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adams valve

chapter 29

page 222

a pressure regulator, or pressure reducing valve is always needed to step down the high pressure of cylinder gas to low pressure for safe working conditions. Otherwise sudden flow of high preesure may accidentally given to the patient: desides,it may damage the various fine components of the anesthetic apparatus.

By means of pressure regulator, the pressure is reduced and is maintained at required level, so that continuous adjustment is not necessary. Various types of regulators are available. The most reliable being Adams valve. It reduces the pressure between 5 and 10 lb/inch2. The working principle and mechanism of reducing valve are intricate. It consists of a chamber enclosed on one side by a diaphragm. High pressure gas enters through the central metal core from the lower end of the valve. When the high pressure gas enters into the chamber, the diaphragm is distended against the recoil of its own and of the strong spring surrounding the metal rod. Ultimately the diaphragm moves and of the end of rod is lifted. As a result the valve closed and thus the channel to the cylinder is closed. Then the gas passes through the supply tube on the side of valve. The pressure may be regulated by adjusting the srew at the top of the valve. Clock wise movement of the screw increases the spring tension and reduces the pressure of emerging gas. Turning on the opposite direction increases the pressure When the gas escapes from the outlet, pressure falls and the valve opens. During use, steady pressure maintained in the chamber by partial opening the valve. The pressure regulator made of material which does not react with the gas and will function at the temperature range of -18 to 50C Regulator must rupture at the pressure below 400lb/inch2 but higher than 200lb/inch2 The high pressure part of regulator inlet must withstand fourtimes the maxium pressure of the gas in the cylinder.

A corrosive resistant filter of less than 66micm is needed upstream of the valve sheet. Relief valves may be lifted downstream of the regulators and will allow the gas to escape, if the regulator fails. The relief valve is usually set at about 700kPa. Aoneway valve may be incorporated within the cylinder supply line to prevent the back flow. The one way valve may also be incorporated into the design of pressure regulator. The regulators should not be changed by the users. They are usually supplied for every gas cylinder in anaesthetic machine except cyclopropane cylinders as the gas is at a relatively low pressure. Old types of adams valve provide fins on the nitrous oxide regulator to conduct heat from ambient air to prevent too much cooling of the valve Water vapour, if present in nitrous oxide may condense upon the valve seating and freeze to jam the valve. This freezing may be prevented by the extra heat conducted by the fins. Freezing may also be prevented by installing a small heater adjacent to the regulator. Some machines are equipped with two-stage regulators consisting of two one-stage regulators in series. The output pressure of first stage provides the inlet pressure for the second stage. These regulators are usually meant for high gas flow. They are more reliable and long lasting. The regulators should have relief valve on the low pressure side to prevent accidental damage of the machine parts from excessive pressure. The valves may be damaged after prolonged use or due to dirt.

In such cases a steady rise of pressure may occur. A hissing sound of leaking gas may be heard as a result of damaged diaphragm. Due to fault of adams valve, there may be intermittent change of gas pressure and flow, indicating the jumping patterns of bobbin in flow meters. Pressure regulators should be serviced at regular intervals. They are not interchangeable and should be used only for the gas for which they are intended.

Each regulator shall be clearly and permanently marked either on the body or cover with (a) manufacturers name or trade mark, (b) country of origin and (c) designation of gas in words and not in chemical symbol. It should also be clearly and permanently identified by the corresponding colour code for the gas ============================================

Item: Adams Valve (cutaway version) Date of manufacture: 1923 Manufacturer:BOC Description: This valve reduces the declining cylinder gas pressure to an approximately constant reduced outlet pressure suitable for delivery to a flowmeter/needle valve assembly. When the cylinder valve is opened, gas enters the chamber below the diaphragm forcing the diaphragm to rise. Its attachment to the reversal linkage causes a downward movement of the valve seat, closing the valve and interrupting the flow of gas from the cylinder. If gas is permitted to exit the chamber via the outlet nozzle, the slight fall in pressure reduces the upward force on the diaphragm, permitting the valve seating to rise and thereby allowing more gas to enter the

chamber from the cylinder. The outlet pressure is maintained more or less constant at a level that is set by adjusting the tension in the tensioning spring since its action is to tend to lower the diaphragm and open the valve seat. 5 psi is the maximum that can be contained by rubber tubing forced over a nozzle without tending to blow off. The Adams Valve is unusual in that cylinder pressure tends to open the valve. Category: Pressure Reducing Valve

Accession Nr.:20110051 . Discussion: Nitrous Oxide loses heat on expansion. The chilled Adams valve would become jammed by frozen water vapour that tended to contaminate medical gases. Consequently, some Adams regulators bore external fins. In 1923 Adams designed the pressure reducing valve which produced a reduced and regulated pressure of 5 lbs/sq and thus circumvented the problem of blowing off of the rubber tubings as mentioned above. The fins provided on the body are supposed to increase the surface area and preventing condensation of water vapour particularly when nitrous oxide evaporated. INDIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, AUGUST 2003 IBnHdAiaRnG JA. VAAn a: eAsNthA.E 2S0T0H3;E 4T7IC ( 4D)E :V 2IC63E-S264