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Overview Doing a science investigatory project will allow you to experience the joy and thrill of doing science, engage in critical thinking, exercise decision making and problem solving, organize and manage your time and resources, and execute the scientific method in action. In addition, it will give you opportunities to develop scientific attitudes such as patience, perseverance, resourcefulness, independent thinking, open mindedness, etc., as well as improve your interpersonal skills as you work and communicate with others. Kinds of researches The main aim of research is to contribute new knowledge such as new facts, generalizations, techniques, equipment, procedures, new substances or solutions to certain problems. There are two types of research that one may undertake: a) Pure research is conducted with no immediate objective in mind although the results may lead to solutions of problems in other fields, which at that time has an immediate purpose. Problems in pure science require more time and better qualities of the mind. Some examples are researches on the structure of the nucleus, mass-energy relationship, recombinant DNA, structure of the atom, etc. b) Applied research is conducted with an immediate purpose in mind. The results will have immediate applications. It requires less time and concentrates on a scientific problem. Some examples are developing a new packaging material; studying the effect of temperature on a certain process, developing a biodegradable plastic, etc. Because of the limitations of time and available resources and the fact that. the level of your knowledge and skills is not yet comparable to those of an experienced scientist, it is advisable for you to work on very simple problems first. At the beginning, your teacher will assign you to investigate a problem in a highly structured manner. Try to follow these and learn from the experience. You will then be given a semi-structured problem, wherein you are expected to make your own experimental design, execute the study, and make your final report. At the end, given a problem situation, you are expected to be able to pose your own research question(s), propose hypothesis(es), design and execute your experiments and make your final report. The scientific method (or scientific inquiry) - an exercise in doing science The scientific method is a systematic thought and action process. There are five major phases: 1. Formulating questions and hypotheses 2. Designing investigations

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3. Collecting and representing/organizing data 4. Analyzing and interpreting data 5. Drawing conclusions and developing explanations Outline of a scientific investigation Research cannot be planned in advance with great precision such as in mass production of a tool. True scientists do not follow a prescribed set of laboratory procedures, since it is an exploration to the unknown. General principles, techniques, and guides, however, can be given in an attempt to minimize the mistakes and commit fewer wrong decisions. The following basic steps in conducting a research project serve only as guide. This basic outline may be modified according to the innate wisdom of the experimenter. The outline covers the major phases of the scientific method. 1. Select your topic In choosing the topic, consider the following: a. Degree of difficulty - Examine this carefully in relation to your skills, knowledge, and experience level. b. Time available - Estimate the time you need for planning, literature research, setting up the project, executing it, assembling results, and drawing conclusions. Allow for a margin of safety for possible errors. c. Necessary resources and expense - These include manpower, equipment, and materials needed. List them down and find out if these are all available. d. Collateral readings and availability of advice - This may be necessary on critical points in the experiments. You may consult knowledgeable people in your community, including your own parents if you are working on a local problem. 2. Know your subject Know the background of the problem, how it arose, why it is important and what will be done with the results. The best source of information is the library. Nowadays, a virtual library exists in the INTERNET. You can also ask the persons who have done related work on that problem and are recognized authorities on the subject. At this stage, establish the theoretical background of the problem. Know what has been done before by other investigators in the same area and what new findings you can contribute.


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Define/identify your problem State your problem with care, defining your objectives and expressing its limits. A careful statement of the problem will minimize waste and points the way to its solutions. What are the questions you are trying to answer in your investigation? 4. Plan your project This step covers hypothesis building and experimental design. What are your hypotheses or what are your expected outcomes of the investigation, based on the theoretical background that you have established? Start with a well-thought-out hypothesis. Decide on the place, time, equipment, materials, and procedures you will use. Try to foresee problems that may occur and be ready with possible solutions. Make your experiments as quantitative as possible. Make a judgment on the accuracy that you want and design your experiments accordingly.


Keep a complete notebook Meticulously record all your observations, data, procedures, setups, and questions. Even mistakes or failed experiments are very important. Negative results do not mean failed experiments. They have as much value as positive results. Often, what are considered as failures can lead to experiments of considerable importance. Record your data using proper number of significant figures depending on the accuracy of the measuring instrument or device that you used.


Start your experiments. All scientific studies must be systematic. The value of each experiment must be carefully reviewed. Conditions for each experiment must be controlled to get reproducible results. Experiments without controls, generally is not a scientific study. Do numerical calculations as you collect data. Apply the rules on significant figures in your calculations.


End your experiments. When do you end an experiment? Sometimes this can be a ticklish question. In the course of your work, you may come up with questions other than the one you have originally asked. A usual stopping point is when you realize you have discovered something significant, not necessarily what you are seeking.

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Analyze and evaluate your results periodically. Recognize errors which may have been committed. The teacher adviser can advise when to stop. 8. Write your report The project ends with a report and/or an exhibit. There are accepted formats in reporting a science investigation, depending on the purpose of the report. The discussion of results should cover not only what you have observed or the data collected, but the most important part is your careful analysis of the data gathered and observations made. Careful analysis requires prior organization of data collected into tables and/or graphs. Your analysis will lead you to explanations, an understanding of cause and effect. From the analysis and explanations, draw your generalizations and conclusions within the limitations of the experiments done. 9. Prepare an exhibit (for science fair). This is optional. An exhibit is a visual display that carefully presents the scientific material. There are certain guidelines in representing the exhibit. Abandoning a problem There may come a point in the course of an experiment that further work with existing techniques, tools, and ideas may yield less profitable results than the same effort turned to other directions. It is a wise man who knows when to abandon a problem. B. Designing Your Experiments An investigatory project employing the scientific method would require careful and meticulous planning of every step, recording and analysis of every observation. Conclusions are drawn based only on reproducible results. Preplanning Before planning the actual experiments, you should have a clear understanding of the nature of the problem and of any related theory. Start with a hypothesis or a working theory and then design experiments based on this hypothesis. Even an imperfect theory is better than having no theory at all. It sets the limits of the experiments and provides direction for the project. The hypothesis states what the project is expected to discover. It is customary to start with a null or negative hypothesis and proceed to prove the opposite. Not all projects though require a hypothesis at the outset. Hypothesis may be established at the conclusions of the experiments. Next analyze the problem and cast it into its simplest form. The way the problem is stated can set its limits and points the way to its solutions. If the problem is too complex, it is BSE-Department of Education


advisable to approach it in stages. Start with the most idealized and simplified version possible, before attacking the more general cases. Before carrying out an experiment, have a clear-cut idea of what you want to test. There may be occasions after you finish doing the experiments, when it becomes apparent that the questions you asked are not those whose answers you are seeking. It is safest here to go back to your original questions. Usually evidence, either for or against a theory, come from different sources at one time. It is rather rare to have a crucial experiment or a single experiment which determines the fate of hypothesis. Nevertheless, it is important to design an experiment that as far as possible is crucial with respect to the hypothesis you want to test.

Variables Results about similar events may be accepted as scientific truths, if they can be reproduced under similar circumstances. This rests on the idea that similar events occur under similar circumstances. One can identify similarities in events by focusing attention on a small number of essential characteristics. These essential conditions which when fixed ensure occurrence of a given event are called variables. Example: What variables play in bringing a kettle of water to boil? Answers: Amount of heat applied, atmospheric pressure, heat conductivity of the kettle, and purity of water. Kinds of variables 1. Independent or manipulated variables are what you change, reset directly during experiment, or whose values are at your disposal as the experimenter. 2. Dependent or criterion variables are what you watch to look for any effect of your manipulated variables. 3. Controls or constants are any other potential variables that you keep from changing during an experiment or you assume do not change. There are still two kinds (a) those whose values can be ascertained during the time of the experiment, and (b) those which remain unknown, yet have some effect on the results. The effect of each factor can be studied by holding all other factors constant, except the one under study. Only one variable should be changed (manipulated) at a time. In one set of experiments, there can be several dependent variables but only one independent variable. The ideal experiment is described as one in which all relevant variables are held constant except the one under study, the effects of which on the dependent variable are then observed. For example, an experimenter may be interested in studying the effect of the heat conductivity of the kettle on the time it takes for water to boil. Different kinds of kettles (e.g. BSE-Department of Education 137

aluminum, cast iron, Teflon-coated, glass) may be used. This will be the independent variable. The time needed to bring the water to boil starting from room temperature will be observed and recorded. This is the dependent variable. All other factors should be held constant - amount of heat applied (regulated by setting the stove e.g., medium and using the same stove for all three samples), atmospheric pressure (controlled by doing the experiment in the same location e.g. sea level), purity of water (controlled by using the same sample of water) and amount of water. In another instance, an experimenter may be interested in studying the effect of the purity of water on the time needed to bring it to boil. This time he uses water samples of different purity (e.g. distilled water, rainwater, tap water, river water). This is now the new independent variable. The dependent variable is still the same - the time needed to bring water to boil from room temperature. All other variables shall be held constant - amount of heat applied, heat conductivity of the kettle material (using only one kind or one kettle) atmospheric pressure (controlled by doing the experiment in the same location). To assume that only a finite number of variables is sufficient to specify a given event is an idealization. In most circumstances, less significant variables are ignored and assumed not to affect the experimental results. This is quite acceptable in comparative studies, where the variable exerts a constant effect on all the experiments. But when distinctions between similar events become better defined, the number of variables increases, as well as, the precision with which each one is specified. Steps in planning an experiment No two scientists will follow exactly the same pattern of steps to arrive at the same conclusions. This is where a scientific project vis--vis structured experiments differ. The first will give you freedom of thought and action, while the latter gives you no choice. You may use the following as guides: 1. Decide on the kind of event you want to study and the nature of the variables, which you believe are the controlling factors based on prior observations. 2. Depending on your aim, choose the mode of measurements. If your main aim is comparison, make direct comparative observations. Whenever possible put in additional standards so that absolute measurements are obtained as well, for other uses. Sometimes the extra cost of introducing standards does not appear worthwhile, being irrelevant to the immediate purpose but the greater usefulness of the data may later show the necessity of having used standards. When science projects which would lend to being quantified by accurate measurements were not done so, the precision of the experiments is negatively affected.


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3. Quantify the experiments whenever possible by measuring, timing, determining mass, and recording changes. Use SI units. Table 2. Some customary and non-SI practices Observed practices SI convention Centigrade Celsius BTU Joule Weight Mass o 62 1/2 C 62.5 oC 50 oF 10 oC 1 1/2 cm 1.5 cm cc or cu. cm. cm3 761,632.06 761 632.06 21 ml 21 mL 30 g. 30 g 5 l. 5.0 L 4. Choose the sampling material. The sample must be representative of the group being chosen. A wise choice of material may greatly reduce experimental difficulties. Mere experimental convenience should not be allowed to outweigh more basic considerations. The easy experiment may not answer the right questions. 5. Introduce control and standards. Some variables may have effects changing in an unknown or uncontrollable way during the experiment. To correct for their effects, some devices are needed. One solution is the introduction of controls. Controls are similar test specimens, which are subjected to the same treatment as the objects of the experiment in the closest possible way, except for the change in the variable under study. The use of controls is often difficult in experiments involving plants and animals because of their natural variations. This is also true of experiments involving people. Standards are something against which comparisons are made.

Controls may also serve as standards if they can be reproduced by others or perhaps handed around to others, so as to enable different investigators to reach a common basis for cross checking.

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The use of controls does not always ensure correct results. It is always necessary to eliminate any question of bias. This can be accomplished by: (a) Matching of controls Subject-control pair must be carefully matched. They must be nearly alike in all pertinent features as much as possible. The efficiency and sensitivity of the experiment are very dependent on the success of matching. Biological research employs co-twin control, i.e., the use of identical twins. (b) Randomization The principle of randomization must be used in choosing which member of the pair is the subject and which is the control. A coin should be tossed to decide this question. It should never be left to human judgment. Randomization is done to ensure the inevitable prejudices and preferences of the investigator. It also provides for a mathematically sound basis for the calculations of the approximate probability of error. 6. Decide on the number of experiments to be performed. Repetition of experimental results points to a greater accuracy. The other things to consider in experimental design are: materials, method, time for experiment and evaluation, frequency of observations, cost in terms of manpower, time and equipment.

The experimenter must question if the procedure being planned is workable with the kinds of resources available and the conditions during the experiments. Campbell and Stanley experimental design for research 1. One shot pretest/posttest One group is tested, exposed to a treatment and then tested again. Experimental design T = one test T1 140 x = a treatment X T2 BSE-Department of Education

This is a poor design for the life and social sciences, but may be meaningful for the physical sciences. It has no control. Observations on one organism cannot be generalized to others. This can be done with relative accuracy by interfacing laboratory equipment during experiment, but this design is limited. It can be quantified but usually only with a histogram. The key danger is over confidence. The students soon recognize that one trial is seldom enough to draw any sort of conclusion in science. Some examples of questions which can be tested by this design: How does blanching affect the activity of enzymes in vegetables? How does stress affect the strength of PVC? What is the effect of a mordant on the action of a fabric dye? How would adding a barrier of foliage affect sound transmission?

2. Randomized control group design This is a standard design for biology projects. Students compare the pretest (or initial condition) and the posttest (or final condition) with a control group. Experimental design: T1 T1 X T2 T2 Experimental Control

In its simplest form, this design provides data for the student's t-test (to determine the difference between sample means) or for chi-square analysis (for data in frequency form). The distinction between discrete and continuous data (and between histograms and line graphs) requires a great deal of class time. Students however, can easily figure out that the reliability of randomized control group test depends on the number of subjects in the experiment. Some examples of questions which can be tested by this design: How does electromagnetic radiation affect the flight of honeybees? How does calcium affect the geotropism in plants? How does noise (interference) affect short term memory? How does zinc affect the growth of rice?

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3. Variable in series The variable is applied in a series of strength, duration or form. This strengthens the experimental design, such as the first two types. Experimental design: T1 T1 T1 Varying Strengths Xa Xb Varying treatment T2 T2 T2 Varying strengths

Before computers, these designs were hard to analyze. Today most microcomputers can perform straightforward statistical technique called analysis of variance, which can be used for data evaluation of this kind. Some examples of questions which can be tested by this design: What is the relationship between the concentration of fertilizer and the growth of plants? What is the relationship between the type of metal bowl and the stiffness of egg whites beaten in it? How does the wavelength of light affect seed germination? How does relative humidity affect plant growth or the sex ratios of invertebrate offspring? What is the effect of solution pH on the color imparted by a dye? 4. Observations over time This design is often more valuable than a single test. Experimental design: T1 T2 T3 T4 At different times X T5 T6 T7 T8 At different times


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Sample studies: Investigating the changes in the pH of the egg white as an egg ages Investigating the changes in the reflex rate of animals as they age Investigating the changes in the resistance of mango tree to certain disease as a result of irradiation Investigating the changes in the oxygen production of algae over time This design may require the use of a computer for curve fitting and extrapolation. 5. Progressive change This design compares progressive changes in a subject over time to a control. Experimental design: T1 T1 T2 T3 T4 X T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Control T5 T6 T7 T8 Exptl.

Sample questions: Do neuroinhibitors affect metamorphosis in insects?

Can variations in the growth rings in fish scales (or trees) be corrected with specific environmental events? Not all ideas will fit into one or more of the given designs. You may improvise your own symbols and designs. C. Guidelines in Keeping Notes A good rule to follow when doing a science investigatory project is to write everything down, not on a piece of paper but in a notebook kept specifically for this purpose. Your notebook should be as detailed and complete as possible containing all readings, observations, questions, data, plans, errors, etc. BSE-Department of Education 143

The following are some guidelines in keeping notes in your lab notebook: 1. Choose a permanently bound notebook, of sufficient size with numbered pages. 2. On the fly page, write the notebook number (if more than one), your name, the title of the research, the initial date (when work started) and later, the final date (when work is completed). 3. Assign several pages for table of contents. Make up the table of contents as you proceed with your investigation. 4. State the objective of the entire project as clearly as possible. Record any changes as your work progresses. 5. For each experiment, the following should be included: a.objective b. equipment and procedures c.all new data written directly in the notebook d. calculations with legend for all symbols and nomenclature e.findings and conclusions f. suggestions for future work 6. All original data must be entered directly into the notebook at the time of observation. If data are to be taken on special forms, these must be pre-inserted into the notebook. Never write your data on loose paper. 7. Never postpone any necessary calculations. You will save time later in case you need to repeat experiments. 8. Place your notebook in a good position while doing your experiments. If your work is particularly dirty, cover the page with a plastic sheet. A dirty notebook is far preferable to lost data or spending time transferring them. 9. Enter all necessary information in your notebook. These include the raw data, time of day, purpose of the experiment, pertinent diagrams or setups, serial number of samples used and manufacturer, unusual observations, etc. Some of the information may not seem important at the time but may be significant later. 10. List decisions that affect the course of the project and the reasons behind these decisions. 11. Include any standard operating procedures developed for the equipment you are using. Record and date any change. 12. Never tear a page from the lab notebook. To make an erasure, draw a heavy line over the notes or number being erased. Give reasons for the erasures. 13. Enter all data, observations, notes, tables, etc. on the right-hand page and all calculations on the left-hand page of your notebook. 14. Take snapshots of the setups (optional). 15. Do not omit what you might consider a failed experiment at a given moment. This can save time by not being repeated and/or provide direction for new experiments. 16. Record full reference citations for any book or article used as source of information. 17. Sign your name and the date at the end of each working day. If your work is patentable, have a witness sign with the note "Read and understood by"


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D. Analyzing Your Data The ultimate goal of an investigation is to express the magnitude of the variables in the experiments in meaningful quantitative terms. The investigator may not be satisfied with the expression that one variable is larger or smaller than another, but rather he/she may want to express precisely how much larger or smaller it is. If two variables are functionally related, merely describing that they are positively or negatively related may not be sufficient. The specific degree of relationship in terms of some numerical values may be sought. Statistics provide the tools for the investigator to quantitatively analyze experimental data. A. Average value or Mean ( x ) The mean or arithmetic or arithmetic average is used to represent a set of data by using a single numeral. When the term average is used in statements such as average grade in school, average mass of experimental sample, average rainfall for the month of July, batting average of a baseball player, and average monthly food expenses, it is likely that the mean is referred to. The mean ( x ) is the summation ( ) of the individual observation (x1, x2, x3, x4 xn) divided by the number of observations (n).


( x1 + x2 + x3 + ... + xn )

or in mathematical shorthand,


i =1

where xi is the sum of the individual measurements; i takes on all integral (whole number) values from, 1, 2, 3, n. For example, xi would represent the sum of six measurements, x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6.

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For instance, a class of 30 students used an improvised volumeter to study the difference in respiration rate between germinating seeds of pea and corn plants. The volume in mL of oxygen used by germinating seeds per hour at 25 oC were measured and recorded as shown in Table 3. Ten readings were made for each sample. Table 3. Amount of oxygen used by germinating seeds of corn and pea plants Reading Corn (xi) Pea (xi) Number (mL oxygen per hour) (mL oxygen per hour) 1 0.20 0.25 2 0.24 0.23 3 0.22 0.31 4 0.21 0.27 5 0.25 0.23 6 0.24 0.33 7 0.23 0.25 8 0.20 0.28 9 0.21 0.25 10 0.20 0.20 Total xi Mean x 2.20 0.22 2.60 0.26

The individual readings for each sample of corn and pea tend to cluster on either side of a particular value. The mean is the estimate of this value. B. Variance (s2) The data in Table 3 show that the results vary for different readings. Readings number 3 and 6 for pea show a large variation in the amount of oxygen consumed. To express these variations, a value called variance is determined. Variance (s2) is a measure of the individual values from the mean. A large variance indicates that the individual values deviate considerably from the mean, whereas a small variance indicates that the individual values deviate little from the mean.


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The variance can be calculated from the formula:

s2 =

i =1

x) 2

n 1

where xi represents individual readings; x is the mean; n is the number of readings. (xi - x )2 means that each reading must be subtracted from the mean to compute the quantity (xi - x )2 and add all these quantities to get their sum. Using the data in Table 3, the variance of the readings for the pea can be calculated as shown in the next table.

Table 4. Variance of volume readings for pea sample Reading Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean x (xi )2 s2 Pea (xi) (mL oxygen per hour) 0.25 0.23 0.31 0.27 0.23 0.33 0.25 0.28 0.25 0.20 0.26 (xi ) (xi )2

-0.01 -0.02 +0.05 +0.01 -0.03 +0.07 -0.01 +0.02 -0.01 -0.06

0.0001 0.0004 0.0025 0.0001 0.0009 0.0049 0.0001 0.0004 0.0001 0.0036 0.0131 0.0015

C. Standard deviation (s) Similar to variance, standard deviation of a group of scores is a number which tells the investigator whether most of the individual readings cluster closely around their

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mean or are spread out along the scale. The standard deviation is also useful not only for describing distributions, but also for comparing group of samples.


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The standard deviation (s) is calculated by taking the positive square root of the variance.


i =1

x) 2

n 1

Thus, the standard deviation of the volume readings for pea (Table 3) is the square root of 0.0015 or 0.039. Problem: Calculate the variance and standard deviation of the volume readings of oxygen consumed by germinating corn. E. Writing Your Report There are essential parts of a scientific report. The following guidelines are given in writing your report of the science investigatory project that you have completed. General format of a scientific report A. Title The title should identify the specific nature of the research and the broader area within which your work has occurred. The wording of the title can influence the paper's usefulness. Keep your title length to a minimum, preferably less than a dozen words. Avoid using nonessential words or phrases, such as "Studies on", "Some Aspects of ." and "An Investigation Into" B. Author's Name(s) If there are several authors, the first name is the "senior author". This means that he or she has made the most contribution, followed by the second and so on. In judging relative contributions, ideas and writing ability are traditionally given more weight than funds, equipment, and labor. C. Abstract You may write the abstract before the introduction or after the conclusions. It usually consists of a single detailed paragraph, unless the report is quite long. Describe briefly but concisely your topic, experimental design, basic results and theoretical implications of the results.

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D. Introduction Your introduction must form a bridge between the past work and the present one. It must do so in a stimulating manner within a few paragraphs. A good introduction starts with a broad base and ends with a specific point. It first considers the importance of the major area being investigated. Then it identifies a gap in our knowledge, a precise question or a particular controversy within a chosen area. Finally, it pinpoints the intended value of the present research. E. Statement of the Problem This includes discussion of the problem and the hypothesis(es) tested. The problem may be stated in the form of questions, whose answers you sought in the course of the investigation. F. Methodology This consists of three sets of descriptions - procedures, subjects, and equipment used during the study. Describe these in detail to enable any experienced experimenter to duplicate the whole study. To simplify the task, do the following: 1. Simply name commercially available equipment and well known procedures. If you have specially built equipment, describe it in detail. 2. Focus on the subjects or objects of study, not on the researcher. 3. Use tables and figures to succinctly describe long and complex procedures. 4. When using any kind of organism, describe it by giving the following information: a. the species (if not yet identified in the introduction), b. the number of individuals tested or observed, c. the age and sex of samples, d. how they are selected, e. if captive or cultivated, how they were maintained when not being observed or selected, and f. for free living organism, e.g., birds, give the climate of the region, weather conditions during the study and types of habitats in which they were observed. G. Results Direct observations and raw data collected directly from experiments seldom make sense unless summarized and/or organized. In choosing summary techniques, you should watch out for the danger of loss of precision and being subjective.


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There are cases when data are excluded for certain reason(s). A good result section should contain data that have been selected for relevance, summarized but not overly simplified, and presented with as little interpretation as practicable. Organize results section into discrete sub-units and present them in some logical or obvious pattern, e.g., chronological or from the most general to the most specific. For example, behavioral study could start with the simplest analysis and proceed with more complex analyses of each behavior. Tables and figures summarizing data within sub-units require less space and are, in general, easier to follow than the written text. H. Discussion This section discusses the data presented in the result section. Patterns are identified among the different results and related to results of previous studies and the proposed hypothesis(es), if there is any. Interpretations of results must be supported by logical arguments that are firmly based on facts. The five major elements of a good discussion are: 1. an introductory paragraph that refers to the problem raised in the introduction and states how the results will be discussed, 2. consideration of all sub-units of the results, 3. full recognition of the relevant findings and hypotheses of other researchers, 4. possible applications and speculations as suggested by testable hypotheses of other researchers. You may point out faults in research design but do not gloss over contradictory or results which can not be interpreted. (Note: the results and discussion may be combined in a single section.) I. Conclusions Highlight the significant findings, interpretations and generalizations you can make based on the results of the study. Implications and/or applications of the theoretical findings may also be included. J. Recommendations for future study The results of your study may open up new questions which may be the subject of a new study. This section may include variations of the present study which may be investigated by other researchers.

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K. References It is important to cite the various reference materials that you have used in your study. Standard format is required for each kind of publication and for information retrieved from the INTERNET. Some examples are given in the next section.


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f. Listing Your References Follow standard formats when listing your references. The following are based on standard formats of the American Association of Psychologists (APA). 1. Books a. Reference to an entire book Roy Singh, R. (1991). Education for the twenty first century: Asia-pacific perspectives. Bangkok: UNESCO-PROAP. If the book has no author, place the title in the author's position.

b. Group or corporate author as publisher Presidential Commission on Educational Reform. (2000). Philippine agenda for educational reform: The PCER Report. Pasig City: Author. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. c. Edited book Gibbs, J. T. & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. d. Article in an edited book Golla, E. F,. & de Guzman, E. (1998). Teacher preparation in science and mathematics education: A situational analysis. In E. Ogena & F. Brawner (Eds.), Science Education in the Philippines. Technical papers. Vol. 1 Taguig, Metro Manila: National Academy of Science and technology. 2. Encyclopedia or dictionary Sadie, S. (ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20). London: Macmillan. Bergmann, P. G. (1993) Relativity. The new encyclopaedia Britannica (vol. 26, pp.501 - 508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. If an entry has no byline, place the title in the author's position.

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3. Journals Ogawa, M. (1995). Science education in a multi-science perspectives. Science Education. 79:5, 583 - 593. 4. Magazine article Kandel, E. R. & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120. 5. Newspaper article New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post. p. A12. World's richest man Gates also the most generous. (2002, November 25). The Philippine Star. P. 12. If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma. 6. Abstract as original source Woolf, N. J., Young, S. L. , & Butcher, L.L. (1991. MAP-2 expression in cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent cortex and hippocampus is altered by Pavlovian conditioning [Abstract]. Society of Neuroscience Abstracts, 17, 480. 7. Technical and research reports Mead, J.V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-924). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082). 8. Unpublished work & paper Meneleo, C. (1997, January). Reengineering education. Paper presented at UP NISMED Colloquium. University of the Philippines, National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development. University of the Philippines. Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development. (1990). Research study on three rural communities: Needsbased curriculum project. Unpublished project report.


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9. Theses Basco, E. L. (1996). High school students' misconceptions in science. Unpublished master's thesis, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City. 10. Internet Source Stronge, J. H. (2001). Teacher effectiveness: Improving schools one classroom at a time. Retrieved May 23, 2002 from NCATE-National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (2001). Summary data on teacher effectiveness, teacher quality, and Teacher qualifications. Retrieved May 23, 2002 from

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