.
aw L
DL
a
b
c
d
kl
ky

(a p d p ) 2

a p DG

kg/m2.s
Pa.s
kg/m3
m2/s
m
Latm/molK
K

L DL

(a p d p )

0 ,4


L
L .g

5.77416E-10 m2/s
0.578245734
0.024209023
1.931014583
0.021293809
0.00057561 m/s
0.015714579 kmol/m2.s

0.00057561

DAB

117,3.1018.(B .M B ) 2 .T

B .VA0,6

MB=berat molekul solven


R
Tb
P
miu
VA
DAB

RT

2.26
27.266
0.08205
194.5
27
0.001
0.034
5.7742E-10

kg/kmol
L.atm/molK
K
atm
kg/m.s
m3/kmol
m2/s

y0
L x
x0

1 y0
G0
1

x
1

0
y
y0
L x
x0
1
0

G0
1 x0
1 x
1 y0
Z l

Z 0

dZ

Ls
Kl a

x x0

x xl

dx

y0
L
x0
x
) s (

)
(

Gs 1 x
1 x0
1

2
1 y0
(1

x
)
(
x

y0
Ls
x0
x

)
(

)]
1 [(

1 y0
Gs 1 x
1 x0

Kondisi Operasi Stripper


Stripper beroperasi pada tekanan rendah dan suhu tinggi
P
2 atm
T
115 C
388 K
Larutan MDEA yang sudah jenuh dengan CO2, distripper dengan steam superheated
P steam
4 atm
T steam
175 C
Bahan Isian Packing
Pall ring ceramic dengan diameter 2 inch (0.0508 m)
F
20
ap
102 m2/m3
rho
353 kg/m3

CO2 yang terbawa steam


2.553

Komponen Rich Solution


Rich solution :
komponen Mr
x, wt
CO2
44.010
0.088
MDEA
120.171
0.35
piperazine
86.137
0.029
H2O
18.015
0.533
massa
777224.974 kg/hr
MR solven 27.2238984 kg/kmol

kmol
2.553
2390.86
270.45
25862.39
28523.7

x,mol
0.00014
0.08382
0.00948
0.90670
1.00000

Tekanan uap dapat dihitung dengan persamaan Antoine


3103,39

o
PCO
exp 22,5898
dengan :
2
T 0,16

P
: tekanan uap, mmHg

rho
x
0.084
0.009
0.907
27.22389845

P01=(exp(140.54-(4735/T1)-(21.268*log(T1)

EXP(94,4914-6789,04/A4-11,4519*LN(A4)-0,010454*A

: suhu, K

P01=(exp(140.54-(4735

EXP(94,4914-6789,04/A4-1
Po
y

2849.08751
1424.54376

366.6228899
183.3114449

y
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0
0.0005455
0.001091
0.0016366
0.0021821
0.0027276
0.0032731
0.0038186
0.0043642
0.0049097

0
0.000545817
0.001092231
0.001639242
0.002186851
0.002735059
0.003283867
0.003833276
0.004383287
0.004933901

Y
0.0000
0.1111
0.2500
0.4286
0.6667
1.0000
1.5000
2.3333
4.0000
9.0000

10.0000
9.0000
8.0000
7.0000
6.0000
5.0000
4.0000
3.0000
2.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0

jumlah steam stripping: mGm/Lm =


0.7 sd
ambil m.Gm/Lm =
0.7
(Colburn)
berdasar pengalaman :
Gm/Lm = 0.03347171 taken from stripper Kaltim 3
Lm =
28523.7 kmol/hr
Gm = 954.737137 kmol/hr
massa Gm = 17199.8569 kg/hr
4.777738014 kg/s
P0=(exp(140.54-(4735/T)-(21.268*log(T))+(4.0909E-2*T)))*9.869233E-6;
po =
366.62289 atm
m=
183.311445
mGm/Lm =
0.7
Lm =
28523.7 kmol/hr
Gm =
108.921677 kmol/hr
massa Gm = 1962.25451 kg/hr
0.545070697 kg/s
menghitung diameter menara

FLV

LTOTAL
GTOTAL

gas
cair

rho L =
1283 kg/m3
rho steam =
1.988 kg/m3
FLV
1.17602595
dari grafik didapat

0.001

0.8

dalam atm

K4
K4 baru

0.7 diambil percentage flooding 80%


0.448
0 ,1

cair
42, 9.GK .Fp.

cair
K4
gas ( cair gas )
2

miu L =
rho gas(rho cair-rho gas)
42.9 bla
GK^2
GK, kg/m2/s =
A = G/GK
D=
LK,kg/m2/s =

0.001
2546.6519
210.21545
5.4272893
2.3296543
2.0508356
1.6163321
96.00818

kg/m.s

kg/m2.s
m2
m
kg/m2.s

0.129315466 kmol/m2.s
D bawah
3.526613954 kmol/m2.s

Diamter atas stripper


L = massa cairan yang masu
G = massa gas yang masuk k
Lm
Gm
massa Gm
rho L
rho steam
FLV
dari grafik didapat
K4
K4 baru
GK^2
GK
A=G/GK
D atas

Perhitungan Tinggi Menara


Diffusivitas Liquid
1

DAB

117, 3.1018.(B .M B ) 2 .T

B .VA0,6

VA

R.Tb
P

Indeks A menunjukkan solute


Indeks B menunjukkan solvent
MB
: berat molekul solven, gr/gmol
27.224 kg/kmol
: volume molar solute pada titik didihnya, cm3/gmol
VA
: suhu didih solute, K =
194.5
: konstanta, untuk cairan (air) fB = 2,26

Tb
fB
R=
VCO2 =
miuB =
DAB =

0.08206
0.034
0.001
2.7150E-09

L.atm/gmol/K
m3/kgmol
kg/m/s
m2/s

Diffusivitas CO2 dalam gas

Difusivitas biner dapat dihitung dengan menggunakan persamaan Chapman-Enskog sebagai berikut :
Dij

0,001858.T 1,5 M ij 0,5


P.s ij .W D
2

10 4

Dij

0,001858.T 1,5 M ij 0,5


P.s ij .W D

1
1
M ij

BM i BM j

1
ij ( i j )
2
WD

10 4

kT
44 ,54.
ij

j
i .
k
k k

ij

4 ,909

kT 1,575
1,911.

ij

0,1

0,5

dengan :
T
P
Mij

: suhu, K
: tekanan, atm
: berat molekul gabungan

sij

: diameter tumbukan gabungan

ij

: karakteristik Lennard-Jones gabungan, K


(Perry, 1997)
Hasil perhitungan koefisien difusivitas antara CO2 melalui masing-masing komponen penyusun gas umpan, dapat d
Tabel 3. Koefisien difusivitas gas CO2 melalui campuran gas umpan
Komponen
CO2 - H2O

sij
3.291

ij

WD
1.6467

Mij
0.0782

397.412

Dij
1.1133E-05

*---Koefisien Transfer Massa---

Koefisien transfer massa fasa gas dan cair ditentukan menggunakan


metode Onda, yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk persamaan sebagai berikut :
0 , 05
0 ,1
0 , 75
2

LK 2
c LK LK a p
aw

1 exp 1,45
a 2g
s a
ap

L p L L
L L p

kg

GK
5,23.
a p . G

LK
k l 0,0051.
aw L

0, 7

G DG

L DL

(a p d p ) 2
2

(a p d p )

1
k
K ya

k y kx

Ct=rho/MR
1

aw

RT

0 ,4

k y kg P

k x kl Ct

a p DG


L
L .g

0, 2

k x kl Ct
1
k
K ya

k y kx

dengan :

aw

Po
P

Indeks L menunjukkan cairan


Indeks G menunjukkan gas
: interfacial area efektif, m2/m3
aw
sC

: tegangan muka kritis untuk bahan packing , untuk metal sc = 75 mN/m

sL

: tegangan muka cairan pada suhu 70C

64.009

mN/n

D
kg

: koefisien difusivitas, m /s
: koefisien transfer massa pada film gas, kmol/m2.s.atm

ky

: koefisien transfer massa pada film gas, kmol/m2.s

kl
kx

: koefisien transfer massa pada film cairan, m/s


: koefisien transfer massa pada film cairan, kmol/m2.s

Kya

: koefisien transfer massa overall volumetric, kmol/m3.s

Po

: tekanan uap, kg/cm2

miu steam = 15.0531

mP.s

(Coulson and Richardson


1.50531E-05

kg/m/s

Tekanan uap dapat dihitung dengan persamaan Antoine


dengan :

o
PCO

3103,39

exp 22,5898
T
0,16

P
T

...(55)

: tekanan uap, mmHg


: suhu, K

aw
1 exp 1,45 c
ap

0 , 75

LK

a
p L

c
L
LK
miu L
ap
rho L
g

75
64.009
96.0081802
0.001
102
1283
9.8

mN/m
mN/m
kg/m2.s
kg/m.s
m2/m3
kg/m3
m/s2

a
b
c
d
aw/ap
aw

-1.6329979
1.9832196
0.86751474
0.25604151
0.51293402
52.3192704 m2/m3

0 ,1

LK 2 a p

2g
L

0 , 05

LK 2

s a
L L p

0, 2

kg

GK
miu G
rho G
DG
R
T
dp
a
b
c
d
kg

GK
5,23.
a p . G

2.329654325
1.50531E-05
18.015
1.11326E-05
0.08205
388
0.0508
881.551006
0.421822266
0.037245365
3.56686E-05
0.00049401

0, 7

LK
k l 0,0051.
aw L
DL
a
b
c
d

kL

k y kg P
ky
0.000988019

k x kl Ct
Ct=rho/mr
Ct
47.12771032
kx
0.08085908

aw

Integrasi dengan simpson rule


xo =
0.00014 yo =
x1 =
0.000 Xo =
dx =
0.0000139
Tinggi Stripper

Ls
dZ

Kl a
Z 0

0.0017157 m/s

1
k
K ya

k y kx

Z l


L 2

( a p d p ) 0 ,4 L
L DL
L .g
2.7150E-09 m2/s
16.02778
0.05902
1.9310146
0.019694

Kxa

0H
0.000139019

x x0

x xl

0.510684463 kmol/m3.s

1424.543755

dx


y0
L
x0
x
) s (

)
(

Gs 1 x 1 x0
1

2
1 y0
(1 x) ( x

y0
Ls
x0
x

)
(

)]
1 [(

1 y0
Gs 1 x 1 x0

X
0.000
0
0.000
1.39E-05
0.000 2.7801E-05
0.000 4.1702E-05
0.000 5.5603E-05
0.000 6.9505E-05
0.000 8.3407E-05
0.000 9.7309E-05
0.000 0.00011121
0.000 0.00012512
0.000 0.00013902

f(x)
2.661E-06
1.629E-05
2.993E-05
4.356E-05
5.719E-05
7.082E-05
8.445E-05
9.808E-05
0.0001117
0.0001253
0.000139

1/f(x)
factor
375743.0487
61369.14704
33414.0756
22957.14839
17485.40278
14120.11747
11841.24845
10195.82054
8951.951386
7978.629608
7196.245021

Luas = dx/3*(Total)
luas
4.6000109
HoG
6.9056613
Z
31.766117 m

1
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
1

dA
375743.0487
245476.5882
66828.15121
91828.59356
34970.80555
56480.46987
23682.4969
40783.28218
17903.90277
31914.51843
7196.245021
992808.1024

x0
)]
1 x0

x0
x0

2 yang terbawa steam


kmol/hr

massa
0
272028.741
22539.5242
414260.911
708829.176

Lean Solution
x,wt htng
kmol
0.000
0.000
0.384
2263.678
0.032
261.671
0.584
22994.975
25520.323

x, mol
0.000
0.089
0.010
0.901

T1)-(21.268*log(T1))+(4.0909E-2*T1)))*9.869233E-6;

519*LN(A4)-0,010454*A4)

Lean Solution
x,wt
mol
x, mol
0
0
0.00000
0.37 0.003078942 0.08382
0.03 0.000348283 0.00948
0.6 0.033305061 0.90670
assumsi hanya CO2 yang terstripping
0.036732286

1=(exp(140.54-(4735/T1)-(21.268*log(T1))+(4.0909E-2*T1)))*9.869233E-6;

P(94,4914-6789,04/A4-11,4519*LN(A4)-0,010454*A4)

Series1

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.006

amter atas stripper


massa cairan yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu + massa gas yg terserap per satuan waktu
= massa gas yang masuk kolom per satuan waktu
28526.253 kmol/hr
954.737137 kmol/hr
17199.8569 kg/hr
4.777738014 kg/s
1283 kg/m3
1.988 kg/m3
1.17613121
ri grafik didapat
0.4 diambil percentage flooding 80%
0.32
4.84579399
2.20131642 kg/m2.s
2.17040039 m2
1.66278118 m

un gas umpan, dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut :

for water

oulson and Richardson, 1983)

GK
23.
a p . G

0, 7

D
G G

kg/m2.s
kg/m.s
kg/m3
Latm/molK
K
m

kmol/m2.s.atm

(a p d p ) 2

a p DG
RT

kmol/m2.s

kmol/m3
kmol/m2.s