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COMPUTER TERMINOL OGY


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COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS 1-application software Software that can perform useful work, such as word processing, cost estimating, or accounting tasks. 2-basic application Applications used for doing common tasks, such as browsers and word processors, spreadsheets, databases, management systems and presentation graphics. 3-Chassis The metal casing that houses the computer components. Also called the a system cabinet. 4-communication device Computer system that communicates with other computer systems using modems. For example, it modifies computer output into a form that can be transmitted across standard telephone lines. 5-compact disc (CD) Widely used optical disk format. It holds 650 MB (megabytes) to 1 GB (gigabyte) of data on one side of the CD. 6-computer competency Becoming proficient in computer-related skills. 7-computer knowledge Understanding how technology works. 8-connectivity Capability of the microcomputer to use information from the world beyond one's desk. Data and information can be sent over telephone or cable lines and through the air so that computers can talk to each other and share information 9-data Raw, unprocessed facts that are input to a computer system that will give compiled information when the computer processes those facts. Also defined as facts or observations about people, places, things, and events. 10-database file File containing highly structured and organized data created by database management programs. 50

11-desktop computer Computer small enough to fit on top or along the side of a desk and yet too big to carry around. 12-device driver A special program associated with every device that is connected to the computer which allows communication between the operating system and the device. 13-digital versatile disc Similar to CDROMs except that more data can be packed into the same amount of space. It can store 4.7 GB to 17 GB on a single disk or 17 times the capacity of CDs.

14-digital video disc Similar to CDROMs except that more data can be packed into the same amount of space. It can store 4.7 GB to 17 GB on a single disk or 17 times the capacity of CDs. 15-document file File created by a word processor to save documents such as letters, research papers, and memos. 16-end user Person who uses microcomputers or has access to larger computers. 17-floppy disk Flat, circular piece of magnetically treated Mylar plastic that rotates within a jacket and holds 1.44 MB of information. It is a portable or removable secondary storage device. 18-general-purpose application Applications used for doing common tasks, such as browsers and word processors, spreadsheets, databases, management systems and presentation graphics. Also known as basic applications and productivity applications. 19-handheld computer These systems combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools and communications capabilities. They contain an entire computer system including the electronic components, secondary storage, input and output devices. 20-hard disk Enclosed disk drive containing one or more metallic disks that use magnetic charges to record data. They have large storage capacity and fast retrieval times. 21-hardware Equipment that includes a keyboard, monitor, printer, the computer itself, and other devices that are controlled by software programming. 22-information Data that has been processed by a computer system. 50

23-information system Collection of hardware, software, people, data, and procedures that work together to provide information essential to running an organization. 24-information technology Computer and communication technologies, such as communication links to the Internet that provide help and understanding to the end user. 25-input device Piece of equipment that translates data into a form a computer can process. The most common examples are the keyboard and the mouse. 26-Internet A huge computer network available to everyone with a microcomputer and a means to connect to it. It is the actual physical network made up of wires, cables and satellites as opposed to the Web, which is this network's multimedia interface. 27-Keyboard Input device that looks like a typewriter keyboard but has additional keys. 28-laptop computer Portable computer, also known as a notebook computer, weighing between 4 and 10 pounds. 29-mainframe computer This computer can process several million program instructions per second. Sizeable organizations rely on these room-size systems to handle large programs and a great deal of data. 30-memory Contained on chips connected to the system board and is a holding area for data instructions and information (processed data waiting to be output to secondary storage). RAM, ROM, and CMOS are three types. 31-microcomputer Small, low-cost computer designed for individual users. These include desktop, notebook, and personal digital assistant computers. 32-microprocessor A single integrated circuit chip that is the brains of a computer system. 33-midrange computer Refrigerator-sized machine falling in-between microcomputers and mainframes in processing speed and data-storing capacity. Also known as a midrange computer. 34-minicomputer Refrigerator-sized machine falling in-between microcomputers and mainframes in processing speed and data-storing capacity. Also known as a midrange computer. 35-Modem Short for modulator-demodulator. It is a communications device that translates the electronic signals from a computer into electronic signals that can travel over telephone lines. 36-Monitor 50

Output device like a television screen that displays data processed by the computer. 37-Mouse Device that typically rolls on the desktop and directs the cursor on the display screen. 38-Network The arrangement in which various communications channels are connected through two or more computers. 39-notebook computer Portable computer, also known as laptop computer, weighing between 4 and 10 pounds. 40-operating system Software that interacts between application software and the computer, handling such details as running programs, storing and processing data, coordinating all computer resources including attached peripheral devices. It is the most important program on the computer. Windows XP and Mac OS X are examples of operating systems. 41-optical disk Storage device that can hold over 17 gigabytes of data which is an equivalent of several million typewritten pages. Lasers are used to record and read data on the disk. The two basic types are compact disks (CDs) and digital versatile disks (DVDs) 42-output device Equipment that translates processed information from the central processing unit into a form that can be understood by humans. 43-palm computer A device that typically combines pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools, and communication capabilities in a very small package. Also known as personal digital assistant or handheld computer. 44-people End users who use computers to make themselves more productive. 45-personal digital assistant A device that typically combines pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools, and communication capabilities in a very small package. Also called Handheld PC or palmtop computer. 46-presentation file A file created by a presentation graphics program to save presentation materials. For example, a file might contain audience handouts, speaker notes and electronic slides. 47-primary storage Holds data and program instructions for processing data. It also holds processed information before it is output. 48-printer Device that produces printed-paper output. 50

49-procedure Rule or guideline to follow when using hardware, software, and data. 50-program Instructions for the computer to follow in order to process data. See also Software. 51-random access memory Volatile, temporary storage that holds the program and data the CPU is presently processing. It is called temporary storage because its contents will be lost if electrical power to the computer is disrupted or the computer is turned off. 52-secondary storage device These devices are used to save, backup and transport files from one location or computer to another. 53-service program Another word for Utility. It performs specific tasks related to managing computer resources. 54-specialized application Programs that are narrowly focused on specific disciplines and occupations. Some of the best known are multimedia, Web authoring, graphics, virtual reality and artificial intelligence. 55-software Computer program consisting of step-by-step instructions, directing the computer on each task it will perform. 56-special purpose application Programs that are narrowly focused on specific disciplines and occupations. Some of the best known are multimedia, Web authoring, graphics, virtual reality and artificial intelligence. 57-supercomputer Fastest calculating device ever invented, processing billions of program instructions per second. Used by very large organizations like NASA. 58-system cabinet Also known as the chassis, which is a container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system. 59-system software "Background" software that enables the application software to interact with the computer. Consists of the operating system, utilities, device drivers and language translators. 60-system unit Part of a microcomputer that contains the CPU. Also known as the system cabinet or chassis and is the container that houses most of the electronic components that make up the computer system. 61-tablet PC A type of notebook computer that accepts handwritten data using a stylus or pen, which is converted to standard text and can be processed by a word processor program. 50

62-temporary storage Type of storage that will lose its contents if electrical power to the computer is disrupted. RAM is this kind of memory. 63-utility Performs specific tasks related to managing computer resources or files. Also known as service programs. 64-video display screen Output device like a television screen that displays data processed by the computer. 65-Web A service providing a multimedia interface to resources on the Internet 66-wireless revolution A revolution that is expected to dramatically affect the way we communicate and use computer technology. 67-worksheet file Also known as spreadsheet or sheet and is a rectangular grid of rows and columns used in programs like Excel. 68-World Wide Web Made it possible to provide a multimedia interface to the internet, which included graphics, animations, sound, or video. 69-Address Located in the header of an e-mail message, the e-mail address of the persons sending, receiving, and optionally, anyone else who is to receive copies. 70-ARPANET A national computer network from which the Internet developed. 71-Anti-spam program A program that uses a variety of different approaches to identify and eliminate spam. 72-Applet Web pages contain links to programs called applets, written in a programming language called Java. These programs are used to add interest to a Web site by presenting animation, displaying graphics, providing interactive games, etc. 73-Attachment A file, such as a document or worksheet, that is attached to an e-mail message. 74-auction house site Web sites that operate like a traditional auction to sell merchandise to bidders. 75-browser Special Internet software connecting you to remote computers, opens and transfers files, displays text and images, and provides an uncomplicated interface to the Internet and Web documents. Examples are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. 76-buddy A list of friends registered with an instant messaging server. Also known as a contact. 77-business-to-business (B2B) 50

A type of electronic commerce that involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. 78-business-to-consumer (B2C) Type of electronic commerce that involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. 79-cable Cords used to connect input and output devices to the system unit. 80-cybercash Currency for Internet purchases. Also known as e-cash. Buyers purchase e-cash from a third party (a bank that specializes in electronic currency) by transferring funds from their banks 81-Carder Criminal who steals credit cards over the Internet. 82-Center for European Nuclear In Switzerland, where the Web was introduced in 1992. 83-Channel A topic for discussion in a chat group. 84-chat group An online discussion group that allows direct"live" communication. 85-client A node that requests and uses resources available from other nodes. 86-client-server network Network in which one powerful computer coordinates and supplies services to all other nodes on the network. 87-commerce server Programs for creating Web sites for virtual stores. 88-computer virus Destructive programs that can come in e-mail attachments and spam. 89-consumer-to-consumer (C2C) A type of electronic commerce that involves individuals selling to individuals. 90-contact A list of friends registered with an instant messaging server. Also known as a friend.

91-Cybermall A place to visit on the Internet that provides access to a variety of different stores where you can make purchases. 92-dial-up Method of accessing the Internet using a high-speed modem and standard telephone lines. 93-digital cash

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Currency for Internet purchases. Also known as e-cash. Buyers purchase e-cash from a third party (a bank that specializes in electronic currency) by transferring funds from their banks. 94-e-learning A web application allowing anyone to take classes on any subject and at all levels on the Internet. 95-directory search A search engine option that provides a list of categories or topics to choose from, such as Arts and Humanities, Business and Economics, or Computers and Internet, that help you narrow your search until a list of Web sites appears. 96-discussion group Using e-mail to communicate in groups with people you do not know, but with whom you would like to share ideas and interests. 97-domain code Last part of an Internet address, which identifies the geographical description or organizational identification. 98-domain name The second part of the URL and is the name of the server where the resource is located. 99-downloading Process of transferring information from a remote computer to the computer one is using. 100-DSL Provides high-speed connection using existing telephone lines. 101-e-cash Currency for Internet purchases. Also known as cybercash. Buyers purchase cybercash from a third party (a bank that specializes in electronic currency) by transferring funds from their banks. 102-e-commerce Buying and selling goods over the Internet. 103-electronic cash Currency for Internet purchases. Also known as cybercash. Buyers purchase cybercash from a third party (a bank that specializes in electronic currency) by transferring funds from their banks. 104-electronic commerce Buying and selling of goods over the Internet. 105- protocol Rules for exchanging data between computers. The protocol http:// is the most common. 106-electronic mail Transmission of electronic messages over the Internet. Also known as e-mail. 107-e-mail Transmission of electronic messages over the Internet. Also known as electronic mail. 108-file transfer protocol (FTP) Internet service for uploading and downloading files. 50

109-filter Program to block selected Web sites, set time limits, monitor use, and generates reports on use. For example, programs parents will use to block children from selected sites. 110-friend A list of contacts registered with an instant messaging server. Also known as a buddy. 111-header In a typical e-mail, it appears first and includes addresses, subject, and attachments. 112-hits The sites that a search engine returns after running a keyword search, ordered from most likely to least likely to contain the information requested. 113-hyperlink Connection or link to other documents or Web Pages that contain related information. 114-Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Programming language that creates document files used to display Web pages. 115-index search A search engine option that provides a directory or list of categories or topics to choose from, such as Arts and Humanities, Business and Economics, or Computers and Internet, that help you narrow your search until a list of Web sites appears. 116-instant messaging (IM) A program allowing communication and collaboration for direct,"live," connections over the Internet between two or more people. 117-Internet A huge computer network available to everyone with a microcomputer and a means to connect to it. It is the actual physical network of the Web, made up of wires, cables and satellites. 118-Internet Service Provider (ISP) Provides access to the Internet 119-Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Leading type of chat group service 120-Java Programming language for creating special programs like applets. 121-Junk Mail Filter A program that uses a variety of different approaches to identify and eliminate spam. 122-keyword search A type of search option that causes the search engine to compare your entry against its database and return with a list of sites, or hits, that contain the keyword you entered. 123-link A connection to related information. 124-list address 50

In discussion groups, members of a mailing list communicate by sending messages to this. Each message is then copied and sent via e-mail to every member of the mailing list. 125-location A uniform resource locator or URL necessary for browsers to connect to resources. 126-lurking Before you submit a contribution to a discussion group, it is recommended that you observe or read the communications from others. This observing process is called lurking. 127-mailing list In discussion groups, members on this list can communicate by sending messages to a list address. 128-message The content portion of e-mail correspondence. 129-metasearch engine Program that automatically submits your search request to several indices and search engines, and then creates an index from received information. One of the best known is MetaCrawler. 130-national service provider Internet service providers, such as America Online (AOL), that provide access through standard telephone connections and allow users to access the Internet from almost anywhere within the country for a standard fee. 131-Net Launched in 1969, it is a large network that connects smaller networks all over the world. Also known as the Internet. 132-Newsgroup Organized by major topic areas and use the UseNet network. 133-Online Being connected to the Internet. 134-person-to-person auction site A type of Web auction site where the owner provides a forum for numerous buyers and sellers to gather. 135-plug-in Program that is automatically loaded and operates as part of a browser. 136- regional service provider An Internet service provider provides access through standard telephone connections in a specific area, typically several states, for a standard fee. If users access the Internet from outside the regional area, they incur longdistance connection charges. 137-search engine Specialized programs assisting in locating information on the Web and the Internet. 138-search provider 50

Organizations that maintain databases relating to information provided on the Internet that also provide search engines to locate information. 139-search service Organizations that maintain databases relating to information provided on the Internet that also provide search engines to locate information. 140-server A host computer with a connection to the Internet that stores document files used to display web pages. Depending on the resources shared, it may be called a file server, printer server, communication server, Web server, or database server. 141-signature line Provides additional information about a sender of an e-mail message, such as name, address, and telephone number. 142-spam Unwelcome and unsolicited e-mail that can carry attached viruses. 143-spam blocker A program that uses a variety of different approaches to identify and eliminate spam. 144-specialized search engine Search engines that focus on subject-specific Web sites. 145-spider Programs that continually look for new information to update search engines and databases. 146-subject Located in the head of an e-mail message, a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. 147-subscription address Mailing list address. To participate in a mailing list, you must first subscribe by sending an e-mail request to the mailing list subscription address. 148-surf Moving from one Web site to another. 149-Telnet Internet service that helps you to connect to another computer (host) on the Internet and log on to that computer as if you were on a terminal in the next room. 150-Top level domain The part of a URL indicating the name of the server where a resource is located. 151-uniform resource locator (URL) For browsers to connect you to resources on the Web, the location or address of the resources must be specified. These addresses are called URLs. 152-universal instant messenger An instant messaging service that communicates with any other messaging service programs. 50

153-uploading Process of transferring information from the computer the user is operating to a remote computer. 154-UseNet Special network of computers that supports newsgroups. 155-virtual library Visit libraries on the Internet, read selected items, and check out books. 156-Web A service providing a multimedia interface to resources on the Internet. See also World Wide Web. 157-Web auction Similar to traditional auctions except that buyers and sellers meet only on the Web. Ebay is one example. 158-Webcrawler Programs that continually look for new information to update search engines and databases. 159-Web page Browsers interpret HTML documents to display Web pages. 160-Web server Dedicated server that houses internal and external web page information. 161-Web storefront Virtual stores where shoppers can go to inspect goods and make purchases. 162-Web storefront creation package Programs for creating Web sites for virtual stores. 163-Web utility Specialized utility program that makes the Internet and the Web easier and safer. Some examples are plug-ins that operate as part of a browser, filters that block access and monitor use of selected Web sites, and many more. 164-wireless modem Modem connecting to the serial port but does not connect to telephone lines. It receives through the air. 165-wireless service provider Provides Internet connections for computers with wireless modems and a wide array of wireless devices. They do not use telephone lines. 166-World Wide Web Introduced in 1992 and prior to the Web, the Internet was all text. The Web made it possible to provide a multimedia interface, which included graphics, animations, sound, or video. Often abbreviated to WWW. 167-WWW World Wide Web. Introduced in 1992 and prior to the Web, the Internet was all text. The Web made it possible to provide a multimedia interface, which included graphics, animations, sound, or video. 168-analytical graph Form of graphics used to put numeric data into objects that are easier to analyze, such as bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. 50

169-application service providers Provides access to a wide range of application programs on the Internet and generally charges for their service. 170-application software Software that can perform useful work, such as word processing, cost estimating, or accounting tasks. The user primarily interacts with application software. 171-basic applications Applications used for doing common tasks, such as browsers and word processors, spreadsheets, databases, management systems and presentation graphics. Also known as productivity applications. 172-bulleted list The sequence of topics arranged on a page and organized by bullets. 173-business suite Software suites that contain professional grade application programs including word processing, spreadsheet and more. A good example is Microsoft Office. 174-button A special area you can click to make links that"navigate" through a presentation. 175-cell The space created by the intersections of a vertical column and a horizontal row within worksheets in a program like Microsoft Excel. A cell can contain text or numeric entries. 176-character effect Change appearance of font characters by using bold, italic, shadows, and colors. 177-chart Displaying numerical data in a work sheet as a pie chart or a bar chart, making it easier to understand. 178-column Using Microsoft Excel for example, a vertical block of cells is one cell wide all the way down the worksheet. 179-database A collection of related information, like employee names, addresses and phone numbers. It is organized in a way that a computer program can quickly select the desired pieces of information and display them for you. 180-database management system (DBMS) To organize, manage and retrieve data. DBMS programs have five subsystems: DBMS engine, data definition, data manipulation, applications generation, and data administration. An example of a database management system is Microsoft Access. 181-database manager Software package used to set up, or structure, a database such as an inventory list of supplies. It also provides tools to edit, enter, and retrieve data from the database. 182-destination file 50

A document in which a linked object is inserted. The object is created in the source file and then inserted into the new file, called the destination file. 183-dialog box Provides additional information and requests user input. 184-document Any kind of text material. 185-drop-down menu List of options or commands associated with the selected menu. 186-editing Features that modify a document such as using a Thesaurus, find and replace, or spell check. 187-field Each column of information within a record is called a field. A field contains related information on a specific item like employee names within a company department. 188-find and replace An editing tool that finds a selected word or phrase and replaces it with another. Click edit, find. 189-font Also known as typeface. A set of characters with a specific design. 190-font size The height of a character measured in points with each point being 1/22 inch. 191-form Electronic forms reflecting the contents of one record or table. Primarily used to enter new records or make changes to existing records. 192-format Features that change the appearance of a document like font, font sizes, character effects, alignment, and bulleted and numbered lists. 193-formula Instructions for calculations in a spreadsheet. It is an equation that performs calculations on the data contained within the cells in a worksheet or spreadsheet. 194-function A built-in formula in a spreadsheet that performs calculations automatically. 195-general-purpose applications Applications used for doing common tasks, such as browsers and word processors, spreadsheets, databases, management systems and presentation graphics. 196-grammar checker In word processing, a tool that identifies poorly worded sentences and incorrect grammar. 197-graphical user interface (GUI) Special screen that allows software commands to be issued through the use of graphic symbols (icons) or pull-down menus. 198-Help 50

A feature in most application software providing options that typically include an index, a glossary, and a search feature to locate reference information about specific commands. 199-home software A single program providing functionality of a collection of programs but is not as extensive as a specialized program like Microsoft Word. Popular with home users who are willing to sacrifice some advanced features for lower cost and simplicity. 200-home suite Contain personal software applications or programs intended for home use like Microsoft Works Suite. 201-icons Graphic objects on the desktop used to represent programs and other files. 202-integrated package A single program providing functionality of a collection of programs but is not as extensive as a specialized program like Microsoft Word. Popular with home users who are willing to sacrifice some advanced features for lower cost and simplicity. 203-label Provides structure to a worksheet by describing the contents of the rows and columns. See Text entry. 204-master slide A special slide that does not appear in a presentation but controls all the formats and placement of all slides in a presentation. The design template can be changed for an entire presentation using a master slide. 205-menu List of commands. 206-menu bar Menus are displayed in a menu bar at the top of the screen. 207-numbered list Sequence of steps or topics on a page organized by numbers. 208-numeric entry In a worksheet or spreadsheet, typically used to identify numbers or formulas. 209-object embedding The object from the source file, like a chart, is embedded and added to the destination document. It then becomes part of the destination document. 210-object linking A copy of the object from the source file that is inserted into another document or file. 211-object linking and embedding Powerful feature of many application programs that allows sharing of information. 212-personal software A single program providing functionality of a collection of programs but is not as extensive as a specialized program like Microsoft Word. Popular with home 50

users who are willing to sacrifice some advanced features for lower cost and simplicity. 213-personal suite Contains personal software applications or programs intended for home use like Microsoft Works Suite. 214-pointer For a monitor, a pointer is typically displayed as an arrow and controlled by a mouse. For a database, a pointer is a connection between parent node and child node in a hierarchical database. 215-presentation graphic Graphics used to combine a variety of visual objects to create attractive and interesting presentations. 216- recalculation If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet, all related formulas will automatically recalculate and charts will be recreated. 217-productivity suite Software suites that contain professional grade application programs including word processing, spreadsheet and more. A good example is Microsoft Office. 218-pull-down menu List of options or commands associated with the selected menu. Also known as drop-down menu. 219-query A question or request for specific data contained in a database. Used to analyze data.. 220-range A series of continuous cells in a worksheet. 221-record Each row of information in a database is a record. Each record contains fields of data about some specific item, like employee name, address and phone, etc. A record represents a collection of attributes describing an entity. 222-relational database A widely used database structure, in which data is organized into related tables. Each table is made up of rows called records and columns called fields. 223-report Can be lists of fields in a table or selected fields based on a query. Typical examples include sales summaries, phone lists, and mailing labels. 224-row A horizontal block of cells one cell high all the way across the worksheet. 225-sheet A rectangular grid of rows and columns used in programs like Excel. 226-slide A PowerPoint presentation is made up of many slides shown in different views and presentation styles. 227-software suite Individual application programs that are sold together as a group. 50

228-sort Tool that rearranges a table's records numerically or alphabetically according to a selected field. 229-source file The document that stores the data for the linked object. 230-specialized applications Programs that are narrowly focused on specific disciplines and occupations. Some of the best known are multimedia, Web authoring, graphics, virtual reality and artificial intelligence. 231-specialized suite A software suite that focuses on specific applications. Examples include graphics suites, financial planning suites, and many others. 232-spelling checker Program used with a word processor to check the spelling of typed text against an electronic dictionary. 233-spreadsheet Based on the traditional accounting"worksheet", this has rows and columns used to present and analyze data. 234-standard toolbar A collection of buttons used as shortcuts to the most frequently used menu commands, like save and print. 235-system software "Background" software that enables the application software to interact with the computer. System software consists of the operating system, utilities, device drivers and language translators. It works with application software to handle the majority of technical details. 236-speech recognition The ability to accept voice input to select menu options and to dictate text. 237-special-purpose applications Programs that are narrowly focused on specific disciplines and occupations. Some of the best known are multimedia, Web Authoring, graphics, virtual reality and artificial intelligence. 238-table The list of records in a database. They make up the basic structure of a database. Their columns display field data and their rows display records. 239-text entry In a worksheet or spreadsheet, a text entry is typically used to identify or label information entered into a cell as opposed to numbers and formulas. Also known as labels. 240-Thesaurus An editing tool that provides synonyms, antonyms, and related words for a selected word or phrase. 241-Toolbar Bar located typically below the menu bar containing icons or graphical representations for commonly used commands. 50

242-user interface Means by which users interact with application programs and hardware. A window is displayed with information for the user to enter or choose, and that is how you as a user communicate with the program. 243-utility suite A program that combines several utilities in one package to improve system performance. McAfee Office and Norton System Works are examples. 244-Web-based application Special Web sites that allow access to application programs. 245-what-if analysis Spreadsheet feature in which changing one or more numbers results in the automatic recalculation of all related formulas. 246-window A rectangular area containing a document or message. 247-word processor The computer and the program allow you to create, edit, save, and print documents composed of text. 248-word wrap Feature of word processing that automatically moves the cursor from the end of one line to the beginning of the next. 249-workbook file Contains one or more related worksheets or spreadsheets. See Spreadsheet. 250-worksheet A rectangular grid of rows and columns used in programs like Excel. 251-Animation Feature involving special visual and sound effects like moving pictures, audio, and video clips that play automatically when selected. 252-artificial intelligence (AI) A field of computer science that attempts to develop computer systems that can mimic or simulate human thought processes and actions. 253-artificial reality nteractive sensory equipment (headgear and gloves) allowing users to experience alternative realities generated in 3-D by a computer, thus imitating the physical world. 254-audio editing software Allows you to create and edit audio clips like filtering out pops and scratches in an old recording. 255-bitmap image Graphic file in which images are made up of thousands of dots (pixels). See Paint programs. 256-brush Used to fill an area or object with a color. 257-buttons 50

A special area you can click to make links that"navigate" through a presentation. 258-clip art Graphic illustrations representing a wide variety of topics. 259-desktop publishing program Program that allows you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality. 260-drawing program Program used to help create artwork for publications. See also Illustration program. 261-expert systems Computer program that provides advice to decision makers who would otherwise rely on human experts. It's a type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to provide assistance to users. 262-Flash An interactive animation program from Macromedia that is usually full screen and highly dynamic, displaying moving text or complicated interactive features. 263-fuzzy logic Used by expert systems to allow users to respond by using qualitative terms, such as great and OK. 264-graphical map Diagram of a Web site's overall design. 265-graphics suite Group of graphics programs offered at lower cost than if purchased separately like CorelDraw. 266-HTML editors Word processing program for generating Web pages. Widely used examples include Macromedia Dreamweaver and Microsoft FrontPage. 267-illustration program Also known as drawing programs and are used to create digital illustrations, modify vector images and thus create line art, 3-D models, and virtual reality. 268-image gallery
Libraries of electronic images.

269-immersive experience Allows the user to walk into a virtual reality room or view simulations on a virtual reality wall. 270-industrial robots Robots used in factories to perform a variety of tasks. For example, machines used in automobile plants to do painting and polishing. 271-interactivity User participation in a multimedia presentation. 272-knowledge bases A system that uses a database containing specific facts, rules to relate these facts, and user input to formulate recommendations and decisions. 50

273-knowledge-based system Programs duplicating human knowledge. It's like capturing the knowledge of a human expert and making it accessible through a computer program. 274-links A connection to related information. 275-mobile robots Robots that act as transports. For example, the police use them to locate and disarm explosive devices. 276-morphing Special effect in which one image seems to melt into another. 277-multimedia Technology that can link all sorts of media into one form of presentation, such as video, music, voice, graphics and text. 278-multimedia authoring programs Programs used to create multimedia presentations bringing together video, audio, graphics and text elements into an interactive framework. Macromedia Director, Authorware, and Toolbook are examples of multimedia authoring programs. 279-page layout program Program that allows you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality. 280-perception systems Robots that imitate some of the human senses. 281-pixel Smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades. Pixels are individual dots that form images on a monitor. The greater the resolution, the more pixels creating better clarity. 282-raster image Graphic file in which images are made up of thousands of dots (pixels). See Paint programs. 283-robotics Field of study concerned with developing and using robots. 284-robots Computer-controlled machines that mimic the motor activities of living things, and some can solve unstructured problems using artificial intelligence. 285-stock photographs Photographs on a variety of subject material from professional models to natural landscapes. 286-story boards Design tool for planning the overall logic, flow and structuring of a multimedia presentation. 287-structured problem A problem which can be broken down into a series of well-defined steps. 288-unstructured problem A problem that requires the use of intuition, reasoning, and memory. 50

289-vector illustration Graphics file made up of a collection of objects such as lines, rectangles, and ovals. Vector images are more flexible than bitmaps because they can be stretched and resized. Illustration programs create and manipulate vector graphics. Also known as vector image. 290-vector image Graphics file made up of a collection of objects such as lines, rectangles, and ovals. Vector images are more flexible than bitmaps because they can be stretched and resized. Illustration programs create and manipulate vector graphics. Also known as vector illustration. 291-video editing software Allows you to reorganize, add effects, and more to your video footage. 292-virtual environments Interactive environment allowing users to experience alternative realities generated in 3-D by a computer. 293-virtual reality Interactive sensory equipment (headgear and gloves) allowing users to experience alternative realities generated in 3-D by a computer, thus imitating the physical world. 294-virtual reality modeling language Used to create real-time animated 3-D scenes. 295-virtual reality wall An immersive experience whereby you are viewing simulations on a virtual reality wall in stereoscopic vision. 296-VR Interactive sensory equipment (headgear and gloves) allowing users to experience alternative realities generated in 3-D by a computer, thus imitating the physical world. 297-Web authoring Creating a Web site. 298-Web authoring program Word processing program for generating Web pages. Widely used examples include Macromedia Dreamweaver and Microsoft FrontPage. 299-Web log An easily updated personal page used as a diary of events. Some are used for business or advocacy capacities but the majority are personal sites that share feelings and experiences in a public forum. 300-Web page editor Word processing program for generating Web pages. Widely used examples include Macromedia Dreamweaver and Microsoft FrontPage. 301-Add Printer Wizard Provides step-by-step guidance for selecting the appropriate printer driver and installing that driver. 302-Antivirus Programs that guard a computer system from viruses or other damaging programs. 50

303-Application Programs, such as word processing and spreadsheets. 304-Aqua As part of the Mac OS X operating system, Aqua is an instinctual user interface providing photo-quality icons and easy-to-use menus. 305-Background Programs you are not using are running in the background. 306-Backup A utility program that helps protect you from the affects of a disk failure by making a copy of selected or all files that have been saved onto a disk. 307-backup program A utility program that helps protect you from the affects of a disk failure by making a copy of selected or all files that have been saved onto a disk. 308-booting Starting or restarting your computer. 309-character based interface In older operating systems the user communicated with the operating system through written commands such as"Copy A: assign.doc to C:". 310-client operating system A type of desktop operating system that works with a network's operating system (NOS) to share and coordinate resources. 311-cold boot Starting the computer after it has been turned off. 312-computer virus Destructive programs that can come in e-mail attachments and spam. 313-desktop The screen that is displayed on the monitor when the computer starts up. All items and icons on the screen are considered to be on your desktop and are used to interact with the computer. 314-desktop operating system Also called desktop operating systems, a type of operating system that controls a single desktop or notebook computer. 315-device driver Every device that is connected to the computer has a special program associated with it called a device driver, which allows communication between the operating system and the device. 316-diagnostic utility A utility program that recognizes and corrects computer-related problems before they become serious. Also called diagnostic programs. 317-dialog box Provides additional information and requests user input. 318-Disk Cleanup A windows troubleshooting utility that eliminates nonessential files. 319-Disk Defragmenter 50

Windows utility that optimizes disk performance by eliminating unnecessary fragments and by rearranging files. 320-Dock The Mac OS X operating system features the"Dock" which is a new way of visually organizing applications, documents, Web sites, and more. 321-Driver Every device that is connected to the computer has a special program associated with it called a device driver, which allows communication between the operating system and the device. 322-embedded operating systems An operating system that is completely stored within the ROM (read only memory) memory of the device that it is in; used for hand-held computers and smaller devices like PDAs. 323-file A collection of related records that can store data and programs. Such as, the payroll file would include payroll information (records) for all of the employees (entities). 324-file compression utility Programs that reduce the size of files so as to require less storage on the computer and can be sent more efficiently over the Internet. Examples of such programs are Win Zip and Wizard. 325-folder A named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. 326-foreground Programs you are currently working in are running in the foreground. 327-fragmented Storage technique that breaks up large files and stores the parts wherever space is available in adjacent sectors and clusters. 328-graphical user interface (GUI) Special screen that allows software commands to be issued through the use of graphic symbols (icons) or pull-down menus. 329-Help A feature in most application software providing options that typically include an index, a glossary, and a search feature to locate reference information about specific commands. 330-Icon Graphic objects on the desktop used to represent programs and other files. 331-language translator Converts programming instructions into a machine language that can be processed by a computer. 332-Linux Type of Unix operating system, initially developed by Linus Torvald, designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now powerful microcomputers and servers on the Web use it. 333-Luna 50

Windows XP new user interface emphasizes functions over programs. For example, the new Start menu displays categories like E-Mail and Internet, rather than individual programs such as Outlook and Internet Explorer. 334-Mac OS Operating system designed for Macintosh computers. 335-Mac OS X Macintosh operating system featuring a user interface called Aqua. 336-Menu List of commands. 337-Multitasking Operating system that allows a single user to run several application programs at the same time. 338-network operating systems Interactive software between applications and computers coordinating and directing activities between computers on a network. This operating system is located on one of the connected computer's hard disk, making that system the Network Server. 339-network server Interactive software between applications and computers coordinating and directing activities between computers on a network. This operating system is located on one of the connected computer's hard disk, making that system the Network Server. 340-non-proprietary operating system Free operating systems as opposed to being owned by a corporation and are called open source programs. For example Linux is an open source program. 341-One Button Checkup This program integrates several of the separate troubleshooting utilities from Norton Utilities. 342-open source Free operating systems as opposed to being owned by a corporation and are called open source programs. For example Linux is an open source program. 343-operating system Software that interacts between application software and the computer, handling such details as running programs, storing and processing data, coordinating all computer resources including attached peripheral devices. It is the most important program on the computer. Windows XP and Mac OS X are examples of operating systems. 344-platform Handheld direct-entry device used to read special characters on price tags. Also known as Wand Readers. 345-pointer For a monitor, a pointer is typically displayed as an arrow and controlled by a mouse. For a database, a pointer is a connection between parent node and child node in a hierarchical database. 346-proprietary operating system A network operating system that is owned and licensed by a company. 50

347-resource These programs coordinate all system resources that include the keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor, storage devices, and memory. They also monitor system performance, schedule jobs, provide security, and start the computer. 348-sectors Section shaped like a pie wedge that divides the tracks on a disk. 349-service program Another word for Utilities. They perform specific tasks related to managing computer resources. 350-Sherlock In the Mac OS X operating system, Sherlock locates information on the web as well as the user's computer system. 351-software environment Operating system also known as software platform consisting of a collection of programs to handle technical details depending on the type of operating system. For example, software designed to run on an Apple computer is compatible with Mac OS environment. 352-software platform Operating system also known as software platform consisting of a collection of programs to handle technical details depending on the type of operating system. For example, software designed to run on an Apple computer is compatible with Mac OS environment. 353-stand-alone operating system Also called desktop operating systems, a type of operating system that controls a single desktop or notebook computer. 354-Start menu A Windows menu listing commands used to gain access to information, change hardware settings, find information, get online help, run programs, log off a network, and shut down the computer system. 355-system software "Background" software that enables the application software to interact with the computer. System software consists of the operating system, utilities, device drivers and language translators. It works with application software to handle the majority of technical details. 356-track Closed, concentric ring on a disk on which data is recorded. 357-troubleshooting utility A utility program that recognizes and corrects computer-related problems before they become serious. Also called diagnostic programs. 358-uninstall utility Program that allows you to safely and completely remove unneeded programs and related files from your hard disk. 359-UNIX 50

An operating system originally developed for minicomputers. It is now important because it can run on many of the more powerful microcomputers. 360-user interface Means by which users interact with application programs and hardware. A window is displayed with information for the user to enter or choose, and that is how you as a user communicate with the program. 361-utility Performs specific tasks related to managing computer resources or files. Norton Utility for virus control and system maintenance is a good example of a utility. Also known as service programs. 362-utility suite A program that combines several utilities in one package to improve system performance. McAfee Office and Norton System Works are examples. 363-warm boot Restarting your computer while the computer is already on and the power is not turned off. 364-window A rectangular area containing a document or message. 365-Windows An operating environment extending the capability of DOS. 366-Windows Windows wizard used to update the drivers on your computer. 367-Windows XP The most recent Windows operating system featuring a user interface called Luna. 368-AC adapter Notebook computers use AC adapters that are typically outside the system unit. They plug into a standard wall outlet, convert AC to DC, provide power to drive the system components and can recharge batteries. 369-accelerated graphics port (AGP) A type of bus line that is dedicated to the acceleration of graphics performance. 370-adapter card Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 371-advanced transfer cache Built into the microprocessor providing faster responses than cache located on the system board. 372-alternating current (AC) Current from standard wall outlets. 373-analog Signals that represent a range of frequencies, such as the human voice. They are a continuous electronic wave signal as opposed to a digital signal that is either on or off. To convert the digital signals of your computer to analog and 50

vice versa, you need a modem. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. 374-arithmetic operation Fundamental math operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. 375-arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) The part of the CPU that performs arithmetic and logical operations. 376-ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Binary coding scheme widely used on all computers, including microcomputers. Eight bits form each byte, and each byte represents one character. 377-binary coding scheme The representation of characters as 0s and 1s, or"off" and"on" electrical states, in a computer. Two of the most popular binary coding schemes use eight bits to form each byte as in the ASCII and EBCDIC codes. 378-binary system Numbering system in which all numbers consist of only two digits; 0 and 1. 379-bit (binary digit) Each 1 or 0 is a bit, short for binary digit. 380-bus Electronic data roadway, connecting the parts of the CPU to each other and linking the CPU with other important hardware, along which bits travel. The common connecting cable in a bus network. 381-bus line Electronic data roadway, connecting the parts of the CPU to each other and linking the CPU with other important hardware, along which bits travel. The common connecting cable in a bus network. 382-bus width The number of bits traveling simultaneously down a bus is the bus width. 383-byte Unit consisting of eight bits. There are 256 possible bit combinations in a byte and each byte represents one character. 384-cable Cords used to connect input and output devices to the system unit. 385-cache memory Area of random-access memory (RAM) set aside to store the most frequently accessed information. Cache memory improves processing by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between memory and CPU allowing the computer to detect which information in RAM is most frequently used. 386-carrier package The material that chips are mounted on which then plug into sockets on the system board. 387-central processing unit (CPU) Part of the computer that holds data and program instructions for processing the data. The CPU consists of the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit. In a 50

microcomputer, the CPU is on a single electronic component called a microprocessor chip. 388-chassis The metal casing that houses the computer components. See System Unit. 389-chip A tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. A chip is also called a silicon chip, semiconductor, or integrated circuit. 390-clock rate It is measured in gigahertz or billions of beats per second. The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can process information and execute instructions. 391-clock speed Also called clock rate. It is measured in gigahertz or billions of beats per second. The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can process information and execute instructions. 392-closed architecture Computer manufactured in such a way that users cannot easily add new devices. 393-complex instruction set The most common type of microprocessor that has thousands of programs written specifically for it. Intel's Pentium and Itanium are CISC chips. 394-complementary metal-oxide A CMOS chip provides flexibility and expandability for a computer system. Unlike RAM, it does not lose its contents if power is turned off and unlike ROM, its contents can be changed. 395-control unit Section of the CPU that tells the rest of the computer how to carry out program instructions. 396-controller card Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 397-convertible tablet PC Notebook computer with a monitor that swivels and folds onto its keyboard. 398-coprocessor Specialized processing chips designed to improve specific computer operations such as the graphics coprocessor. 399-desktop system unit A system unit that typically contains the system's electronic components and selected secondary storage devices. Input and output devices, such as the mouse, keyboard, and monitor, are located outside the system unit. 400-digital Computers are digital machines because they can only understand one's and zeros. It is either on or off. For example, a digital watch states the exact time on the face, whereas an analog watch has the second hand moving in constant motion as it tells the time. 50

401-direct current (DC) All computer hardware requires direct current (DC) to power their electronic components. DC power is provided by converting alternating current (AC) from standard outlets using a power supply or directly from batteries. 402-EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Binary coding schemes that are a standard for minicomputers and mainframe computers. 403-expansion bus Connects the CPU to slots on the system board. There are different types of expansion buses such as Industry standard architecture (ISA), Peripheral component interconnect (PCI), Accelerated graphics port (AGP), Universal bus (USB) and FireWire buses. Se 404-expansion card Connects the CPU to slots on the system board. There are different types of expansion buses such as Industry standard architecture (ISA), Peripheral component interconnect (PCI), Accelerated graphics port (AGP), Universal bus (USB) and FireWire buses. Se 405-expansion slot Slots in the system board that allow users to expand their systems by inserting expansion cards. 406-FireWire bus They operate much like USB buses on the system board but at higher speeds. 407-FireWire port Used to connect high-speed printers and even video cameras to system unit. 408-Firmware Refers to chips that have programs built into them at the factory. The user cannot change the contents of such chips. The CPU can read or retrieve the programs on the chip but cannot write or change information. 409-flash memory A solid-state storage device widely used in notebook computers. Flash memory is also used in a variety of specialized input devices to capture and transfer data to desktop computers. 410-flash RAM RAM chips that retain data even when power is disrupted. Flash RAM is an example of solid-state storage and is typically used to store digitized images and record MP3 files. 411-gigahertz Billions of beats per second. 412-graphics card They connect the system board to the computer monitor. The card converts the internal electronic signals to video signals so they can be displayed on the monitor. 413-graphics coprocessor Designed to handle requirements related to displaying and manipulating 2-D and 3-D graphic images. 50

414-handheld computer system unit These systems combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools and communications capabilities. They contain an entire computer system including the electronic components, secondary storage, input and output devices. 415-high performance serial bus They operate much like USB buses on the system board but at higher speeds. 416-high performance serial bus Also known as FireWire Ports and are faster than USB ports. They provide connections to specialized HPSB devices, such as camcorders. 417-industry standard architecture Bus-line standard developed for the IBM Personal Computer. It first consisted of an 8-bit-wide data path, then a 16-bit-wide data path. See Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI). 418-integrated circuit Tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. Chips are mounted on carrier packages, which then plug into sockets on the system board. 419-Intel-compatible Chips referred to as Intel-compatible processors, are able to process programs originally written for Intel chips. Examples are Athlon and Hammer. 420-interface card Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 421-internal modem The internal modem consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. See Modem card. 422-laptop Portable computer, also known as laptop computer, weighing between 4 and 10 pounds. 423-logical operation Comparing two pieces of data to see whether one is equal to (=), less than (<), or greater than (>) the other. 424-main board Flat board that usually contains the CPU and memory chips connecting all systems components to one another. 425-memory Contained on chips connected to the system board and is a holding area for data instructions and information (processed data waiting to be output to secondary storage). RAM, ROM, and CMOS are three types. 426-microprocessor

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The central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer controls and manipulates data to produce information. The microprocessor is contained on a single integrated circuit chip and is the brains of the system. 427-microsecond One-millionth of a second. Computers process data and instructions in microseconds. 428-modem card Also known as an internal modem, a card that allows distant computers to communicate with one another by converting electronic signals from within the system unit into electronic signals that can travel over telephone lines and other types of connections 429-motherboard Otherwise called a System board; the communications medium for the entire system. 430-nanosecond Billionth of a second. 431-network adapter card Connects the system unit to a cable that connects to other devices on the network. 432-network interface card (NIC) Also known as Network Adapter Cards. They are used to connect a computer to one or more computers forming a communication network whereby users can share data, programs, and hardware. 433-nonvolatile storage Permanent storage, such as data stored on a disk, is used to preserve data and programs. Also called secondary storage because it does not lose its memory contents when the power goes off. 434-notebook system unit A small, portable system unit that contains electronic components, selected secondary storage devices and input devices. 435-open architecture Microcomputer architecture allowing users to expand their systems by inserting optional devices known as expansion cards. 436-palm computers These systems combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools and communications capabilities. They contain an entire computer system including the electronic components, secondary storage, input and output devices. 437-parallel port Used to connect external devices that send or receive data over a short distance. Mostly used to connect printers to the system unit. 438-parallel processing Used by supercomputers to run large and complex programs. See Parallel processor. 439-parallel processors 50

Works with one or more other parallel processor chips to run or process a large program by using software that takes a large program, breaks it down into parts and assigns the parts to separate processors. The processors then work simultaneously and share results. 440-PC card Credit card-sized expansion cards developed for portable computers. 441-peripheral component Bus architecture that combines the capabilities of MCA and EISA with the ability to send video instructions at speeds to match the microprocessor. PCI is a 32bit or 64-bit speed bus that is over 20 times faster than ISA bus. 442-PCMCIA card Personal Computer Memory Card International Association card. Credit cardsized expansion cards developed for portable computers. 443-personal digital assistant (PDA) A device that typically combines pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools, and communication capabilities in a very small package. Also called Handheld PC and palmtop computer. 444-picoseconds Trillionth of a second.(1 million=10,00,000)(1 billion=1,00,00,00,000)(1 trillion=1,00,00,00,00,000) 445-Plug and Play Set of hardware and software standards developed to create operating systems, processing units, expansion cards, as well as other devices that are able to configure themselves. When the computer starts up, it will search for the plug and play device and automatically configure it to the system. 446-plug-in board Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 447-port Connecting socket on the outside of the system unit. Used to connect input and output devices to the system unit. 448-power supply unit Desktop computers have a power supply unit located within the system unit which plugs into a standard wall outlet, converting AC to DC which becomes the power to drive all of the system unit components. 449-processor Part of the computer that holds data and program instructions for processing the data. The CPU consists of the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit. In a microcomputer, the CPU is on a single electronic component called a microprocessor chip. 450-RAM cache Area of random-access memory (RAM) set aside to store the most frequently accessed information. Cache memory improves processing by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between memory and CPU allowing the computer to detect which information in RAM is most frequently used. 50

451-random-access memory (RAM) Volatile, temporary storage that holds the program and data the CPU is presently processing. It is called temporary storage because its contents will be lost if electrical power to the computer is disrupted or the computer is turned off. 452-read-only memory (ROM) Refers to chips that have programs built into them at the factory. The user cannot change the contents of such chips. The CPU can read or retrieve the programs on the chip but cannot write or change information. 453-reduced instruction set computer Powerful microprocessor chip found in workstations. 454-semiconductor Silicon chip through which electricity flows with some resistance. 455-serial port Used to connect external devices that send or receive data one bit at a time over a long distance. Used for mouse, keyboard, modem, and many other devices. 456-silicon chip Tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. Chips are mounted on carrier packages, which then plug into sockets on the system board. 457-slate tablet PC Similar to a notebook computer except that its monitor is attached to the system unit and does not have a keyboard integrated into the system unit. 458-slot Area on a system board that accepts expansion cards to expand a computer system's capabilities. 459-smart card Card about the size of a credit card containing a tiny built-in microprocessor. It can be used to hold such information as personal identification, medical and financial knowledge, and credit card numbers. Information on this card is protected by a password, which offers security and privacy. 460-socket Provide connection points on the system board for holding electronic parts. 461-system board Flat board that usually contains the CPU and memory chips connecting all systems components to one another. 462-system bus There are two categories of buses. One is the system bus that connects the CPU on the system board. The other is the expansion bus that connects the CPU to slots on the system board. 463-system cabinet Also known as the Chassis, which is a container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system. See System unit. 464-system clock Clock that controls how fast all the operations within a computer take place. 50

465-system unit Part of a microcomputer that contains the CPU. Also known as the system cabinet or chassis and is the container that houses most of the electronic components that make up the computer system. 466-tablet PC A type of notebook computer that accepts handwritten data using a stylus or pen, which is converted to standard text and can be processed by a word processor program. 467-tablet PC system unit A type of notebook computer that accepts handwritten data using a stylus or pen, which is converted to standard text and can be processed by a word processor program. 468-television board Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 469-tower model Vertical system units are called tower models. 470-TV tuner card Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 471-two-state system Many forms of technology use a two-state system creating on/off, yes/no, or a present/absent arrangement. A magnetized spot on a tape or disk may have a positive or negative charge. This is the reason two-state or binary system represents computer instructions. 472-Type I card The thinnest PC card and used primarily to expand the notebook or handheld computer memory. 473-Type II card PC Card used for communication. They include modem cards and network interface cards. 474-Type III card Thickest of the PC cards, used to expand external storage and include hard disk cards. 475-Unicode A 16-bit code designed to support international languages, like Chinese and Japanese. 476-universal serial bus (USB) Combines with a PCI bus on the system board to support several external devices without inserting cards for each device. USB buses are used to support high-speed scanners, printers, and video capturing devices. 477-universal serial bus (USB) port Expected to replace serial and parallel ports. They are faster, and one USB port can be used to connect several devices to the system unit. 478-video capture card 50

Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 479-video card Also known as graphic cards. They connect the system board to the computer monitor. The cards convert the internal electronic signals to video signals so they can be displayed on the monitor. 480-video recorder card Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 481-virtual memory Feature of an operating system that increases the amount of memory available to run programs. With large programs, parts are stored on a secondary device like your hard disk. Then each part is read in RAM only when needed. 482-volatile storage Temporary storage that destroys the current data when power is lost or new data is read like RAM storage. 483-word Chip capacities are expressed in word sizes. A word is the number of bits (such as 16, 32, or 64) that can be accessed at one time by the CPU. 484-workstation Usually a powerful, high-end microcomputer, but any PC can be a workstation if set up correctly. Workstations have high quality graphics capabilities that can create animations for television by using engineering applications like CAD/CAM for example. Workstations are typically connected to a network but can also be a stand-alone computer. 485-active-matrix monitor Type of flat-panel monitor in which each pixel is independently activated. More colors with better clarity can be displayed; also known as thin film transistor (TFT) monitors. 486-all in one (AIO) device Devices that typically combine the capabilities of a scanner, printer, fax, and copying machine. 487-audio input The human voice and music are examples of audio input. See audio input device. 488-audio input device Converts sound into a form that can be processed by the computer. A microphone is an example of an audio input device. 489-bar code Code consisting of vertical zebra-striped marks printed on product containers, read with a barcode reader. 490-bar code reader
Photoelectric scanner that reads bar codes for processing.

491-bar code scanner Photoelectric scanner that reads bar codes for processing. 192-Braille keyboard 50

Use keys identified by raised dots. 493-cathode ray tube monitor (CRT) Desktop-type monitor built in the same way as a television set. The most common type of monitor for office and home use. These monitors are typically placed directly on the system unit or on the top of the desk. 495-character recognition device Specialty devices that are able to recognize special characters and marks. 496-clarity Indicated by the resolution, or amount of pixels, on a monitor. The greater the resolution, the better the clarity. 497-color capability Ability to choose between printing in black and white or color. 498-combination device Combines features of input devices such as scanners with features of output devices like printers. Also known as multifunctional devices such as fax machines, Internet telephony, and terminals. 499-combination key Keys such as the Ctrl key that perform an action when held down in combination with another key. 500-cordless mouse A battery-powered mouse that typically uses radio waves or infrared light waves to communicate with the system unit. Also known as wireless mouse. 501-data projector Specialized devices, similar to slide projectors, that connect to microcomputers and project computer output. 502-dictation mode Allows users to dictate text directly into a word document. 503-digital camera Similar to a traditional camera except that images are recorded digitally in the camera's memory rather than on film. 504-digital video camera Input device that records motion digitally. 505-dot pitch Distance between each pixel. The lower the dot pitch, the shorter the distance between pixels, and the higher the clarity of images produced. 506-dot-matrix printer A type of printer that forms characters and images using a series of small pins on a print head. Used where high-quality output is not required. 507-dots-per-inch (dpi) Printer resolution is measured in dpi. The higher the dpi, the better the quality of images produced. 508-download Process of transferring information from a remote computer to the computer one is using. 509-dual-scan monitor 50

Monitor that creates images by scanning the entire screen. This type requires little energy but clarity of images is not sharp. Also known as dual-scan monitors. 510-dumb terminal Terminal that can be used to input and receive data but cannot process data independently. It is used to gain access to information. An example is the type of terminals airline reservation clerks use. 511-e-book Handheld, book-sized devices that display text and graphics. Using content downloaded from the web or special cartridges, these devices are used to read newspapers, magazines and books. 512-e-book reader Handheld, book-sized devices that display text and graphics. Using content downloaded from the web or special cartridges, these devices are used to read newspapers, magazines and books. 513-ergonomic keyboard Keyboards designed specifically to alleviate wrist strain associated with the repetitive movements of typing. 514-facsimile (fax) machine Device that scans or prints an image and sends or receives it electronically over telephone lines. 515-flatbed scanner An input device similar to a copying machine. 516-flat-panel monitor Or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor. These monitors are much thinner than CRT's and can be used for desktop systems as well. 517-flexible keyboard A keyboard that folds or rolls up for easy packing or storage. 518-graphics tablet Records sketches and tracings using a special graphics surface or tablet and a special stylus. 519-handwriting recognition software Translates handwritten notes into a form that the system unit can process. 520-hard copy mages output on paper by a printer or plotter. 521-headphones Audio-output devices connected to a sound card in the system unit. The sound card is used to capture as well as play back recorded sound. 522-high-definition television (HDTV) All-digital television that delivers a much clearer and more detailed widescreen picture. 523-host computer Also called a server or provider and is a large centralized computer. 524-image capturing device 50

A device, such as a digital camera or a digital video camera, that creates or captures original images. 525-ink-jet printer Printer that sprays small droplets of ink at high speed onto the surface of the paper producing letter quality images and can print in color. 526-input Printer that sprays small droplets of ink at high speed onto the surface of the paper producing letter quality images and can print in color. 527-input device Piece of equipment that translates data into a form a computer can process. The most common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. 528-intelligent terminal Terminal that includes a processing unit, memory, secondary storage, communications software, and a telephone hook-up or other communication links. 529-Internet telephone Terminal that includes a processing unit, memory, secondary storage, communications software, and a telephone hook-up or other communication links. 530-Internet telephony Communication that uses the Internet rather than traditional communication lines to connect two or more people via telephone. 531-Internet terminal Provides access to the Internet and displays Web pages on a standard television set. Also called Web terminal. 532-IP Telephony Communication that uses the Internet rather than traditional communication lines to connect two or more people via telephone. 533-Joystick Popular input device for computer games. You control game actions by varying the pressure, speed, and direction of the joystick. 534-Keyboard Input device that looks like a typewriter keyboard but has additional keys. 535-Language bar Microsoft word 2003 supports voice recognition. Using Word 2003's language bar, you can switch between voice command mode and dictation mode. 536-laser printer Printer that creates dot like images on a drum, using a laser beam light source. 537-light pen A light sensitive pen-like device. Placing the pen against the monitor closes a photoelectric circuit and identifies the spot for entering or modifying data. 538-magnetic-ink character Direct entry scanning devices used in banks. This technology is used to automatically read the numbers on the bottom of checks. 539-mark recognition device 50

Scanners that are able to recognize special characters and marks. 540-mark sensing Device that senses the presence or absence of a mark, such as a pencil mark. As an example, an OMR device is used to score multiple choice tests. 541-mechanical mouse Traditional and most widely used type of mouse. It has a ball on the bottom and is attached with a cord to the system unit. 542-memory Used to store printing instructions and documents waiting to be printed. 543-MIDI device Specialized musical instruments that provide input in the form of encoded digital signals representing musical sounds like an electronic keyboard. 544-Monitor Output device like a television screen that displays data processed by the computer. 545-Mouse Device that typically rolls on the desktop and directs the cursor on the display screen. 546-mouse pad Provides a smooth surface to roll the mouse. 547-mouse pointer Typically in the shape of an arrow. See pointing devices. 548-multifunction device (MFD) Devices that typically combine the capabilities of a scanner, printer, fax, and copying machine. 549-musical instrument digital A standard that allows musical instruments to connect to the system. 550-Net Personal Computer (Net PC) Low-cost type of intelligent terminal that typically has only one type of secondary storage and no expansion slots. 551-network computer Low-cost alternative to intelligent terminal; relies on host computer or server for software. Also called thin client. 552-network terminal Low-cost alternative to intelligent terminal; relies on host computer or server for software. Also called network computer or thin client. 553-numeric keypad Enters numbers and arithmetic symbols and is included on all computer keyboards. 554-optical mouse A type of mouse that emits and senses light to detect mouse movement. 555-optical scanner Device that identifies images or text on a page and automatically converts them to electronic signals that can be stored in a computer to copy or reproduce. 556-optical-character recognition 50

Scanning device that uses special pre-printed characters, such as those printed on utility bills, that can be read by a light source and changed into machinereadable code. 557-optical-mark recognition (OMR) Device that senses the presence or absence of a mark, such as a pencil mark. 558-output Processed data or information from a computer. 559-output device Equipment that translates processed information from the central processing unit into a form that can be understood by humans. The most common output devices are monitors or video display screens and printers. 560-passive-matrix monitor Monitor that creates images by scanning the entire screen. This type requires little energy but clarity of images is not sharp. Also known as dual-scan monitors. 561-PC/TV Or high-definition television (HDTV) and is a recent development in the merger of microcomputers and television. 562-PDA keyboard Miniature keyboards for PDAs used to send e-mail, create documents, and more. 563-personal laser printer Inexpensive laser printer widely used by single users to produce black-andwhite documents. 564-photo printer A special-purpose ink jet printer designed to print photo-quality images from digital cameras. 565-picture elements (000) Smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades. Individual dots that form images on a monitor. 566-pixel Smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades. Individual dots that form images on a monitor. 567-platform scanner Handheld direct-entry device used to read special characters on price tags. 568-plotter Special-purpose output device for producing bar charts, maps, architectural drawings, and three-dimensional illustrations. 569-pointing device Accepts pointing gestures and converts them into machine-readable input. These devices include mice, joystick, touch screen, light pens and styluses. 570-pointing stick Device used to control the pointer by directing the stick with your finger. 571-portable printer Small and lightweight printers designed to work with notebook computers. 572-portable scanner 50

Handheld input device that slides across the image for scanning images and text. 573-printer Device that produces printed-paper output. 574-reading machine These devices use a scanner to process printed text, a program to read the text and your speakers to output the text as voice output. 575-refresh rate How often a displayed image is updated or redrawn on the monitor. 576-resolution A measurement in pixels of a monitor's clarity. For a given monitor, the greater the resolution, the more pixels and better clarity of the image. 577-roller ball Device used to control the pointer by rotating a ball with your thumb. 578-scanner Device that identifies images or text on a page and automatically converts them to electronic signals that can be stored in a computer to copy or reproduce. 579-scanning device Converts scanned text and images into a form the system can process. Examples include optical scanners, bar code readers, and character and mark recognition devices. 580-server A host computer with a connection to the Internet that stores document files used to display web pages. Depending on the resources shared, it may be called a file server, printer server, communication server, Web server, or database server. 581-shared laser printer More expensive laser printer used by a group of users to produce black-andwhite documents. These printers can produce over 30 pages a minute. 582-size Also known as viewable size of a monitor, indicated by the diagonal length of the viewing area. 583-soft copy Images or characters output on a monitor screen. 584-speakers Audio-output devices connected to a sound card in the system unit. The sound card is used to capture as well as play back recorded sound. 585-speed Speed is measured in the number of pages printed per minute. 586-stylus Pen-like device used with tablet PCs and PDA's using pressure to draw images on a screen. A stylus acts with the computer through handwriting recognition software. 50

587-telephony Communication that uses the Internet rather than traditional communication lines to connect two or more people via telephone. 588-terminal An input and output device connecting to a mainframe or other type of computer called a host computer or server. 589-thermal printer Printer that uses heat elements to produce images on heat-sensitive paper. 590-thin client Low-cost alternative to intelligent terminal; relies on host computer or server for software. Also called network computer or thin client. 591-thin film transistor monitor (TFT) Type of flat-panel monitor activating each pixel independently. 592-toggle key These keys turn a feature on or off like the cap lock key. 593-touch pad Also known as touch surface. Used to control pointer by moving and tapping your finger on the surface of a pad. 594-touch screen Monitor screen allowing actions or commands to be entered by the touch of a finger. 595-touch surface Typically part of a portable computer, similar to a mouse. 596-trackball Device used to control the pointer by rotating a ball with your thumb. Also called a roller ball. 597-traditional keyboard A full-sized, rigid, rectangular keyboards that include function, navigational, and numeric keys. 598-Universal Product Code (UPC) A barcode system that identifies the product to the computer, which has a description and latest price for the product. 599-viewable size Size of a monitor, indicated by the diagonal length of the viewing area. 600-voice command mode Allows users to select menu items, toolbars and dialog box options using voice or a mouse. 601-voice output device Converts digital data into speech-like sounds. For example, voice output on telephone messages, voice synthesizer that read aloud words on the screen, and mapping software for vehicle navigation devices. 602-voice recognition system Using a microphone, sound card and specialty software, the user can operate a computer and create documents using voice commands. 603-voice-over IP (VoIP) 50

Communication that uses the Internet rather than traditional communication lines to connect two or more people via telephone. 604-wand reader Special-purpose handheld device used to read OCR characters. 605-Web appliance Provides access to the Internet and displays Web pages on a standard television set. Also called Web terminal. 606-Web camera Specialized digital video camera for capturing images and broadcasting to the Internet. 607-Web terminal Provides access to the Internet and displays Web pages on a standard television set. 608-WebCam Specialized digital video camera for capturing images and broadcasting to the Internet. 609-wheel button Some mice have a wheel button that can be rotated to scroll through information displayed on the monitor. 610-wireless keyboard Keyboard that transmits input to the system unit through the air. 611-wireless mouse A battery-powered mouse that typically uses radio waves or infrared light waves to communicate with the system unit.
612-AC adapter Notebook computers use AC adapters that are typically outside the system unit. They plug into a standard wall outlet, convert AC to DC, provide power to drive the system components and can recharge batteries. 613-accelerated graphics port (AGP) A type of bus line that is dedicated to the acceleration of graphics performance.

614-adapter card A type of bus line that is dedicated to the acceleration of graphics performance. 615-advanced transfer cache Built into the microprocessor providing faster responses than cache located on the system board. 616-alternating current (AC) Current from standard wall outlets. 617-analog Signals that represent a range of frequencies, such as the human voice. They are a continuous electronic wave signal as opposed to a digital signal that is either on or off. To convert the digital signals of your computer to analog and vice versa, you need a modem. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. 618-arithmetic operation

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Fundamental math operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. 619-arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) The part of the CPU that performs arithmetic and logical operations. 620-ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Binary coding scheme widely used on all computers, including microcomputers. Eight bits form each byte, and each byte represents one character. 621-binary coding scheme The representation of characters as 0s and 1s, or"off" and"on" electrical states, in a computer. Two of the most popular binary coding schemes use eight bits to form each byte as in the ASCII and EBCDIC codes. 622-binary system Numbering system in which all numbers consist of only two digits; 0 and 1. 623-bit (binary digit) Each 1 or 0 is a bit, short for binary digit. 624-bus Electronic data roadway, connecting the parts of the CPU to each other and linking the CPU with other important hardware, along which bits travel. The common connecting cable in a bus network. 625-bus line Electronic data roadway, connecting the parts of the CPU to each other and linking the CPU with other important hardware, along which bits travel. The common connecting cable in a bus network. 626-bus width The number of bits traveling simultaneously down a bus is the bus width. 627-byte Unit consisting of eight bits. There are 256 possible bit combinations in a byte and each byte represents one character. 628-cable Cords used to connect input and output devices to the system unit. 629-cache memory Area of random-access memory (RAM) set aside to store the most frequently accessed information. Cache memory improves processing by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between memory and CPU allowing the computer to detect which information in RAM is most frequently used. 630-carrier package The material that chips are mounted on which then plug into sockets on the system board. 631-central processing unit (CPU) Part of the computer that holds data and program instructions for processing the data. The CPU consists of the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit. In a microcomputer, the CPU is on a single electronic component called a microprocessor chip. 632-chassis The metal casing that houses the computer components. See System Unit. 50

633-chip A tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. A chip is also called a silicon chip, semiconductor, or integrated circuit. 634-clock rate It is measured in gigahertz or billions of beats per second. The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can process information and execute instructions. 635-clock speed Also called clock rate. It is measured in gigahertz or billions of beats per second. The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can process information and execute instructions. 636-closed architecture Computer manufactured in such a way that users cannot easily add new devices. 637-complementary metal-oxide A CMOS chip provides flexibility and expandability for a computer system. Unlike RAM, it does not lose its contents if power is turned off and unlike ROM, its contents can be changed. 638-complex instruction set The most common type of microprocessor that has thousands of programs written specifically for it. Intel's Pentium and Itanium are CISC chips. 639-control unit Section of the CPU that tells the rest of the computer how to carry out program instructions. 640-controller card Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 641-convertible tablet PC Notebook computer with a monitor that swivels and folds onto its keyboard. 642-coprocessor Specialized processing chips designed to improve specific computer operations such as the graphics coprocessor. 643-desktop system unit A system unit that typically contains the system's electronic components and selected secondary storage devices. Input and output devices, such as the mouse, keyboard, and monitor, are located outside the system unit. 644-digital Computers are digital machines because they can only understand one's and zeros. It is either on or off. For example, a digital watch states the exact time on the face, whereas an analog watch has the second hand moving in constant motion as it tells the time. 645-direct current (DC) All computer hardware requires direct current (DC) to power their electronic components. DC power is provided by converting alternating current (AC) from standard outlets using a power supply or directly from batteries. 50

646-EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Binary coding schemes that are a standard for minicomputers and mainframe computers. 647-expansion bus Connects the CPU to slots on the system board. There are different types of expansion buses such as Industry standard architecture (ISA), Peripheral component interconnect (PCI), Accelerated graphics port (AGP), Universal bus (USB) and FireWire buses. Se 648-expansion card Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 649-expansion slot Slots in the system board that allow users to expand their systems by inserting expansion cards. 650-FireWire bus They operate much like USB buses on the system board but at higher speeds. 651-FireWire port Used to connect high-speed printers and even video cameras to system unit. 652-firmware Refers to chips that have programs built into them at the factory. The user cannot change the contents of such chips. The CPU can read or retrieve the programs on the chip but cannot write or change information. 653-flash memory A solid-state storage device widely used in notebook computers. Flash memory is also used in a variety of specialized input devices to capture and transfer data to desktop computers. 654-flash RAM RAM chips that retain data even when power is disrupted. Flash RAM is an example of solid-state storage and is typically used to store digitized images and record MP3 files. 655-gigahertz Billions of beats per second. 656-graphics card They connect the system board to the computer monitor. The card converts the internal electronic signals to video signals so they can be displayed on the monitor. 657-graphics coprocessor Designed to handle requirements related to displaying and manipulating 2-D and 3-D graphic images. 658-handheld computer system unit These systems combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools and communications capabilities. They contain an entire computer system including the electronic components, secondary storage, input and output devices. 659-high performance serial bus 50

They operate much like USB buses on the system board but at higher speeds. 660-high performance serial bus Also known as FireWire Ports and are faster than USB ports. They provide connections to specialized HPSB devices, such as camcorders. 661-industry standard architecture Bus-line standard developed for the IBM Personal Computer. It first consisted of an 8-bit-wide data path, then a 16-bit-wide data path. See Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI). 662-integrated circuit Tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. Chips are mounted on carrier packages, which then plug into sockets on the system board. 663-Intel-compatible Tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. Chips are mounted on carrier packages, which then plug into sockets on the system board. 664-interface card Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 665-internal modem The internal modem consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. See Modem card. 666-laptop Portable computer, also known as laptop computer, weighing between 4 and 10 pounds. 667-logical operation Comparing two pieces of data to see whether one is equal to (=), less than (<), or greater than (>) the other. 668-main board Flat board that usually contains the CPU and memory chips connecting all systems components to one another. 669-memory Contained on chips connected to the system board and is a holding area for data instructions and information (processed data waiting to be output to secondary storage). RAM, ROM, and CMOS are three types. 670-microprocessor The central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer controls and manipulates data to produce information. The microprocessor is contained on a single integrated circuit chip and is the brains of the system. 671-microsecond One-millionth of a second. Computers process data and instructions in microseconds. 672-modem card 50

Also known as an internal modem, a card that allows distant computers to communicate with one another by converting electronic signals from within the system unit into electronic signals that can travel over telephone lines and other types of connections 673-motherboard Otherwise called a System board; the communications medium for the entire system. 674-nanosecond Billionth of a second. 675-network adapter card Connects the system unit to a cable that connects to other devices on the network. 676-network interface card (NIC) Also known as Network Adapter Cards. They are used to connect a computer to one or more computers forming a communication network whereby users can share data, programs, and hardware. 677-nonvolatile storage Permanent storage, such as data stored on a disk, is used to preserve data and programs. Also called secondary storage because it does not lose its memory contents when the power goes off. 678-notebook system unit A small, portable system unit that contains electronic components, selected secondary storage devices and input devices. 679-open architecture Microcomputer architecture allowing users to expand their systems by inserting optional devices known as expansion cards. 680-palm computers These systems combine pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools and communications capabilities. They contain an entire computer system including the electronic components, secondary storage, input and output devices. 681-parallel port Used to connect external devices that send or receive data over a short distance. Mostly used to connect printers to the system unit. 682-parallel processing Used by supercomputers to run large and complex programs. See Parallel processor. 683-parallel processors Works with one or more other parallel processor chips to run or process a large program by using software that takes a large program, breaks it down into parts and assigns the parts to separate processors. The processors then work simultaneously and share results. 684-PC card Credit card-sized expansion cards developed for portable computers. 685-peripheral component interconnect (PCI) 50

Bus architecture that combines the capabilities of MCA and EISA with the ability to send video instructions at speeds to match the microprocessor. PCI is a 32bit or 64-bit speed bus that is over 20 times faster than ISA bus. 686-PCMCIA card Personal Computer Memory Card International Association card. Credit cardsized expansion cards developed for portable computers. 687-personal digital assistant (PDA) A device that typically combines pen input, writing recognition, personal organizational tools, and communication capabilities in a very small package. Also called Handheld PC and palmtop computer. 688-picoseconds Trillionth of a second. 689-Plug and Play Set of hardware and software standards developed to create operating systems, processing units, expansion cards, as well as other devices that are able to configure themselves. When the computer starts up, it will search for the plug and play device and automatically configure it to the system. 690-plug-in board Optional device that plugs into a slot inside the system unit to expand the computers' abilities. Ports on the system board allow cables to be connected from the expansion board to devices outside the system unit. 691-port Connecting socket on the outside of the system unit. Used to connect input and output devices to the system unit. 692-power supply unit Desktop computers have a power supply unit located within the system unit which plugs into a standard wall outlet, converting AC to DC which becomes the power to drive all of the system unit components. 693-processor Part of the computer that holds data and program instructions for processing the data. The CPU consists of the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit. In a microcomputer, the CPU is on a single electronic component called a microprocessor chip. 694-695-RAM cache Area of random-access memory (RAM) set aside to store the most frequently accessed information. Cache memory improves processing by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between memory and CPU allowing the computer to detect which information in RAM is most frequently used. 696-random-access memory (RAM) Volatile, temporary storage that holds the program and data the CPU is presently processing. It is called temporary storage because its contents will be lost if electrical power to the computer is disrupted or the computer is turned off. 697-read-only memory (ROM)

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Refers to chips that have programs built into them at the factory. The user cannot change the contents of such chips. The CPU can read or retrieve the programs on the chip but cannot write or change information. 698-reduced instruction set computer Powerful microprocessor chip found in workstations.. 699-semiconductor Silicon chip through which electricity flows with some resistance. 700-serial port Used to connect external devices that send or receive data one bit at a time over a long distance. Used for mouse, keyboard, modem, and many other devices. 701-silicon chip Tiny circuit board etched on a small square of sand like material called silicon. Chips are mounted on carrier packages, which then plug into sockets on the system board. 702-slate tablet PC Similar to a notebook computer except that its monitor is attached to the system unit and does not have a keyboard integrated into the system unit. 703-slot Area on a system board that accepts expansion cards to expand a computer system's capabilities. 704-smart card Card about the size of a credit card containing a tiny built-in microprocessor. It can be used to hold such information as personal identification, medical and financial knowledge, and credit card numbers. Information on this card is protected by a password, which offers security and privacy. 705-socket Provide connection points on the system board for holding electronic parts. 706-system board Flat board that usually contains the CPU and memory chips connecting all systems components to one another. 707-system bus There are two categories of buses. One is the system bus that connects the CPU on the system board. The other is the expansion bus that connects the CPU to slots on the system board. 708-system cabinet Also known as the Chassis, which is a container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system. See System unit. 709-system clock Clock that controls how fast all the operations within a computer take place. 710-system unit Part of a microcomputer that contains the CPU. Also known as the system cabinet or chassis and is the container that houses most of the electronic components that make up the computer system. 711-tablet PC 50

A type of notebook computer that accepts handwritten data using a stylus or pen, which is converted to standard text and can be processed by a word processor program. 712-tablet PC system unit A type of notebook computer that accepts handwritten data using a stylus or pen, which is converted to standard text and can be processed by a word processor program. 713-television board Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 714-tower model Vertical system units are called tower models. 715-TV tuner card Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 716-two-state system Many forms of technology use a two-state system creating on/off, yes/no, or a present/absent arrangement. A magnetized spot on a tape or disk may have a positive or negative charge. This is the reason two-state or binary system represents computer instructions. 717-Type I card The thinnest PC card and used primarily to expand the notebook or handheld computer memory. 718-Type II card PC Card used for communication. They include modem cards and network interface cards. 719-Type III card Thickest of the PC cards, used to expand external storage and include hard disk cards. 720-unicode A 16-bit code designed to support international languages, like Chinese and Japanese. 721-universal serial bus (USB) Combines with a PCI bus on the system board to support several external devices without inserting cards for each device. USB buses are used to support high-speed scanners, printers, and video capturing devices. 722-universal serial bus (USB) port Expected to replace serial and parallel ports. They are faster, and one USB port can be used to connect several devices to the system unit. 723-video capture card Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 724-video card Also known as graphic cards. They connect the system board to the computer monitor. The cards convert the internal electronic signals to video signals so they can be displayed on the monitor. 50

725-video recorder card Contains a TV tuner and video converter changing the TV signal into one that can be displayed on your monitor. 726-virtual memory Feature of an operating system that increases the amount of memory available to run programs. With large programs, parts are stored on a secondary device like your hard disk. Then each part is read in RAM only when needed. 727-volatile storage Temporary storage that destroys the current data when power is lost or new data is read like RAM storage. 728-word Chip capacities are expressed in word sizes. A word is the number of bits (such as 16, 32, or 64) that can be accessed at one time by the CPU. 729-workstation Usually a powerful, high-end microcomputer, but any PC can be a workstation if set up correctly. Workstations have high quality graphics capabilities that can create animations for television by using engineering applications like CAD/CAM for example. Workstations are typically connected to a network but can also be a stand-alone computer. 730-Add Printer Wizard Provides step-by-step guidance for selecting the appropriate printer driver and installing that driver. 731-Antivirus Programs that guard a computer system from viruses or other damaging programs. 732-application Programs, such as word processing and spreadsheets. 733-Aqua As part of the Mac OS X operating system, Aqua is an instinctual user interface providing photo-quality icons and easy-to-use menus. 734-background Programs you are not using are running in the background. 735-Backup A utility program that helps protect you from the affects of a disk failure by making a copy of selected or all files that have been saved onto a disk. 736-backup program A utility program that helps protect you from the affects of a disk failure by making a copy of selected or all files that have been saved onto a disk. 737-booting Starting or restarting your computer. 738-character based interface In older operating systems the user communicated with the operating system through written commands such as"Copy A: assign.doc to C:". 739-client operating system A type of desktop operating system that works with a network's operating system (NOS) to share and coordinate resources. 50

740-cold boot Starting the computer after it has been turned off. 741-computer virus Destructive programs that can come in e-mail attachments and spam. 742-desktop The screen that is displayed on the monitor when the computer starts up. All items and icons on the screen are considered to be on your desktop and are used to interact with the computer. 743-desktop operating system Also called desktop operating systems, a type of operating system that controls a single desktop or notebook computer. 744-device driver Every device that is connected to the computer has a special program associated with it called a device driver, which allows communication between the operating system and the device. 745-diagnostic utility A utility program that recognizes and corrects computer-related problems before they become serious. Also called diagnostic programs. 746-dialog box Provides additional information and requests user input. 747-Disk Cleanup A windows troubleshooting utility that eliminates nonessential files. 748-Disk Defragmenter Windows utility that optimizes disk performance by eliminating unnecessary fragments and by rearranging files. 749-Dock The Mac OS X operating system features the"Dock" which is a new way of visually organizing applications, documents, Web sites, and more. 750-driver Every device that is connected to the computer has a special program associated with it called a device driver, which allows communication between the operating system and the device. 751-embedded operating systems An operating system that is completely stored within the ROM (read only memory) memory of the device that it is in; used for hand-held computers and smaller devices like PDAs. 752-file A collection of related records that can store data and programs. Such as, the payroll file would include payroll information (records) for all of the employees (entities). 753-file compression utility Programs that reduce the size of files so as to require less storage on the computer and can be sent more efficiently over the Internet. Examples of such programs are Win Zip and Wizard. 754-folder A named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. 50

755-foreground Programs you are currently working in are running in the foreground. 756-fragmented Storage technique that breaks up large files and stores the parts wherever space is available in adjacent sectors and clusters. 757-graphical user interface (GUI) Special screen that allows software commands to be issued through the use of graphic symbols (icons) or pull-down menus. 758-Help A feature in most application software providing options that typically include an index, a glossary, and a search feature to locate reference information about specific commands. 759-icon Graphic objects on the desktop used to represent programs and other files. 760-language translator Converts programming instructions into a machine language that can be processed by a computer. 761-Linux Type of Unix operating system, initially developed by Linus Torvald, designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now powerful microcomputers and servers on the Web use it. 762-Luna Windows XP new user interface emphasizes functions over programs. For example, the new Start menu displays categories like E-Mail and Internet, rather than individual programs such as Outlook and Internet Explorer. 763-Mac OS Operating system designed for Macintosh computers. 764-Mac OS X Macintosh operating system featuring a user interface called Aqua. 765-menu 766-multitasking 767-network operating systems 768-network server 769-non-proprietary operating system 770-One Button Checkup 771-open source 772-operating system 773-platform 50

774-pointer 775-proprietary operating system 776-resource 777-sectors 778-service program 779-Sherlock 780-software environment 781-software platform 782-stand-alone operating system 783-Start menu 784-system software 785-track 786-troubleshooting utility 787-uninstall utility 788-UNIX 789-user interface 790-utility 791-utility suite 792-warm boot 793-window 794-Windows 795-Windows Update 796-Windows XP 50

COMPUTER RELATED SHORT TYPE MATICHING/ ABBREVIATION QUESTIONS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

/OBJECTIVE/

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Byte is a combination of Eight bits. A standard keyboard has a total of or keys. Combination of four bits is Nibble A Command is a kind of coded message. Word is the combination of two or more than two bytes. Binary code is a term which describes a way of counting. A, Binary digit, or bit for short is a number. It is either or. Data is a plural word which means facts or information. A Floppy disk is a part of a computer and it stores data and programes. A Hard disk stores information inside some kinds of computer. Input is information which flows into a computer. A mouse is a part of Computer A random access memory (RAM) is a part of a Computer A read-only memory, or ROM for short, is a part of a Computer Software, programs and data that are used by Computers A general collection of data shared by a variety of users is Database Firmware is defined as software embedded into the hardware. A Keyboard is a part of a computer; it has rows of buttons, called keys. Logic is a set of rules which controls the way in which computers work. A Laser is a device which produces a beam of very bright and powerful light. A Byte is a number, it carries instructions or information inside computers. A Mainframe computer is the largest and most powerful kind of computer. A Megabyte is a unit of measurement which measures an amount of data or the size of the memory in a computer. A Modem is a part of computers which connects a computer to a telephone line. A postprocessor is a Computer which uses a special kind of program. Words are typed on a keyboard and they appear on the screen of a visual display unit. A programme which converts assembly language programme into Machine language programme. Zero and one in their endless combination constitute binary I system on which Computers are based. Bit is the basic unit of Inverters. It can have two values one and zero only. Boolean algebra was developed to deal with binary numbers. Under the binary system all ordinary Arithmetical operations are reduced to their simplest form. Compiler is a programme which translates a high-level language programme into Machine language. The term given to the machinery itself and to me various individual pieces of equipment is Hardware. A set of instructions given to the computer in a particular sequence for solving a given problem is Programme. A collection of programmes writ- ten to bring the hardware of a computer system into operation is Software. The Operating system is an organised collection of routines and procedures for operating a computer. Time Sharing is the concurrent use of a single computer system by Many independent users. A central processing (pit (CPU), is a part of a Computer, it uses a program to change data that pass through it. A Computer is an electronic machine which can solve problems very quickly. Hard copy is the information which is printed onto paper. The information usually comes from a computer or from a fax machine.

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39. A Kilobyte is a unit of measurement which measures an amount of data or the size of the memory in a computer.
CDAC C-DOT HTTP ROM RAM BIOS MODEM CAD PSTN PSPDN RABAN LAN WAN MAN CDMA GAIS E-Mail CD LDU CPU CAM CATScan COBOL COMAL DOS DTS DTP E-Commerce ENIAC FAX FLOPS FORTRAN HLL HTML IBM IC ISH LISP LLL MICR MIPS MOPS MPU NICNET OMR PC-DOT PROM SNOBOL UPS VDU VLSI WWW : Centre for Development of Advanced Parallel Computing. : Center for Development of Telematrics. : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol : Read Only Memory : Random Access Memory : Basic Input- Output System. : Modulation Demodulation. : Computer Aided Design. : Public Switched Public Data Network. : Pocket Switched Public. : Remote Area Business Message Network. : Local Area Network : Wide Area Network . : Metropolitan Area Network. : Code Division Multiple Access. : Gateway Internet Access Service : Electronic Mail. : Compact Disc. : Liquid Display Unit. : Central Processing Unit. : Computer Aided Manufacturing. : Computerized Axial Tomography Scan . : Common Business Oriented Language. : Common Algorithmic Language. : Disk Operating System. : Desk Top System : Desk Top Publishing. : Electronic Commerce. : Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator : Far Away Xerox. : Floating Operations Per Second. : Formula Translation. : High Level Language. : Hyper Text Markup Language. : International Business Machine. : Integrated Circuit : International Super Highway. : List Processing. : Low Level Language : Magnetic Ink Character Recognizer. : Millions of Instructions Per Second. : Millions of Operations Per Second. : Micro Processor Unit. : National Information Center Network. : Optical Mark Reader. : Personal Computer Disk Operation System. : Programmable Read Only Memory. : String Oriented Symbolic Language. : Uninterpretable Power Supply. : Visual Display Unit. : Very Large Scale Integrated. : World Wide Web.

1-Following are the qualities of a proactive person, except:


A) They always have a positive outlook towards technology. B) They do not underestimate the impact of technology. C) They anticipate future problems, needs, or changes. D) They are always busy to take time to learn.

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2-To keep up with the fast-paced age, an individual has to


A) Recognize the impact of technological change on organizations and people. B) To be specialists in information technology. C) Devise ways to stay current and to use technology to his/her advantage. D) Implement competitive strategies. Feedback: We live in a fast-paced age; the challenge for an individual to survive in this age is to devise ways to stay current and to use technology to your advantage.

3-Which of the following conduct all business over the Web?


A) Clearing houses B) Internet banks C) Development banks D) Investment banks Feedback: Internet banks conduct all business over the Web.

4-A ____ prepares and presents classes to teach application software and to instruct users on how to use the organization's information system.
A) Systems analyst B) Technical writer C) Network manager D) Computer trainer Feedback: A computer trainer prepares and presents classes.

5-A (n) ________ develops and maintains Web sites and Web resources.
A) Information systems manager B) Webmaster C) Computer support specialist D) Software engineer Feedback: Webmasters develop and maintain Web sites and Web resources.

6-The most successful people in the future will be those who are resistant to change.
A) True B) False Feedback: Nave people believe that computers are magic boxes. Feedback: People who do not resist change will be the real winners.

7-Technology creates products that are faster, better, and more expensive.
A) True B) False Feedback: Technology will create products that operate faster, are priced cheaper, and often of better quality, or are wholly new.

8-Naive people believe that computers are magic boxes.


A) True B) False

9-It is best to become highly specialized in the information-processing field.


A) True B) False Feedback: Individuals should develop specialties within their chosen profession.

10-The career of a computer technician repairs and installs computer components and systems.
A) True B) False

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11-The program's processing steps are grouped into logically-related programming statements called
A) Modules. B) Unit. C) Object. D) Component. Feedback: Processing steps are called program modules (modules).

12-A pseudo code is best described as


A) A schematic representation of the sequence of steps involved. B) An outline of the logic of the program C) An arrangement that enables you to write a structured program. D) A documentation of the program design. Feedback: Pseudo code is an outline of the logic of the program you will write.

13-IF-THEN-ELSE structure is otherwise known as a(n)


A) Sequence structure B) Loop structure C) Iterative structure D) Selection structure Feedback: selection structure is also known as an IF-THEN-ELSE structure, because that is how you can formulate the decision.

14-C++ is a widely used _____ language.


A) Formatting B) Developer C) Programming D) Computer Feedback: C++ is a widely used programming language.

15-Which one of the following statements is not characteristic of 5GL?


A) Easier to learn than assembly language B) Easier to understand than machine language C) Less rigid rules, forms, and syntax than assembly languages D) Easier to write code in than assembly and machine languages Feedback: 5GL languages are easier to write code in.

16-Most programs in use today are custom written.


A) True B) False Feedback: Most programs in use today are prewritten (off-the-shelf).

17-Logic structures include sequence, selection, and loop.


A) True B) False Feedback: Logic structures include sequence, selection, and loop.

18-A logic error could result from an incorrect calculation made by the programmer.
A) True B) False Feedback: A logic error occurs when the programmer uses an incorrect calculation or leaves out a programming procedure.

19-CASE tools are used to compile programs to test for logic errors. A) True
B) False

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Feedback: CASE tools are used to automate and assist in program design, coding, and testing.

20-Very high level languages require extensive special training on the part of the user.
A) True B) False

21-More and more end users are developing their own information systems. This is because in many organizations there is a _____ backlog of work for systems analysts.
A) two-month B) seven-months C) one-year D) three-year Feedback: More and more end users are developing their own information systems. This is because in many organizations there is a three-year backlog of work for systems analysts.

22-Who among the following study an organization's systems and determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them?
A) Computer engineers B) Systems analysts C) Systems engineers D) Database administrator Feedback: In organizations, this six-phase systems life cycle is used by computer professionals known as systems analysts. These people study an organization's systems to determine what actions to take and how to use computer technology to assist them.

23-Which among the following is supervised by a systems analyst in case the information is large, or if the information is small, by the end user?
A) Suggesting alternative solutions B) Preparing a short report C) Defining the problem D) Gathering data Feedback: Defining the problem means examining whatever current information system is in use. If the information system is large, this survey is done by a systems analyst. If the system is small, the survey can be done by the end user.

24-Organization charts are useful for which of the following steps in the systems life cycle?
A) Gathering data B) Documenting systems analysis C) Designing alternative systems D) Testing the new system Feedback: Data also is obtained from studying documents that describe the formal lines of authority and standard operating procedures. One document is the organization chart.

25-The places where equipment needs to be installed is a very critical decision involved with the _____ phase of the systems life cycle.
A) Testing the new software B) Systems implementation C) Periodic evaluation D) Acquiring hardware Feedback: Acquiring hardware: Some new systems may not require new computer equipment, but others will. The equipment needed and the places they are to be installed must be determined. This is a very critical area.

26-The whole point of the systems implementation phase of the systems life cycle is to apply logic to the existing arrangement to see how workable it is.
A) True B) False Feedback: In the data analysis step, the idea is to learn how information currently flows and to pinpoint why it isn't flowing appropriately. The whole point of this step is to apply logic to the existing arrangement to see how workable it is.

27-RAD relieves the systems analysts of many repetitive tasks, develop clear documentation, and, for larger projects, coordinate team member activities.
A) True

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B) False Feedback: CASE tools relieve the systems analysts of many repetitive tasks, develop clear documentation, and, for larger projects, coordinate team member activities.

28-A system flowchart is the same as the program flowchart.


A) True B) False Feedback: System flowcharts show the flow of input data to processing and finally to output, or distribution of information. A system flowchart is not the same as a program flowchart, which is very detailed.

29-In the pilot approach, risks can be controlled since problems are confined to only certain areas of the organization.
A) True B) False Feedback: In Phase 2, systems analysis, data is collected about the present system. This data is then analyzed, and new requirements are determined. We are not concerned with a new design here, only with determining the requirements for a new system.

30-A professional software trainer is often used to show people how to use the system in the systems implementation phase.
A) True B) False Feedback: Training people is important, of course. In some cases, a professional software trainer may be brought in to show people how to operate the system.

31-Which view of information focuses on the meaning and content of the data?
A) Physical vie B) Intellectual view C) Logical view D) Information view Feedback: The logical view focuses on the meaning and content of the data.

32-A collection of related files is called a


A) Character B) Database C) Field D) Record Feedback: A database is an integrated collection of logically related records or objects.

33-Which of the following is not an advantage of using a database?


A) Security B) Reliability C) Less data redundancy D) Integrity Feedback: Advantages include sharing, security, less data redundancy, and data integrity.

34-In a network database model, each child node may have more than one parent node. This relationship is called
A) one-to-many B) One-to-one C) many-to-many D) Combined join Feedback: Child node with more than one parent node is a many-to-many relationship.

35-This database model organizes data using objects, classes, entities, attributes, and methods.
A) Hierarchical B) Network C) Relational D) object-oriented

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Feedback: Object-oriented models use objects, classes, entities, attributes, and methods.

36-Data must be in the form of text.


A) True B) False Feedback: Data can take the form of video, photos, numbers, letters, symbols, audio, and music.

37-The key field uniquely identifies each record.


A) True B) False Feedback: In a database, a key field uniquely identifies each record. 38-A hyper plane is the basic data structure used in a multidimensional database A) True B) False Feedback: A hyper cube is the basic data structure used in a multidimensional database model.

39-Most proprietary databases are free to use.


A) True B) False Feedback: Most proprietary databases charge a fee.

40-The term "data mining" refers to the process of sorting through huge volumes of data to extract information
A) True B) False Feedback: Data mining refers to culling through huge volumes of data to extract information.

41-Any human-centered activity within an organization is part of


A) Research. B) Human resources. C) Production. D) Marketing. Feedback: Human resources focuses on people-hiring, training, promoting, and any number of other human-centered activities within the organization.

42-Which of the following include weekly sales and production schedules?


A) employee-level workers B) Middle management C) supervisor-level management D) Top-level management Feedback: The management information system (MIS) reports might include weekly sales and production schedules.

43-The money that the company owes for goods or services is handled by
A) Accounts receivable B) Inventory C) Sales order processing D) Accounts payable Feedback: Accounts payable refers to money the company owes its suppliers for materials and services it has received.

44-A (n) _________ produces reports that are predetermined.


A) Transaction processing system B) Decision support system C) Executive support system D) Management information system Feedback: An MIS produces reports that are predetermined.

45-__________ is designed primarily to support data workers.

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A) Project managers B) Videoconferencing systems C) Knowledge work systems D) Office automation systems Feedback: Office automation systems (OASs) are designed primarily to support data workers.

46-Purchasing is the buying of materials and services. A) True


B) False Feedback: Purchasing is the buying of materials and services.

47-In general, the user of a GDSS is some sort of decision maker.


A) True B) False Feedback: In general, the user of a GDSS is taking some decision-making role.

48-Executive support systems are designed to be easy to use.


A) True B) False Feedback: ESS are designed to be easily used by top-level managers.

49-Employees who distribute, create, and communicate information are called e-workers.
A) True B) False Feedback: Employees are known as knowledge workers.

50-CAD/CAM systems are widely used in the processing of perishable products.


A) True B) False Feedback: CAD/CAM systems are widely used in manufacturing of automobiles and other products.

51-The issues that deal with the collection and use of data about individuals is
A) Access. B) Property. C) Accuracy. D) Privacy. Feedback: Privacy concerns the collection and use of data about individuals.

52-Privacy is primarily a(n) _____ matter.


A) ethical B) Legal C) Security D) Business Feedback: There are four primary computer ethics issues. They are privacy, accuracy, property, and access.

53-People who gain unauthorized access to computers for the purpose of doing damage are called ____
A) Employees B) Hackers C) Members of organized crime D) Crackers

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Feedback: Crackers gain unauthorized access to computers with the intent to do damage.

54-_________ is a computer monitoring software.


A) Web bug B) Keystroke loggers C) Cookie D) Snoop ware Feedback: Keystroke loggers, a computer monitoring software can be deposited onto your hard drive without your knowledge either from the Web.

55-When a hard disk crashes, it is an example of a ____ type of computer security threat.
A) Natural hazard sass B) Criminal C) Technological failure D) Civil strife Feedback: A hard disk crash is an example of a technological failure.

56-There is a large market for data collected about individuals.


A) True B) False Feedback: There is a very large market for data collected about individuals.

57-Privacy of information is primarily a legal issue according to the Financial Moderization Act.
A) True B) False Feedback: Privacy issues remain primarily ethical issues according to the Financial Moderization Act.

58-Viruses are spread from computer to computer through networks and operating systems.
A) True B) False Feedback: Viruses migrate through networks and operating systems, and most attach themselves to different programs and databases.

59-Unauthorized copying of programs for personal gain is a form of theft called service theft.
A) True B) False Feedback: Software piracy is the unauthorized copying of programs for personal gain.

60-Ergonomics is defined as the study of human factors related to things people use.
A) True B) False Feedback: Ergonomics is defined as the study of human factors related to things people use.

61-Data is transmitted as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass in ______.


A) Fiber-optic cables B) Telephone lines C) Coaxial cables D) FireWire Feedback: Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass.

62-Which of the following is used to transfer data and information from a portable device such as a notebook or PDA to a desktop computer
A) Infrared B) Microwave C) Satellite D) Broadcast radio

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Feedback: Infrared uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. One of the most common applications is to transfer data and information from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer.

63-Which among the following is effective for transmitting text documents, but too slow for high-quality audio and video?
A) Broadband B) Medium band C) Audio band D) Voice band

64-This type of network provides access to regional service providers and typically span distances greater than 100 miles.
A) LAN B) MAN C) WAN D) WLAN Feedback: WAN provide access to regional service providers and typically span distances greater than 100 miles.

65-Which among the following do not use the full possessing power available with microcomputers?
A) Client/server networks B) Terminal networks C) Peer-to-peer network D) Star network Feedback: One disadvantage of a terminal network is that they do not use the full processing power available with microcomputers, along with a lack of control and flexibility.

66-Communication systems are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another.
A) True B) False Feedback: Communications systems are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another.

67-T1, T2, T3 and T4 lines support all digital communications and provide very high-speed capacity.
A) True B) False Feedback: T1, T2, T3, and T4 lines all support high-speed capacity.

68-Cable modems use existing telephone lines to provide high-speed connections.


A) True B) False Feedback: Digital subscriber line (DSL) uses existing telephone lines to provide high-speed connections.

69-The rules for exchanging data between computers are known as protocols.
A) True B) False Feedback: The rules for exchanging data between computers are known as protocols.

70-A Node is any device that is connected to a network. It could be a computer, printer, or data storage device.
A) True B) False Feedback: Node-any device that is connected to a network. It could be a computer, printer, or data storage device. 71-The actual physical material that holds the data and programs are called A) media. B) sequential storage. C) direct storage. D) storage devices. Feedback: Media are the actual physical material that holds the data and programs.

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72-Data and programs are stored by altering the electromagnetic charges on the disk's surface to represent 1s and 0s, on a______. A) CD drive B) sequential storage drive C) direct storage drive D) floppy disk drive Feedback: Floppy disk drives (FDD) store data and programs by altering the electromagnetic charges on the disk's surface to represent 1s and 0s. 73-On a hard disk, a _____runs through each track of a stack of platters. A) magnetic charge B) track C) cylinder D) sector Feedback: Hard disks store and organize files using tracks, sectors, and cylinders. A cylinder runs through each track of a stack of platters. 74-_____ improve performance by expanding external storage, improving access speed, and providing reliable storage. A) Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) B) File compressions C) Disk caching D) File decompressions Feedback: Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) improve performance by expanding external storage, improving access speed, and providing reliable storage. 75-You can compress and decompress files using specialized utilities such as A) WinZip. B) Defragmenter. C) Norton anti virus. D) Cleanup. Feedback: You can compress and decompress files using specialized utilities such as WinZip from Nico Mak Computing.

76-An internal hard disk is a Mylar platter covered with magnetic media and encased in either a hard or soft plastic cover. A) True B) False Feedback: An internal hard disk is made up of rigid metallic platters and is encased in a sealed container. 77-PC Card hard disks have capacities up to 5 gigabytes. A) True B) False Feedback: Credit card-size hard-disk cartridges called PC Card hard disks are available for notebook computers with typical capacities up to 5 gigabytes. 78-Optical disc storage devices have no moving parts. A) True B) False 79-Magnetic tape devices are specialized high-capacity secondary storage devices designed to meet organizational demands for data. A) True B) False Feedback: Mass storage devices are specialized high-capacity secondary storage devices designed to meet organizational demands for data. 80-File servers are dedicated computers with very large storage capacities that provide users access to fast storage and retrieval of data. A) True B) False Feedback: File servers-dedicated computers with very large storage capacities that provide users access to fast storage and retrieval of dat 81-This type of mouse is generally considered the traditional type and is currently the most widely used.

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A) Mechanical B) Cordless C) Wireless D) Optical Feedback: The mechanical was the traditional mouse, and it is the most widely used. 82-Recent versions of Microsoft's Word support A) biometrics. B) voice recognition. C) handwriting recognition. D) touch screen functions. Feedback: Recent versions of Microsoft's Word support voice recognition. 83-Specialized devices, similar to slide projectors, which connect to microcomputers and project computer output just as it would appear on a monitor are called A) data projectors. B) media players. sC) projectors. D) HDTVs. Feedback: Data projectors connect to microcomputers and project computer output just as it would appear on a monitor. 84-Specialized devices for storing, transferring, and playing audio files are called A) digital media players B) CD players C) MP3 players D) DVD players Feedback: Digital media players, are specialized devices for storing, transferring, and playing audio files. 85-A combination of different devices into one unit is known as a A) multifunctional device. B) single-use device. C) shared device. D) flatbed device. Feedback: Multifunctional devices (MFD) typically combine the capabilities of a scanner, printer, fax, and copy machine. 86-A joystick is the most popular input device for computer games. A) True B) False Feedback: A joystick is the most popular input device for computer games. 87-Handwriting recognition software translates Lotus notes into a form that the system unit can process. A) True B) False Feedback: Handwriting recognition software translates handwritten notes into a form that the system unit can process. 88-Grocery stores use bar-code scanners to read UPCs on products. A) True B) False Feedback: Grocery stores use bar-code scanners to read UPCs on products. 89-Traditional video cameras record motion digitally on a disk or in the camera's memory. A) True B) False Feedback: Digital video cameras record motion digitally on a disk or in the camera's memory. 90-Size is measured by the horizontal length of a monitor's viewing area. A) True B) False Feedback: Size is measured by the diagonal length of a monitor's viewing area. 91-Which of the following is the smallest unit? A) Desktop System Unit B) Notebooks System Unit C) PDA System Unit D) Tablet PC's Feedback: Handheld computer (palm computers or PDA's) are the smallest units. 92-Connection point for small specialized electronic parts called chips are provided by

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A) sockets. B) slots. C) bays. D) chips. Feedback: Sockets provide a connection point for small specialized electronic parts called chips. 93-When two pieces of data are compared to see whether one is equal to (=), less than (<), or greater than (>) the other, then it is a A) logical operation. B) arithmetic operation. C) graphic operation. D) mathematical operation. Feedback: Logical operations consist of comparisons. That is, two pieces of data are compared to see whether one is equal to (=), less than (<), or greater than (>) the other. 94-This type of memory is commonly called temporary or volatile storage. A) RAM B) ROM C) Flash memory D) virtual memory Feedback: RAM is called temporary or volatile storage because it loses its contents if the power is turned off. 95-Memory that cannot be changed is referred to as A) RAM. B) ROM. C) flash memory. D) virtual memory. Feedback: ROM cannot be changed - it is read-only memory. 96-The CPU is composed of two units: the control unit and the arithmetic control unit. A) True B) False Feedback: The CPU is composed of the control unit and the ALU. 97-The dual-core chip, can provide two separate and independent CPUs. A) True B) False Feedback: Dual-core chips allow a single computer to run two programs at the same time. 98-Chip capacities is often expressed in byte size. A) True B) False Feedback: The chip's capacity is expressed in word size. 99-USB is designed to support several external devices without using an expansion card or slots. A) True B) False Feedback: USB is designed to meet these demands. 100-FireWire buses and ports are used to connect magnetic and optical disk drives to the system board with far greater speed that other buses and slots. A) True B) False Feedback: Serial ATA buses and ports are used to connect magnetic and optical disk drives to the system board with far greater speed that other buses and slots. 101-Specialized programs that allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system are called A) operating systems. B) utilities. C) device drivers. D) language translators. Feedback: Device drivers are required to allow input and output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system.

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102-"GUI" stands for A) Gnutella Universal Interface. B) Graphic Uninstall/Install. C) Graphical User Interface. D) General Utility Interface. Feedback: GUI stands for graphical user interface. 103-Popular network operating systems include all of the following EXCEPT A) NetWare. B) Windows NT Server. C) Windows XP Server. D) Microsoft DOS. Feedback: Microsoft DOS is not a network operating system. 104-If you were trying to locate a lost file on your Macintosh, which application would you use? A) Dock B) Sherlock C) Aqua D) DiskCheck Feedback: Sherlock is a Mac OS X program used for searching. 105-Which of the following is a type of utility used to reduce the size of files to increase the amount of available disk space? A) file compression program B) troubleshooting program C) antivirus program D) uninstall program Feedback: File compression programs reduce the size of files so they require less storage space. 106-A cold boot occurs when the computer is already on and you restart it without turning off the power. A) True B) False Feedback: Warm booting occurs when the computer is already on. 107-Desktop operating systems control various desktops or notebook computers. A) True B) False Feedback: Desktop operating systems control a single desktop or notebook computer. 108-Linux is an example of a proprietary operating system. A) True B) False Feedback: Linux is a non-proprietary operating system. 109-Dashboard Widgets are a collection of specialized programs that will constantly update and display information. A) True B) False Feedback: Dashboard Widgets are a collection of specialized programs that will constantly update and display information.

110-Norton SystemWorks is one of the most widely used utility suites. A) True B) False Feedback: Norton SystemWorks is one of the most widely used utility suites. 111-Artificial intelligence programs include all of the following, except A) virtual reality. B) robotics. C) knowledge-based systems. D) integration tools.

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Feedback: Advanced applications include graphics programs, audio and video editing software, multimedia, web authoring, and artificial intelligence, including virtual reality, knowledge-based systems, and robotics. 112-An essential ingredient for effective multimedia presentations incorporates user participation or __________. A) links B) buttons C) interactivity D) integration Feedback: Interactivity allows the user to choose the information to view, to control the pace and flow of information, and to respond to items and receive feedback.

113-Which among the following is not a specialized or powerful program typically used to create sophisticated commercial sites? A) Macromedia Dreamweaver B) Microsoft FrontPage C) NetObjects Fusion D) Adobe Photoshop Feedback: Widely used Web authoring programs include Macromedia Dreamweaver, NetObjects Fusion, and Microsoft FrontPage. 114-A special effect in which one image seems to melt into another is referred to as A) drifting. B) flashing. C) morphing. D) polling. Feedback: Morphing is a special effect in which one image seems to melt into another. 115-A simulated experience generated by computer, like visiting the surface of the sun or experiencing life inside a human blood cell, is called __________. A) fuzzy logic B) extended experience C) virtual reality D) knowledge system Feedback: Virtual reality is an artificial, or simulated, reality generated in 3-D by a computer. 116-Page layout programs, allow you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality. A) True B) False Feedback: Desktop publishing programs, or page layout programs, allow you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality. 117-Illustration programs, also known as drawing programs, are used to create and edit bitmap images. A) True B) False Feedback: Illustration programs, also known as drawing programs, are used to create and edit vector images. 118-Flash animation is a specialized program available to aid in the creation of animation. A) True B) False Feedback: One type of interactive animation is produced using software from Adobe, called Flash; it is usually full-screen, highly dynamic, and interactive. 119-Virtual reality programs are not popular since they require very-high-end software costing several thousands of dollars. A) True B) False Feedback: Recently, several lower-cost yet powerful authoring programs have been introduced. 120 120-Virtual reality based expert system allow users to respond to questions with phrases such as, "great," "OK," "terrible," and so on. A) True B) False

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Feedback: Many expert systems use so-called fuzzy logic, which allows users to respond to questions in a very humanlike way. 121-This type of software is designed to help you be more productive in performing tasks, and is widely used in nearly every discipline and occupation. A) Communications software B) Utility software C) Basic applications software D) System software Feedback: Basic applications (also known as general-purpose applications and productivity applications) are widely used in nearly every discipline and occupation.

122-Which one of the following would not be one of the most widely used word processing program? A) Word B) WordPerfect C) Word Pro D) AbiWord Feedback: AbiWord is a free open source word processing program similar to Microsoft Word. 123-Which among the following statements is incorrect? A) A numeric entry can be a number or a formula. B) Rows are identified by letters and columns are identified by numbers. C) A range is a series of continuous cells. D) Workbook files consist of one or more related worksheets. Feedback: Columns are identified by letters and the rows are identified by numbers. 124-These are primarily used to enter new records and to make changes to existing records. A) Questions B) Reports C) Forms D) Queries Feedback: Database forms are primarily used to enter new records and to make changes to existing records. 125-Microsoft Works Suite is classified as this type of software suite. A) Utility B) Productivity C) Personal D) Specialized Feedback: Microsoft Works Suite is a well-known personal suite. 126-A cell can contain text entries or labels, which provide structure to a worksheet by describing the contents of rows and columns. A) True B) False Feedback: Text entries or labels provide structure to a worksheet by describing the contents of rows and columns. 127-Analytical graphs or charts are numeric representations of data in a worksheet. A) True B) False Feedback: Analytical graphs or charts are visual representations of data in a worksheet. 128-Master slides appear in presentation; control format and placement of all slides in a presentation. A) True B) False Feedback: Master slide is a special slide that does not appear in a presentation but controls the format and placement of all slides in a presentation. 129-Object linking and embedding (OLE) is a feature to dynamically share and exchange data. A) True

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B) False Feedback: Data created by one application can be shared with another application in a variety of different ways, including copying and pasting, object linking, and object embedding. 130-With object embedding, the object is embedded into the destination file and the embedded object can be run from that file. A) True B) False Feedback: With object embedding, the object is embedded into the destination file and the embedded object can be run from that file. 131-This provides in one tool an uncomplicated interface to the Internet and Web documents. A) Internet service providers. B) Browsers. C) E-mail. D) Filters. Feedback: Browsers are programs that provide access to Web resources. They provide in one tool an uncomplicated interface to the Internet and Web documents. 132-These typically appear as underlined and colored text and/or images. A) Top-level domain names. B) Protocols. C) Applets. D) Hyperlinks. Feedback: Hyperlinks or links connect to other documents containing related information-text files, graphic images, audio, and video clips and typically appear on the Web page as underlined and colored text and/or images. 133-The recently enacted CAN-SPAM Act requires that marketing-related e-mail provide an _____ option. A) opt-out B) no-send C) only-once D) block-me

Feedback: The recently enacted CAN-SPAM Act requires that every marketing-related e-mail provide an opt-out option. When the option is selected, the recipient's e-mail address is to be removed from future mailing lists. Failure to do so results in heavy fines. 134-These search engines receive the results of the search, eliminate duplicates, orders and hits, and then provides the edited list to the user. A) Metasearch engines. B) Keyword searches. C) Directory searches. D) Specialized engines. Feedback: Metasearch engines are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. 135-Whether the author of information on a Web site appears to have a personal agenda aimed at convincing or changing the reader's opinion is answered under this variable. A) Accuracy. B) Authority. C) Objectivity. D) Currency. Feedback: Objectivity: Is the information factually reported or does the author have a bias. Does the author appear to have a personal agenda aimed at convincing or changing the reader's opinion? 136-Business-to-consumer often eliminates the middleman by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. A) True B) False Feedback: Business-to-consumer (B2C) involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. eliminates the middleman by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers.

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137-The only advantage that e-trading has over traditional full service brokers is that it is very convenient. A) True B) False Feedback: While e-trading is more convenient than using a traditional full service broker, the greatest advantage is cost. 138-Digital cash is as or more convenient than credit card purchases, and is more secure. A) True B) False Feedback: Digital cash is the Internet's equivalent to traditional cash. Although not as convenient as credit card purchases, digitalcash is more secure. 139-Thinkfree is an example of a Web-based application program. A) True B) False Feedback: An emerging trend, however, is to free users from owning and storing applications by using Web-based services such as ThinkFree. 140-Filter programs allow parents as well as organizations to block out selected sites and set time limits. A) True B) False Feedback: Filters block access to selected sites. Filter programs allow parents as well as organizations to block out selected sites and set time limits. 141-In the larger picture, _____ are common tools in all areas of life. A) supercomputers B) microcomputers C) mainframes D) minicomputers Feedback: Microcomputers are common tools in all areas of life. Writers write, artists draw, engineers and scientists calculate-all on microcomputers. 142-Software and hardware manufacturers provide manuals stating the _____ in either a printed format or in electronic form. A) software features B) adjoining outputs list C) adjoining utilities list D) procedures Feedback: Software and hardware manufacturers provide manuals with their products. These manuals are provided either in printed or electronic form. 143-Which of the following is an example of connectivity? A) Internet B) Floppy disk C) Power cord D) Data Feedback: Connectivity allows computers to connect and share information. This includes Internet connections. 144-Minicomputers are also known as A) midrange computers. B) personal digital assistants. C) mainframe computers. D) laptop computers. Feedback: Minicomputers are also known as midrange computers. 145-The concept describing the ability of end users to tap into resources well beyond their desktops is called A) networks. B) connectivity. C) centralized source. D) open source. Feedback: Wireless connection is the ability to communicate with other computers without requiring a physical connection such as wires.

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146-To be competent with computer technology, one needs to know the five parts of an information system, including people, procedures, software, hardware, and the Internet, along with knowledge about the Web. A) True B) False Feedback: To be competent with computer technology, you need to know the five parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, and data. 147-Connectivity allows users to greatly expand the capability and usefulness of their information systems. A) True B) False Feedback: Connectivity allows computers to connect and share information. Connections can be by telephone lines, by cable, through the air. 148-Specialized applications are the kinds of programs that people have to know to be considered computer competent. A) True B) False Feedback: Basic applications are widely used in nearly all career areas. They are the kinds of programs you have to know to be considered computer competent. 149-The microprocessor controls and manipulates data to produce information. A) True B) False Feedback: The microprocessor controls and manipulates data to produce information. 150-The three types of optical discs include compact disks, digital versatile discs, or videos, and high definition discs. A) True B) False s Feedback: Optical discs use laser technology and have the greatest capacity. Three types of optical discs are compact discs (CDs), digital versatile (or video) discs (DVDs), and high definition (hi def) discs.

151- UNIVAC is a. Universal Automatic Computer b. Universal Array Computer c. Unique Automatic Computer d. Unvalued Automatic Computer Correct Answer: a. Universal Automatic Computer Explanation: There are no computers with the name as in other options. UNIVAC was the first general purpose electronic digital computer designed for commercial use, produced by Universal Accounting Company of John Mauchly and J.P.Eckert in 1951. 152- CD-ROM stands for a. Compactable Read Only Memory b. Compact Data Read Only Memory c. Compactable Disk Read Only Memory d. Compact Disk Read Only Memory Correct Answer: d. Compact Disk Read Only Memory Explanation: There are no objects with the name as in other options. CD-ROM is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact disk, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. The standard 12 cm diameter CD-ROM store about 660 megabytes. 153- ALU is a. Arithmetic Logic Unit b. Array Logic Unit c. Application Logic Unit

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d. None of above Correct Answer: a. Arithmetic Logic Unit Explanation: ALU is a unit in Central Processing Unit in a computer system that is responsible for arithmetic calculations and logical operations. Apart from ALU, the CPU contains MU (Memory Unit) and CU (Control Unit). 154- VGA is a. Video Graphics Array b. Visual Graphics Array c. Volatile Graphics Array d. Video Graphics Adapter Correct Answer: a. Video Graphics Array Explanation: VGA is a type of Graphics Adapter. Graphic Adapter is an electronic board that controls the display of a monitor. This device helps the motherboard to work with the monitor and in VGA and SVGA the last letter A stands for Array whereas in MDA, CGA, MCGA the last letter A stands for Adapter. 155- IBM 1401 is a. First Generation Computer b. Second Generation Computer c. Third Generation Computer d. Fourth Generation Computer Correct Answer: b. Second Generation Computer Explanation: IBM 1401 is a Second Generation Computer and is the first computer to enter Nepal in 2028 BS for census. Government of Nepal had brought this computer on rent and later purchased for data processing in Bureau of Statistics. After this computer, another ICL 2950/10, a British computer, was purchased by the fund of UNDP and UNFPA for the census of 2038 BS is second computer in Nepal. 156-. MSI stands for a. Medium Scale Integrated Circuits b. Medium System Integrated Circuits c. Medium Scale Intelligent Circuit d. Medium System Intelligent Circuit Correct Answer: a. Medium Scale Integrated Circuits Explanation: After the invention of IC chips the development of computers plunged into next phase. Small Scale Integration and Medium Scale Integration (SSI and MSI) were used in third generation of computers and Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI and VLSI) are being used in fourth generation of computers. People are now expecting ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) Circuits to be used for fifth generation computers. 157- The capacity of 3.5 inch floppy disk is a. 1.40 MB b. 1.44 GB c. 1.40 GB d. 1.44 MB Correct Answer: d. 1.44 MB Explanation: Microfloppy disks (3.5 inch) if it is high density (MF2HD) can store 1.44 MB and if it is low density (MF2DD), it can store 720 KB. Mini Floppy disks (5.25 inch) if it is high density (MD2HD) can store 1.2 MB and low density (MD2DD) stores 360 KB of data. 158- The first computer introduced in Nepal was a. IBM 1400 b. IBM 1401 c. IBM 1402

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d. IBM1402 Correct Answer: b. IBM 1401 Explanation: IBM 1401, a second generation computer was brought in Nepal by the Government of Nepal paying One Lakh and twenty five thousands per month to use in the census in 2028 B.S. Before this computer, Nepal was using a calculating device called Facit for statistical tasks. 159- WAN stands for a. Wap Area Network b. Wide Area Network c. Wide Array Net d. Wireless Area Network Correct Answer: b. Wide Area Network Explanation: There are three different classes of computer network namely, Local Area Network (LAN) that covers a small geographical area such as a room, a building or a compound; Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) that has a citywide coverage; and Wide Area Network (WAN) that covers the whole globe or beyond the globe. 160-. MICR stands for a. Magnetic Ink Character Reader b. Magnetic Ink Code Reader c. Magnetic Ink Cases Reader d. None Correct Answer: a. Magnetic Ink Character Reader Explanation: MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader) is kind of scanner that can scan and identify the writing of magnetic ink. This device is used in banks to verify signatures in Checks. 161- EBCDIC stands for a. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code b. Extended Bit Code Decimal Interchange Code c. Extended Bit Case Decimal Interchange Code d. Extended Binary Case Decimal Interchange Code Correct Answer: a. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Explanation: EBCDIC is an 8-bit binary code for larger IBMs primarily mainframes in which each byte represent one alphanumeric character or two decimal digits. 256 characters can be coded using EBCDIC. 162- BCD is a. Binary Coded Decimal b. Bit Coded Decimal c. Binary Coded Digit d. Bit Coded Digit Correct Answer: a. Binary Coded Decimal Explanation: BCD is a binary coded notation in which each of the decimal digits is expressed as a 8-bit binary numeral. For example in binary coded decimal notation 12 is 0001 0010 as opposed to 1100 in pure binary. 163- ASCII stands for a. American Stable Code for International Interchange b. American Standard Case for Institutional Interchange c. American Standard Code for Information Interchange d. American Standard Code for Interchange Information Correct Answer: c. American Standard Code for Information Interchange

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Explanation: ASCII is a code which converts characters letters, digits, punctuations and control characters such as Alt, Tab etc into numeral form. ASCII code is used to represent data internally in micro-computers. ASCII codes are 7 bits and can represent 0 to 127 and extended ASCII are 8 bits that represents 0 to 255. 164- Which of the following is first generation of computer a. EDSAC b. IBM-1401 c. CDC-1604 d. ICL-2900 Correct Answer: a. EDSAC Explanation: IBM-1401, CDC-1604 is second generation computer. ICL-2900 is a fourth generation computer. EDSAC is important in the development of computer since it was the first computer to use John von. Neumanns Stored Program Concept. It used 3000 vacuum tubes and computers with vacuum tubes are of first generation computers. 165- Chief component of first generation computer was a. Transistors b. Vacuum Tubes and Valves c. Integrated Circuits d. None of above Correct Answer: b. Vacuum Tubes and Valves Explanation: Transistors were used for second generation computers and integrated circuits in third generation. First generation computers used vacuum tubes and valves as their main electronic component. Vacuum Tubes were invented by Lee DeForest in 1908. 166- FORTRAN is a. File Translation b. Format Translation c. Formula Translation d. Floppy Translation Correct Answer: c. Formula Translation Explanation: FORTRAN (Formula Translation) is one of the earlier High Level programming languages used to write scientific applications. It was developed by IBM in 1956. 167- EEPROM stand for a. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory b. Easily Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory c. Electronic Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory d. None of the above Correct Answer: a. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Explanation: There are three types of ROM namely, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM. PROM cant be reprogrammed, EPROM can be erased by exposing it in high intensity ultraviolet light and EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed electrically. It is not needed to be removed from the computer to be modified. 168- Second Generation computers were developed during a. 1949 to 1955 b. 1956 to 1965 c. 1965 to 1970 d. 1970 to 1990 Correct Answer: 1956 to 1965 Explanation: Second generation computers used transistors as their main electronic component. Transistor was invented by Bell Lab Scientists John Burdeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley in 1947 and won the Nobel Prize in 1956 but it was not used in computers till 1956. The second generation continued until the implementation of IC chips invented by Jack Kilby in Texas Instruments in 1958.

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169- The computer size was very large in a. First Generation b. Second Generation c. Third Generation d. Fourth Generation Correct Answer: a. First Generation Explanation: It is obvious that computers developed with more power, reliability, speed and smaller sizes due to the enhancement of technology. First generation computers used 1000s of vacuum tubes that required lot of space made them gigantic in size. Single transistor could replace 1000 vacuum tubes and a single IC chip replaced 1000s of transistors made computers smaller and more speedy. 170-. Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers a. First Generation b. Second Generation c. Third Generation d. Fourth Generation Correct Answer: Fourth Generation Explanation: Microprocessors further revolutionized the development of computers. Personal microcomputers were possible due to the microprocessors. The first microprocessor called Intel 4004 was developed by American Intel Corporation in 1971. Microprocessors are used in the computers of fourth generation computers.

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The brain of a computer is 1 CPU 2 CD 3 Floppy disc 4 Megabyte Ans:1 Transistors are associated with which computer system? 1 First generation 2 Fifth generation 3 Second generation 4 None of these Ans:3 A dot-matrix printer 1 is an input-output device 2 is an output device only 3 is an input device only 4 None of these Ans:2 The retrieval of information from the computer is defined as 1 collection of data 2 data retrieval operations 3 output 4 data output collection Ans:3 Which one of the following is not a programming language of a computer? 1 BASIC 2 FORTRAN 3 LASER 4 PASCAL Ans:3

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176-.

First generation computer systems used 1 Transistors 2 Vacuum tubes 3 Magnetic cores 4 Silicon chips Ans:2 Silicon Valley of India is located in 1 Dehradun 2 Bangalore 3 Hyderabad 4 Srinagar Ans:2 In computer language, one kilobyte equals 1 1000 bytes 2 1024 bytes 3 100 bytes 4 8 bytes Ans:2 Which of the following circuit is used as a 'Memory device' in computers? 1 Rectifier 2 Flip-Flop 3 Comparator 4 Attenuator Ans:2 Consider the following statements about Internet facility: 1 It serves as the largest one-line information system. 2 It provides the most dependable and latest mode for sending E-mail. 3 Recurring expenditure on communication E-mail is very high. 4 It is often misused and has triggered cyber-crimes. Ans:1

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179-.

180-.

181-. All of the following are examples of real security and privacy risks EXCEPT: A. hackers. B. spam. C. viruses. D. identity theft. Answer: B 182-. A process known as ____________ is used by large retailers to study trends. A. data mining B. data selection C. POS D. data conversion Answer: A 183-. ____________terminals (formerly known as cash registers) are often connected to complex inventory and sales computer systems. A. Data B. Point-of-sale (POS) C. Sales D. Query Answer: B 184-. A(n) ____________ system is a small, wireless handheld computer that scans an items tag and pulls up the current price (and any special offers) as you shop. A. PSS B. POS C. inventory

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D. data mining Answer: A 185-. The ability to recover and read deleted or damaged files from a criminals computer is an example of a law enforcement specialty called: A. robotics. B. simulation. C. computer forensics. D. animation. Answer: C 186- Which of the following is NOT one of the four major data processing functions of a computer? A. gathering data B. processing data into information C. analyzing the data or information D. storing the data or information Answer: C 187-. ____________ tags, when placed on an animal, can be used to record and track in a database all of the animals movements. A. POS B. RFID C. PPS D. GPS Answer: B 188-. Surgeons can perform delicate operations by manipulating devices through computers instead of manually. This technology is known as: A. robotics. B. computer forensics. C. simulation. D. forecasting. Answer: A 189-. Technology no longer protected by copyright, available to everyone, is considered to be: A. proprietary. B. open. C. experimental. D. in the public domain. Answer: A 190- ____________ is the study of molecules and structures whose size ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers. A. Nanoscience B. Microelectrodes C. Computer forensics D. Artificial intelligence Answer: A 191- ____________ is the science that attempts to produce machines that display the same type of intelligence that humans do. A. Nanoscience B. Nanotechnology C. Simulation D. Artificial intelligence (AI) Answer: D 192- ____________ is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion. A. A process B. Software C. Storage D. Information Answer: D

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193- The name for the way that computers manipulate data into information is called: A. programming. B. processing. C. storing. D. organizing. Answer: B 194- Computers gather data, which means that they allow users to ____________ data. A. present B. input C. output D. store Answer: B 195- After a picture has been taken with a digital camera and processed appropriately, the actual print of the picture is considered: A. data. B. output. C. input. D. the process. Answer: B 196- Computers use the ____________ language to process data. A. processing B. kilobyte C. binary D. representational Answer: C 197- Computers process data into information by working exclusively with: A. multimedia. B. words. C. characters. D. numbers. Answer: D 198- In the binary language each letter of the alphabet, each number and each special character is made up of a unique combination of: A. eight bytes. B. eight kilobytes. C. eight characters. D. eight bits. Answer: D 199- The term bit is short for: A. megabyte. B. binary language. C. binary digit. D. binary number. Answer: C 200- A string of eight 0s and 1s is called a: A. megabyte. B. byte. C. kilobyte. D. gigabyte. Answer: B 201- A ____________ is approximately one billion bytes. A. kilobyte B. bit C. gigabyte D. megabyte Answer: C

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202- A ____________ is approximately a million bytes. A. gigabyte B. kilobyte C. megabyte D. terabyte Answer: C 203- ____________ is any part of the computer that you can physically touch. A. Hardware B. A device C. A peripheral D. An application Answer: A 204- The components that process data are located in the: A. input devices. B. output devices. C. system unit. D. storage component. Answer: C 205- All of the following are examples of input devices EXCEPT a: A. scanner. B. mouse. C. keyboard. D. printer. Answer: D 206- Which of the following is an example of an input device? A. scanner B. speaker C. CD D. printer Answer: A 207- All of the following are examples of storage devices EXCEPT: A. hard disk drives. B. printers. C. floppy disk drives. D. CD drives. Answer: B 208- The ____________, also called the brains of the computer, is responsible for processing data. A. motherboard B. memory C. RAM D. central processing unit (CPU) Answer: D 209- The CPU and memory are located on the: A. expansion board. B. motherboard. C. storage device. D. output device. Answer: B 210- Word processing, spreadsheet, and photo-editing are examples of: A. application software. B. system software. C. operating system software. D. platform software. Answer: A 211- ____________ is a set of computer programs used on a computer to help perform tasks. A. An instruction

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B. Software C. Memory D. A processor Answer: B 212- System software is the set of programs that enables your computers hardware devices and ____________ software to work together. A. management B. processing C. utility D. application Answer: D 213- The PC (personal computer) and the Apple Macintosh are examples of two different: A. platforms. B. applications. C. programs. D. storage devices. Answer: A 214- Apple Macintoshes (Macs) and PCs use different ____________ to process data and different operating systems. A. languages B. methods C. CPUs D. storage devices Answer: C 215- Servers are computers that provide resources to other computers connected to a: A. network. B. mainframe. C. supercomputer. D. client. Answer: A 216- Smaller and less expensive PC-based servers are replacing ____________ in many businesses. A. supercomputers B. clients C. laptops D. mainframes Answer: D 217- ____________ are specially designed computers that perform complex calculations extremely rapidly. A. Servers B. Supercomputers C. Laptops D. Mainframes Answer: B 218- DSL is an example of a(n) ____________ connection. A. network B. wireless C. slow D. broadband Answer: D 219- The difference between people with access to computers and the Internet and those without this access is known as the: A. digital divide. B. Internet divide. C. Web divide. D. broadband divide. Answer: A 220- ____________ is the science revolving around the use of nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale.

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A. Nanotechnology B. Micro-technology C. Computer forensics D. Artificial intelligence Answer: A 221- Which of the following is the correct order of the four major functions of a computer? A. Process Output Input Storage B. Input Output Process Storage C. Process Storage Input Output D. Input Process Output Storage Answer: D 222- ____________ bits equal one byte. A. Eight B. Two C. One thousand D. One million Answer: A 223- The binary language consists of ____________ digit(s). A. 8 B. 2 C. 1,000 D. 1 Answer: B 224- A byte can hold one ____________ of data. A. bit B. binary digit C. character D. kilobyte Answer: C 225- ____________ controls the way in which the computer system functions and provides a means by which users can interact with the computer. A. The platform B. The operating system C. Application software D. The motherboard Answer: B 226- The operating system is the most common type of ____________ software. A. communication B. application C. system D. word-processing software Answer: C 227- ____________ are specially designed computer chips that reside inside other devices, such as your car or your electronic thermostat. A. Servers B. Embedded computers C. Robotic computers D. Mainframes Answer: B 228- The steps and tasks needed to process data, such as responses to questions or clicking an icon, are called: A. instructions. B. the operating system. C. application software. D. the system unit. Answer: A 229- The two broad categories of software are: A. word processing and spreadsheet.

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B. transaction and application. C. Windows and Mac OS. D. system and application. Answer: D 230- The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer is the: A. system unit. B. CPU. C. mainframe. D. platform. Answer: A Fill in the Blank: 231- Between PCs and Macs, the ____________ is the platform of choice for graphic design and animation. Answer: Mac 232- The ____________ is the program that manages the hardware of the computer system, including the CPU, memory, storage devices, and input/output devices. Answer: operating system 233- The type of operating system software you use depends on your computers ____________. Answer: platform 234- ____________software helps you carry out tasks, such as typing a document or creating a spreadsheet. Answer: Application 235- ____________are the fastest and most expensive computers. Answer: Supercomputers 236- A ____________ is approximately 1,000 bytes. Answer: kilobyte 237- Input devices are used to provide the steps and tasks the computer needs to process data, and these steps and tasks are called ____________. Answer: instructions 238- A computer gathers data, processes it, outputs the data or information, and ____________ the data or information. Answer: stores 239- The binary language consists of two digits: ____________ and ____________. Answer: 0 and 1 240- A string of ____________ 0s and 1s is called a byte. Answer: eight (8) 241- The devices you use to enter data into a computer system are known as ____________ devices. Answer: input 242- The devices on a computer system that let you see the processed information are known as ____________ devices. Answer: output 243- ____________ is the set of computer instructions or programs that enables the hardware to perform different tasks. Answer: Software 244- When you connect to the ____________, your computer is communicating with a server at your Internet service provider (ISP). Answer: Internet 245-____________ are computers that excel at executing many different computer programs at the same time. Answer: Mainframes

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246- ____________is the application of computer systems and techniques to gather legal evidence. Answer: Computer forensics 247-____________ is the science that attempts to create machines that will emulate the human thought process. Answer: Artificial intelligence (AI) 248- Macintosh computers use the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS), whereas PCs generally run ____________ as an operating system. Answer: Microsoft Windows 239- A process known as ____________ tracks trends and allows retailers to respond to consumer buying patterns. Answer: data mining 240- Hard disk drives and CD drives are examples of ____________ devices. Answer: storage 241- You would use ____________ software to create spreadsheets, type documents, and edit photos. Answer: application 242- ____________ are computers that support hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. Answer: Mainframes 243- ____________ is the term given to the act of stealing someones identity and ruining their credit rating. Answer: Identity theft 244- Surgeons are using ____________ to guide robots to perform delicate surgery. Answer: computers 245- Patient ____________ are life-sized mannequins that have a pulse and a heartbeat and respond to procedures just like humans. Answer: simulators True and False 246- Currently, the performance of tasks by robots is based on preprogrammed algorithms. Answer: True 247- Data can be a number, a word, a picture, or a sound. Answer: True 248- Strictly defined, a computer is a data processing device. Answer: True 249- The discrepancy between the haves and have-nots with regard to computer technology is commonly referred to as the digital society. Answer: False (digital divide) 250- One of the benefits of becoming computer fluent is being a savvy computer user and consumer and knowing how to avoid viruses, the programs that pose threats to computer security. Answer: True 251- Trend-spotting programs, developed for business, have been used to predict criminal activity. Answer: True 252- Employers do not have the right to monitor e-mail and network traffic on employee systems used at work. Answer: False 253- Clicking on an icon with the mouse is a form of giving an instruction to the computer. Answer: True 254- Output devices store instructions or data that the CPU processes.

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Answer: False (memory) 255- The CPU and memory are located on a special circuit board in the system unit called the motherboard. Answer: True 256- Nanostructures represent the smallest human-made structures that can be built. Answer: True 257- The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that supercomputers are designed to execute a few programs as quickly as possible, whereas mainframes are designed to handle many programs running at the same time (but at a slower pace). Answer: True 258-Being computer fluent means that you should be able to build a computer yourself. Answer: False 259- Embedded computers are self-contained computer devices that have their own programming and do not receive input. Answer: True 260- A Web browser is a special device that is installed in your computer that allows it to communicate with other devices on a network. Answer: False (network adapter) 261- With a wireless network, it is easier to relocate devices. Answer: True 262- The most common type of memory that the computer uses to process data is ROM. Answer: False (RAM) Matching: 263- Match the following terms with their approximate size: I. kilobyte A. one million bytes II. byte B. eight bits III. gigabyte C. one thousand bytes IV. megabyte D. one billion bytes V. terabyte E. one trillion bytes Answer: C, B, D, A, E 264- Match the following terms with their meanings: I. printer A. storage device II. scanner B. output device III. RAM C. input device IV. CPU D. a type of memory V. CD drive E. processor Answer: B, C, D, E, A 265- Match the following terms with their meanings: I. mainframe A. the most expensive computers that perform complex calculations extremely rapidly II. supercomputer B. a computer that provides resources to other computers connected to a network III. embedded computer C. a large, expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously IV. PDA D. a self-contained computer device that usually performs preprogrammed functions such as temperature control V. server E. a small mobile computing device Answer: C, A, D, E, B 266- Match the following terms with their meanings: I. software A. transforming data into information II. hardware B. data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion

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III. operating system C. any part of the computer that you can physically touch IV. processing D. a set of computer programs that enables hardware to perform different tasks V. information E. the most common type of system software, it controls the way in which the computer system functions Answer: D, C, E, A, B 267- Match the following terms with their meanings: I. system software A. the set of programs that enables computer hardware devices and application software to work together II. application software B. the kind of operating system software you will use depends on this III. platform C. operating system software generally used on PCs IV. Microsoft Windows D. a set of programs used to accomplish a specific task V. Mac OS E. operating system software used on the Apple Macintosh Answer: A, D, B, C, E

268- Match the following terms with their meanings: I. data A. the main circuit board in the system unit II. memory B. the representation of a fact or idea (unprocessed information) III. output C. processed data or information IV. storage D. holds instructions or data that the CPU processes V. motherboard E. data or information that can be accessed again Answer: B, D, C, E, A 269- Match the following terms with their meanings: I. bit A. the science revolving around the use of nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale II. binary language B. the case that contains the system components III. instructions C. consists of 0s and 1s IV. system unit D. short for binary digit V. nanotechnology E. steps and tasks necessary to process data into usable information Answer: D, C, E, B, A 270-. Match the following fields to the related computer technology: I. medicine A. Internet research and virtual tours II. business B. data mining III. law enforcement C. robotics and simulation IV. education D. computer forensics V. archeology E. digital recreations of ruins Answer: C, B, D, A, E

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