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# Nahhas' Arnold Sommerfield fine structure constant Mercury's perihelion puzzle solution

Abstract fine structure constant is result of two measurement errors one made by Cavendish and one by Augustine de coulomb and stuck to all of physics and astronomy and related physical sciences. Arnold Sommerfield introduced the fine structure and I will solve Mercury's perihelion puzzle using Arnold Sommerfield fine structure constant.

I am Joe Nahhas and I am real time first physicist: Modern and Nobel Sciences are all wrong

By definition pressure = force divided by area, or P = F/A. The area of an object is constant and pressure is directly proportional to force. Then P1 = (F 1/A) and P2 = (F2/A) and the difference in pressure is P2 - P1 = (F2 - F1)/A, or, F = F2 - F1 = A (P2 - P1), or, gravitational force F is pressure difference or gravitational voltage and Newton's gravity at a distance is a crime. An object with constant area in atmospheric pressure has a force on it due to atmospheric pressure and Earth's rotation. When another object is brought into the vicinity of another object it reduces the atmospheric pressure between them pulling the two objects together due to higher pressure on the opposite sides of the two spheres and creating an easy route between them more of a negative voltage. The reason

an object falls to earth is because of the atmospheric pressure along an object path to Earth is least resistive. Outside an atmosphere there is no direction for an object to follow except that produced by its own spin and produces a circular motion. Page 1

In experiments where the gravitational constant G is measured the spheres are anchored and Earth does not pull them down due to anchoring of the spheres. What has effect on them is Earth's - air rotational period Te = 86160.1 seconds effect and air density d a = 1.2041, and measuring in air introduces air index of refraction n a = 1.000293, and introduces air resistivity a, = 1.00058968 adding to the fact that the inverse square law is wrong. Tyco Brahe's visual measurements of the solar group was/is wrong. Kepler's analysis of Tyco Brahe's measurements and conclusions of an actual ellipse motion of solar group planets around the Sun was/is wrong. Newton mathematical formulation of an inverse square law to fit the data created an Inverse square law that gave relativistic visual elliptic motion and an actual elliptic motion. Newton's law:

Where F = force; G = 6.6729 x 10-11; m = mass of an object; r = distance between their centers. Then Einstein came with force F = G m M/r2 + k/r4 and physics and all sciences became fiction. 500 Years of western civilization physics and astronomy can be deleted without loss of subject. Page 2 Modern era of physics and astronomy chemistry and physical biology is all wrong that started with Tyco Brahe's errors measurements and Kepler's wrong deductions and Newton's wrong formulations and Cavendish wrong experimentation and Le Verrier wrong calculations and Einstein's silly thoughts have/had dragged humanity into reversing Darwin's Apes theory. And when Nobel physicists, astronomers, physical chemists, and physical biologists came science had a new theory: Joe Nahhas' theory: Modern and Nobel scientists are not Apes but dumb Apes! Newton's gravitational law: F = G m M/r2 1 - G has dimensional units of 1/ d (density) T 2 (time2) Cavendish used Hooke's spring method of measuring force between two spheres and used the moment of inertia method. 2- Using moment of inertia introduces a (2/5) spherical error factor

3 - Air index of refraction n a = 1.000293 is measurements is accounted for 4 - Not accounting for air permittivity a = 1.00058968 in measurements introduces a factor. 5 - Energy = force x distance = (force/distance2) (distance2) x distance= pressure x volume The force/ distance2 = pressure and (pressure/distance) = (force/volume) In Cavendish there is no direct contact between objects but there is a change in pressure between the two spheres and the volume of the atmosphere has changed to include masses with densities different that air density or Newton's law would better be F = k/(4 /3) r3 6- A (4 /3) error factor was introduced by Cavendish The only force there is, is Earth rotation with period Te = 86160.1 seconds and not Ts = 24 hours G = 1/ (2/5) ( a) (4 /3) (d a Te 2) Where d a with air density d a = 1.2041 kg/m3 and Earth - Air spin period Te = 86160.1 seconds And a = 1.00058968; G = (8 /15) a (d
a

## Ts 2) (Te 2/Ts2) = 6.6729882 x 10-11

[1] Measurement techniques volume 39, No.10, 1996 Measurement of the gravitational constant using torsion balance O.V. Karagioz; V.P.Izmailov; UDC 528.27; G = (6.6729 +/- 0.0005) x 10-11 Page 3 Cavendish measurement Error is (8 /15) a (Te 2/Ts2) When astronomical measurements are made (Te/Ts) error is added and air permittivity error is doubled a2 to a total of (Te/Ts)/ a2 multiplied by (8 /15) a (Te 2/Ts2) x (Te/Ts)/ a2 To a total of (8 /15) (Te /Ts)
3

It tilted Earth's axis by sine -1 [1 - sine-1 [(8 / 15) (Te/Ts) 3/ a] = 23.44 and that would produce Sun's axial tilt of 7.25 ..Etc and all other modern and Nobel space science fiction

What happens when Earth's axis is experimentally and not actually tilted?

It means orbits are visually tilted and all data is all wrong
And Le Verrier measurement of Planet Mercury angular velocity computed in arc per century is not visually seen as: Sun - Mercury
Period in seconds = 88 days x 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds. Planet Mercury angular velocity around the Sun Is 0'= 2 x /88 x 24 x 60 x 60 radians per period Planet Mercury angular velocity around the Sun in arc second per century 0' = (2 x /88 x 24 x 60 x 60) (180/ century.

## ) (36526/88) (3600) = 70.75 arc second per

But shortened by Alfred Nobel dumb Apes rate: [1 - Sine 23.44] 70.75 = 43 arc second per century. There is nothing correct about modern and Nobel physics and astronomy. [1 - Sine 23.44] x (149.6) x 1.022 (Te/Ts) 3 a = 91.4 million kilometers of planet Mercury visual from Earth and 149.6 - 91.4 = 58.2 million kilometers visual Sun - Mercury distance from Sun. I documented in 1970's the first 3000 errors. The other lethal error of physics and astronomy is distances measurements using parallax Parallax is not a measurement of celestial objects distances but measuring Earth's circular orbit radius and earth's radius using different celestial objects as a reference point. See my article 50 solutions of planet Mercury perihelion out of 611 solutions (1977) of Mercury's perihelion on GSJ. There are at least 1001 formulas expressing the solutions to Mercury's perihelion calculation without Einstein or modern and Nobel space - time fiction.

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Augustine de coulomb ignored G that came back and took Newton's wrong deductions F = G m M/r2 = 1/ [(2/5) (4 /3) a d a Te 2] m M/r2 1- Augustine De coulomb ignored G and multiplied by G-1 FG-1 = m M/r2 2 - Augustine De coulomb multiplied by K
e

Coulomb's law F = K e q Q/r2; q and Q are electric charges F G-1 K e = m M/r2 3 - Augustine de Coulomb's experiment measurement was along the flux lines or divergence quantity and F = q E = Q/ 0 = 4 K e d (Gauss' law); d = charge density. The error in measuring charge density is d
a

In mass to charge measurements the error in 0 is a because the measurement was/is not in measured in free space and in an inverse square law it is The total error along the flux line or distance r is 4 d a
2 a

Coulombs' law is F = G m M/r2 = (G/K e) K e (m/q) q (M/Q) Q/r2 F = (K e q Q/r2) [(G/K e) (m/q) (M/Q)] (G/K e)-1/2 (4 d a 2 a) = q/m; (G/K e)-1/2 (4 d a 2 a) = Q/M And (Q/M) (q/m) = [4 d a 2 a] In measurements {[4 d a 2 a] And (q/m) = 4 d a 5/2 a (K e/G) And 1/ [(4 d a/ 2 a)
2 2

## (G K e) a = fine structure constant

a

Or 1/ = 1/ (G n a] (Cavendish) [(4 d a) 2 K e

This constant will appear in satellite measurements compared to measuring from Earth. It will also affect light velocity measurement. Page 5

T = - 2 T0 sine2 (tan-1 /2); T0 = 1 century T = - 2 x [36526 x24x3600/15] sine2 [tan-1 (0.0072973525698)/2] = 5601.55 arc second per century same as measured The fact this measurement is made from Earth and not from the Sun and Mercury's orbit is around the Sun four measurement errors are attached to it 1 - Earth's inclination of 7.155 to the Sun orbital plane motion 2 - Earth spin of 0.4651 3 - Air permittivity of 1.00058986 4 - Air index of refraction 1.000293 Solution 1 - Inclined orbit error is 1 - sine (90 - 7.155) =1- 0.9922112832 = 0.007787168 And 5601.55 x 0.007787168 = 43.62021201 2 - Earth spin correction is (29.78 - 0.4651)/29.78 = 29.3149/29.78 = 0.984382136 And 0.984382136 x 43.62021201= 42.93895746 3 - Air permittivity = 1.00058986 And 1.00058986 x 42.93895746 = 42.96428543 4 - Air index of refraction = 1.000293 And 1.000293 x 42.96428543 = 42.97687397 = 42.98 Actual measurement is 42.98