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Daniel Wang Ms. Glatter HUM II APUSH, period 3 December 6, 2011 Antebellum America Terms 1.

Andrew Jackson: Andrew Jackson was a member of the Democratic Party who became president after the 1828 election. His presidency is known as the age of the common man. Jackson thought of himself as a national leader rather than a sectional leader. The executive branch was very strong under Jacksons presidency (Glatter 11/15/11). 2. Spoils System: The Spoils System was Jacksons act of rewarding party loyalists by giving them political positions in the government. This set a precedent until the Pendleton Act of 1883. The Spoils System only replaced 10% of 10,093 officeholders (Glatter 11/15/11). 3. Indian Removal Act: The Indian Removal Act (1830) ordered the removal of Indian Tribes residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. The tribes that resisted were forcibly removed by American forces (Kennedy 285). 4. Worcester v. Georgia: In Worcester v. Georgia, Marshall argued that the Cherokees were a domestic dependent nation and could not be forced by the state of Georgia to give up its land. However, Jackson ignored the court ruling and continued to support the removal of Indians (Glatter 11/15/11). 5. Election of 1824: The Election of 1824 was between Quincy Adams (84 electoral votes), William Crawford (41), Clay (37), and Jackson (99). Even though Jackson had the most electoral votes, he did not have the 131 needed for the majority. The decision for the next president rested on the House of Representatives. Clay used his influence with the house to help Adams win the presidency in return for becoming the secretary of state. Jackson called this a corrupt bargain that violated the will of the people. This also may have caused Jacksons hatred toward Clay (Glatter 11/15/11). 6. Election of 1828: The Election of 1828 was between Jackson (Democratic Republican) and Adams (National Republican). Jackson won the election with 178 electoral votes to 83. This election was the first to demonstrate the power and effectiveness of the new party system (Glatter 11/15/11). 7. Peggy Eaton Affair: Jacksons secretary of war, John Henry Eaton, married Peggy, who was rumored to have been with other men. The respectable women of DC shunned Peggy. Jackson, aroused by memories of slander against his own wife, defended Peggy and urged his cabinet members to have their wives call upon her. The women refused. This drove a wedge between Jackson and Calhoun, whose wife was a leader in the anti-Peggy group (Glatter 11/15/11). 8. Whigs: The Whigs were a political party that originated from the National Republicans in the 1830s. They were primarily Anti-Jackson because of his tariffs (they feared other countries would retaliate with tariffs) (Glatter 11/15/11). 9. John Calhoun: Calhoun was vice president for Quincy Adams and later Jackson. Calhoun was from South Carolina and was dogmatic and uncompromising. He was a nationalist and an expansionist. Calhoun was supportive of the American System. Even though he was Jacksons vice president, he was not very close with Jackson. Calhoun later resigned and became senator while Van Buren was elected as vice president (Glatter 11/15/11). 10. Nullification Crisis (1832-1833): The Nullification Crisis was between Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833 (Kennedy 282).

11. Maysville Road Veto: The Maysville Road Veto, which occurred in 1830, involved President Jackson vetoing a bill that provided federal funding for Kentucky roads. With the Maysville Road Veto, Jackson demonstrated his views on national government, and how it should not interfere with state activities as it was unconstitutional. Jackson also believed that federal funds were a threat to states rights (Glatter 11/8). 12. Second National Bank: The Second National Bank was a target of Jacksons actions during his presidency. In 1832 Jackson vetoed the Second National Bank, demonstrating his views on how national bank was harmful to the nation, and that the monopoly it created was unconstitutional. Jacksons actions involving the Second National Bank can be connected to the later Panic of 1837, as it stopped the speculative frenzy out West (Glatter 11/8). 13. American System: The American System was an elaborate scheme that promoted a protective tariff on manufacturing, roads and canals, and a strong banking system. The American System would be the main clashing point between the Whigs Party and the Democratic Party (Kennedy 256). 14. Lowell Mills: One of the emerging textile mills that employed women, the factory jobs promoted greater financial independence for women, and the opportunity to buy manufactured products of the new market economy. However, the Mills were very strict, and provided the women few chances to share their dissatisfactions over the bad work conditions. The Lowell Mills is an example of the growing power and independence of women (Kennedy 325). 15. Transcendentalism: Transcendentalism was a movement during the 1830s that supported individualism, simplicity, experiencing the sublime, and the embracing of nature. Famous transcendentalists include Ralph Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau, who published works such as Walden and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. Transcendentalism was one of the many movements based on reforming culture (Glatter 12/1). 16. Hudson River School: The Hudson River School was an art school that focused on romantic mirroring of local landscapes, a change from the previously popular human landscapes. The school was part of the nationalistic upsurge after the War of 1812, and one of the reforms that took place in American culture (Kennedy 259). 17. Temperance: Temperance was a movement that focused on anti-alcohol, believing that it decreased the efficiency of labor, fouled the sanctity of family, and threatened the safety of everyone. The American Temperance Society, formed in 1826, was a highly successful group that was able to create around a thousand local groups that all implored drinkers to sign pledges of temperance. The Temperance movement was a part of the reforms of American culture that took place between 1790 and 1860 (Kennedy 350). 18 Harriet Beecher Stowe: Harriet Beecher Stowe was an author and abolitionist who wrote the famous Uncle Toms Cabin, which sparked widespread anti-slavery movements in the North. Stowe was part of the Abolitionist movement in America during the 19th century (Kennedy 386). 19. American Colonization Society: The American Colonization Society was an antislavery society created in 1817. The Society was created not out of sentiment for blacks, but out of widespread hatred, and focused on transporting blacks back to Africa. The Society was one of the earliest abolitionist efforts that would lead to the spread of the abolitionist movement in the 1830s (Kennedy 386). 20. William Lloyd Garrison: Garrison was an abolitionist who favored Northern secession from the South. In 1831, he published the first issue of his newspaper, The Liberator. He bashed slavery and was the influence behind the formation of the Anti-American Slavery Society. His actions grated harshly on northern ears (Kennedy 386). 21. Nat Turner: Nat Turner was a visionary black preacher who led an uprising that slaughtered about sixty Virginians, mostly women and children. Reprisals were swift and his rebellion was

soon extinguished. Slavery revolts occurred sometimes, but were never very successful (Kennedy 384). 22. Second Great Awakening: The Second Great Awakening was religious revival characterized by emotional mass camp meetings and widespread conversion. It brought about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members. It was partly a reaction to rationalism (belief in human reason) from the Enlightenment. Activist religion groups provided both the leadership and the well-organized voluntary societies that drove the reform movement of the antebellum America (Kennedy 341). 23. Declaration of Sentiments (1848): In response to the growing feminist movement, one defiant Stanton at the Womans Rights Convention at Seneca Falls read a Declaration of Sentiments stating that the spirit of Declaration of Independence declared that all men and women are created equal (Kennedy 352). 24. Manifest Destiny: Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined by God to spread its empire of liberty across North America. It served as a justification for midnineteenth century expansionism (Kennedy 403). 25. Mexican War (1845): The United States annexation of Mexico quickly led to conflict with Mexico. President Polk dispatched John Slidell in Mexico City to persuade Mexico to sell California and New Mexico Territories to the US and to settle disputes concerning the MexicoTexas border. Mexico refused to sell California and continued to argue about border issues. American soldiers assaulted Mexico city and won the war (Kennedy 406). 26. Wilmot Proviso (1846): Wilmot Proviso was a failed amendment that sought to abolish slavery from territories acquired from Mexico. It was introduced by Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot, and its failure ratcheted up tensions between the North and South over the issue of slavery. It passed the House twice but was defeated by the Senate (Kennedy 414). 27. Free-Soil Movement (1848-1854): The Free-Soil Movement was supported by Northern Democrats and Whigs who also support Wilmot Proviso, and they opposed the extension of slavery into the territories, arguing that the presence of slavery would limit opportunities for free laborers competing with the labor of slaves or free blacks. They were not abolitionists, only aiming to rid slavery from new parts of the country (Kennedy 417). 28. Know-Nothing Party (1850s): The Know-Nothing party was a Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly German and Irish Catholics. This party drew support away from the Whigs but quickly lost influence as sectional issues became paramount. (Kennedy 314).