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OBJECT: Study of genetic codes

DEFINATION : The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. The code defines how sequences of three nucleotides, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. Because the vast majority of genes are encoded with exactly the same code, this particular code is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though in fact there are many variant codes. For example, protein synthesis in human mitochondria relies on a genetic code that differs from the standard genetic code.

2nd base

1st bas e

UUU

(Phe/F) Phenylala UCU nine

(Ser/S) Serine

UAU

(Tyr/Y) Tyrosin UGU e

(Cys/C) Cystein e

UUC U

(Phe/F) Phenylalanine

UCC

(Ser/S) Serine

UAC

(Tyr/Y) Tyrosine

UGC

(Cys/C) Cysteine

UUA (Leu/L) Leucine

UCA

(Ser/S) Serine

UAA

Stop (Ochre)

UGA

Stop (Opal)

UUG (Leu/L) Leucine

UCG

(Ser/S) Serine

UAG Stop (Amber)

UGG

(Trp/W) Tryptop han

CUU

(Leu/L) Leucine

CCU

(Pro/P) Proline

CAU

(His/H) Histidin CGU e

(Arg/R) Arginine

CUC (Leu/L) Leucine

CCC

(Pro/P) Proline

CAC

(His/H)

CGC

(Arg/R) Arginine

Histidine

CUA (Leu/L) Leucine

CCA

(Pro/P) Proline

CAA

(Gln/Q) Glutam CGA ine

(Arg/R) Arginine

CUG (Leu/L) Leucine

CCG

(Pro/P) Proline

CAG

(Gln/Q) Glutamine

CGG

(Arg/R) Arginine

AUU

(Ile/I) Isoleucine

ACU

(Thr/T) Threonin AAU e

(Asn/N) Aspara AGU gine

(Ser/S) Serine

AUC (Ile/I) Isoleucine A AUA (Ile/I) Isoleucine

ACC

(Thr/T) Threonine

AAC

(Asn/N) Asparagine

AGC

(Ser/S) Serine

ACA

(Thr/T) Threonine

AAA

(Lys/K) Lysine AGA

(Arg/R) Arginine

AUG[A (Met/M) Methionin ACG ] e

(Thr/T) Threonine

AAG

(Lys/K) Lysine AGG

(Arg/R) Arginine

GUU

(Val/V) Valine

GCU

(Ala/A) Alanine

GAU

(Asp/D) Asparti GGU c acid

(Gly/G) Glycine

GUC (Val/V) Valine G GUA (Val/V) Valine

GCC

(Ala/A) Alanine

GAC

(Asp/D) Aspartic acid

GGC

(Gly/G) Glycine

GCA

(Ala/A) Alanine

GAA

(Glu/E) Glutami GGA c acid

(Gly/G) Glycine

GUG (Val/V) Valine

GCG

(Ala/A) Alanine

GAG

(Glu/E) Glutamic acid

GGG

(Gly/G) Glycine

It is considered universal because all organisms use the same codon for the same amino acid. Degeneracy :

Degeneracy is the redundancy of the genetic code. The genetic code has redundancy but no ambiguity (see the codon tables above for the full correlation). For example, although codons GAA and GAG both specify glutamic acid (redundancy), neither of them specifies any other amino acid (no ambiguity). The codons encoding one amino acid may differ in any of their three positions. For example the amino acidglutamic acid is specified by GAA and GAG codons (difference in the third position), the amino acid leucine is specified by UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG codons (difference in the first or third position), while the amino acid serine is specified by UCA, UCG, UCC, UCU, AGU, AGC MERIT OF REDUNDANCY The answer comes down to mutations. Genetic redundancy reduces the lethality of mutations. Point mutations occur during DNA replication, or DNA to RNA translation. A single base nucleotide is replaced with another base nucleotide (of DNA or RNA).Say we have the RNA strand AUG UCU CCA UGA which codes for the peptide fragment 'Methionine-Serine-Proline' (that sequence of amino acids).Say during translation from the DNA, one of the bases is mutated for another, so the RNA strand now reads AUG UCC CCA UGA'.That is, the UCU has changed to UCC (a uracil nucleotide has been changed into a cytosine nucleotide base).If UCU and UCC codons each coded for a different amino acid, now we'd have a different protein strand. It wouldn't be Methionine-SerineProline.However, this isn't the case. UCU and UCC in fact both code for serine. So even though a mutation has occurred, it does not have any affect on the outcome of the protein.If every codon corresponded to a specific and individual amino acid, then such a point-mutation would have much higher lethality in that every time a point-mutation occurred, the resulting protein would be altered. DEMERIT OF REDUNDANCY The demerit of redundancy of genetic code is that we cannot derive codon from amino acid. Because an amino acid can be coded by multiple codons i.e degeneracy. MUTATION: Mutation In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well aserrors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication

TYPES OF MUTATION There are many different ways that DNA can be changed, resulting in different types of mutation. Here is a quick summary of a few of these:
Substitution A substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another (i.e., a change in a single "chemical letter" such as switching an A to a G).

Insertion Insertions are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA.

Deletion Deletions are mutations in which a section of DNA is lost, or deleted.