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# Section IV: Charts

## Pneumatic Pipe Size

The pipe sizes listed in the chart below are assuming a 100 PSI pneumatic system to
carry air at a 1 PSI loss per 100 feet. Conservatively figure each pipe fitting to equal 5 feet of
pipe. At pressures other than 100 PSI, flow capacity will be inversely proportionate to pressure (Calculated by Boyles Law and based upon absolute PSIA Pressure levels).

SCFM
Flow
6
18
30
45
60
90
120
150
180
240
300
360
450
600
750

25
1/2
1/2
3/4
3/4
3/4
1
1
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/2
1-1/2
2
2
2

50
1/2
1/2
3/4
3/4
1
1
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/2
1-1/2
2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2

75
1/2
1/2
3/4
1
1
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/2
1-1/2
2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2

## Length of Run - Feet

100 150 200
1/2
1/2
1/2
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1-1/4 1-1/4
1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/4
1-1/4 1-1/2 1-1/2
1-1/2 1-1/2
2
1-1/2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2-1/2
2
2-1/2 2-1/2
2-1/2 2-1/2
3
2-1/2
3
3
3
3
3

300
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/2
1-1/2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2
2-1/2
3
3
3-1/2

500
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/2
1-1/2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2
3
3
3
3-1/2
3-1/2

100
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2
3
3
3
3-1/2
4
4

Compressor
HP
1
3
5
7-1/2
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
125

## Pneumatic Pressure Loss

Figures in the table below are approximate PSI compressed air pressure losses for
every 100 feet of clean commercial steel pipe. (Schedule 40)

80
125
Free
PSI PSI
Air
10
0.45 0.30
20
1.75 1.15
30
3.85 2.55
40
6.95 4.55
50 10.50 7.00
60
70
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

25

3/4 INCH
80
125
PSI PSI
0.11 0.08
0.40 0.28
0.90 0.60
1.55 1.05
2.40 1.60
3.45 2.35
4.75 3.15
6.15 4.10
7.75 5.15
9.60 6.35
15.50 9.80
23.00 14.50

1 INCH
80
125
PSI PSI
0.04 0.02
0.15 0.08
0.30 0.20
0.45 0.30
0.75 0.50
1.00 0.70
1.35 0.90
1.75 1.20
2.25 1.50
2.70 1.80
4.20 2.80
5.75 4.00
8.10 5.45
10.90 7.10

80
125
80
125
PSI PSI PSI PSI

0.18
0.25
0.35
0.45
0.56
0.65
1.05
1.45
2.00
2.60
4.05
5.80
7.90
10.30

0.12
0.17
0.23
0.30
0.40
0.45
0.70
1.00
1.30
1.75
2.65
3.85
5.15
6.75

0.16
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.45
0.65
0.90
1.15
1.80
2.55
3.55
4.55
5.80
7.10

0.10
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.32
0.45
0.60
0.80
1.20
1.70
2.35
3.05
3.80
4.70

## Section IV: Charts

Air Flow Loss Through Pipes
Instructions: Find the factor from the chart below according to the pipe size and SCFM.
Divide the factor by the Compression Ratio. Then multiply the number by the actual length
of pipe, in feet, then divide by 1000. This result is the pressure loss in PSI.
Compression Ratio = (Gauge Pressure + 14.5) / 14.5
Pressure Loss (PSI) = Factor / Compression Ratio x Length of Pipe (Ft) / 1000
Factor Table
SCFM
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
220
240
260
280
300

1/2
12.7
50.7
114
202
316
456
621
811

3/4
1.2
7.8
17.6
30.4
50.0
70.4
95.9
125
159
196
282
385
503
646
785
950

## Pipe Size NPT

1 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4
0.5
2.2 0.5
4.9 1.1
8.7 2.0
13.6 3.2 1.4 0.7
19.6 4.5 2.0 1.1
26.6 6.2 2.7 1.4
34.8 8.1 3.6 1.9
44.0 10.2 4.5 2.4
54.4 12.6 5.6 2.9
78.3 18.2 8.0 4.2
106 24.7 10.9 5.7
139 32.3 14.3 7.5
176 40.9 18.1 9.5
217 50.5 22.3 11.7
263 61.1 27.0 14.1
318 72.7 32.2 16.8
369 85.3 37.8 19.7
426 98.9 43.8 22.9
490 113 50.3 26.3
570 129 57.2 29.9
628 146 64.6 33.7
705 163 72.6 37.9
785 177 80.7 42.2
870 202 89.4 46.7
244 108 56.5
291 128 67.3
341 151 79.0
395 175 91.6
454 201 105

2-1/2

1.2
1.5
2.2
2.9
3.8
4.8
6.0
7.2
8.6
10.1
11.7
13.4
15.3
17.6
19.4
21.5
23.9
28.9
34.4
40.3
46.8
53.7

1.1
1.5
1.9
2.3
2.8
3.3
3.9
1.4
5.2
5.9
6.7
7.5
8.4
9.3
11.3
13.4
15.7
18.2
20.9

26

## Section IV: Charts

Pressure Loss Through Pipe Fittings
This chart gives figures that are the air pressure flow losses through screw fittings
expressed in the equivalent lengths of straight pipe of the same diameter. For example, a 2
gate valve flow resistance would be the same as 1.3 foot of straight pipe.
Pipe
Size Gate
NPT Valve
1/2
0.31
3/4
0.44
1
0.57
1-1/4 0.82
1-1/2 0.98
2
1.3
2-1/2 1.6
3
2.1
4
3.0
5
3.9

Long
Elbow*
0.41
0.57
0.77
1.1
1.3
1.7
2.2
3.0
3.9
5.1

Medium
Elbow** Elbow*** Valve
0.52
0.84
1.1
0.73
1.2
1.6
0.98
1.6
2.1
1.4
2.2
2.9
1.6
2.6
3.5
2.2
3.6
4.8
2.8
4.4
5.9
3.6
5.7
7.7
5.0
7.9
10.7
6.5
10.4
13.9

Close
Return
Bend
1.3
1.8
2.3
3.3
3.9
5.3
6.6
8.5
11.8
15.5

Tee
Thru
Side
1.7
2.3
3.1
4.4
5.2
7.1
8.7
11.4
15.8
20.7

Globe
Valve
2.5
3.5
4.7
6.5
7.8
10.6
13.1
17.1
23.7
31

## * or run of Standard Tee

** or run of tee reduced in size by 25%
*** or run of tee reduced in size by 50%

## Friction of Air in Hose

Pressure Drop per 25 feet of hose. Factors are proportionate for longer or shorter
lengths.
Size
SCFM 50 PSI
1/2" ID 20
1.8
30
5
40
10.1
50
18.1
60
70
80
3/4" ID 20
0.4
30
0.8
40
1.5
50
2.4
60
3.5
70
4.4
80
6.5
90
8.5
100
11.4
110
14.2
1" ID
30
0.2
40
0.3
50
0.5
60
0.8
70
1.1
80
1.5
90
2
100
2.6
110
3.5

27

60 PSI
1.3
4
8.4
14.8
23.4

70 PSI
1
3.4
7
12.4
20
28.4

0.3
0.6
1.2
1.9
2.8
3.8
5.2
6.8
8.6
11.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1
2
2.6

0.2
0.5
0.9
1.5
2.3
3.2
4.2
5.5
7
8.8
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.7
1
1.3
1.6
2

80 PSI
0.9
2.8
6
10.8
17.4
25.2
34.6
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.3
1.9
2.8
3.6
4.7
5.8
7.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.7

0.8
0.7
0.6
2.4
2.3
2
5.4
4.8
4.3
9.5
8.4
7.6
14.8
13.3
12
22
19.3
17.6
30.5
27.2
24.6
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
1.1
1
0.9
1.6
1.4
1.3
2.3
2
1.8
3.1
2.7
2.4
4
3.5
3.1
5
4.4
3.9
6.2
5.4
4.9
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.9
0.8
0.7
1.2
1
0.9
1.4
1.2
1.1

## Section IV: Charts

Vacuum Flow Trough Orifices
The chart below approximates flow that would be expected thorugh a practical orifice.
Flows are 2/3 of theoretical value obtained through a sharp edged orifice.
NOTE: Multiple smaller holes size grippers will work more efficently at higher vacuums.
Chart Valves are Air Flows in SCFM

Orifice
Dia.,
Inches
1/64
1/32
1/16
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1

## Degree of Vacuum Across Orifice, Inches of Mercury (Hg)

2"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
18"
24"
0.018 0.026 0.032 0.037 0.041 0.045 0.048 0.055 0.063
0.074 0.100 0.128 0.148 0.165 0.180 0.195 0.220 0.250
0.300 0.420 0.517 0.595 0.660 0.725 0.780 0.880 1.00
1.2
1.68 2.06 2.37 2.64 2.89 3.12 3.53 4.04
4.8
6.7
8.3
9.5
10.6 11.6 12.4 14.0 16.2
10.8 15.2 18.5 21.4 23.8 26.0 28.0 31.8 36.4
19.1 27.0 33.0 38.5 42.3 46.3 50.0 56.5 64.6
30.0 42.2 51.7 59.5 66.2 72.6 78.0 88.0
101
43.0 60.6 74.0 85.3 95.2
104
112
127
145
58.8 82.6
101
116
130
142
153
173
198
76.5
108
131
152
169
185
200
225
258

28