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Classification of mineral deposits

Oleh: Yayan Karnadharasamita Purnama 07209052

JURUSAN TEKNIK GOLOGI FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI KEBUMIAN DAN ENERGI UNIVERSITAS TRISAKTI JAKARTA
Berdasarkan hasil-hasil penyelidikan didalam pencarian endapan mineral, ternyata endapan mineral didapatkan pada tempat-tempat tertentu dengan kondisi-kondisi geologi tertentu dan berhubungan erat dengan proses kejadian/ genesa dan cara pengendapannya. Pada umumnya jenis endapan logam dan non logam terbentuk karena proses mineralisasi yang diakibatkan oleh aktivitas magma. Pembentukan mineral tersebut terjadi baik pada batuan beku sebagai batuan induknya maupun pada batuan samping yang ikut terpengaruh karena proses magmatis tersebut. Klasifikasi pembentukan endapan mineral dibuat dengan tujuan untuk mengenal dan mempermudah cara eksplorasi dari endapan mineral yang ditemukan. Dasar pengklasifikasian endapan mineral adalah : 1. Jenis dan asosiasi kandungan mineral 2. Bentuk dan ukuran 3. Cara terbentuknya 4. Proses Kejadian / genesanya Sejak beberapa abad yang lalu, telah dilakukan usaha-usaha pembuatan klasifikasi tersebut. Usaha-usaha trersebut disesuaikan dengan keadaan dan kemajuan industri, peradaban dan ilmu pengetahuan pada saat itu. Semakin lama klasifikasi yang dibuat semakin lengkap dan kompleks, hal ini disebabkan karena banyak ditemukan jenis-jenis endapan baru. Walaupun demikian pembuatan klasifikasi selalu diusahakan supaya sistematis, mudah dipelajari dan bisa diterapkan pada kenyataan dilapangan. Dari beberapa klasifikasi tersebut satu dengan yang lain agak berbeda pengklasifikasiannya, hal ini disebabkan karena perbedaan penekanan tertentu didalam tinjauannya. Oleh karena itu setiap klasifikasi dapat dipakai dengan mengetahui dasar-dasar yang digunakan oleh penulis yang bersangkutan. Berikut beberapa pengklasifikasian endapan mineral : 1. Beck, 1904 I. Primary A. Syngenetic / bersamaan dengan pembentukan batuan induk a. Magmatic Segregations b. Sedimentary ores B. Epigenetic a. Veins b. Epigenetic deposits not veins II. Secondary A. Residual B. Placers 2. Bergeat & Stelzner. 1904 I. Protogene A. Syngenetic / bersamaan dengan pembentukan batuan induk a. With eruptive rocks b. With sedimentary rocks B. Epigenetic a. Cavity fillings b. Replacements II. Secondary

A. Residual B. Placers

3. Irving, 1908 I. Bedrock Deposits A. Syngenetic / bersamaan dengan pembentukan batuan induk a. Igneous b. Sedimentary B. Epigenetic a. Cavity fillings b. Replacements c. Contact metamorphic deposits II. Disintegration deposits A. Mechanical B. Chemical 4. Irving, 1908 (modified) I. Bedrock Deposits A. Syngenetic deposits / bersamaan dengan pembentukan batuan induk a. Igneous b. Sedimentary B. Epigenetic deposits a. Cavity fillings : (a) fissure veins (b) shear zones (c) ladder veins (d) stockworks (e) saddle-reefs (f) tension-crack fillings (g) solution cavity fillings (caves, channels, gash veins) (h) breccia fillings (i) pore-space fillings (j) vesicular fillings b. Replacements deposits : (a) massive (b) lode (c) disseminated c. Contact metamorphic deposits II. Disintegration deposits A. Mechanical B. Residual C. Chemical

5. Lindgren, 1911 I. Deposits by Mechanical Process II. Deposits by Chemical Process A. In surface waters a. By reactions : T = 0-70o C; P = medium to high b. Evaporation B. In bodies of rocks a. Concentration of subtances Contained within rocks : By weathering : T = 0-100oC; P = medium By ground water : T = 0-100oC; P = medium By metamorphism : T = 10-400oC, P = high b. By introduced substances Without igneous activity : T = 0-100oC; P = medium Related to igneous activity By ascending waters o Epithermal deposits : T = 50-200oC; P = medium o Mesothermal deposits : T = 200-300oC; P =high o Hypothermal deposits : T = 300-500oC; P = High+ By direct igneous emanations o Pyrometasomatics deposits : T = 500-800oC; P = high+ o Sublimates : T = 100-600oC; P =low to medium c. In magmas by differentiation Magmatic deposits : T = 700-1500oC; P = high+ Pegmatites III. Disintegration deposits A. Mechanical B. Residual C. Chemical 6. Lindgren, 1933 (revised) I. Hydrothermal deposits A. Epithermal : T = 50-200oC B. Mesothermal : T = 200-360oC C. Hypothermal : T = 360 -500oC II. Emanation deposits A. Sublimates B. Exudation veins, surface type C. Pyrometasomatic deposits D. Exudation veins, deep-scated type III. Magmatic deposits A. Orthotectic a. Differentiation in situ b. Injeccted B. Pneumotectic a. Differentiation in situ b. Injected

7. Schneiderhohn, 1932 I. Magmatic rocks and ore deposits A. Intrusive magmatic I. Intrusive rocks and liquid magmatic deposits I II . Liquid magmatic-pneumatolyric II. Pneumatolytic 1. Pegmatite veins 2. Pneumatolitic veins and impregnations 3. Contact pneumatolytic II III. Pneumatolytic-hydrothermal III. Hydrothermal B. Extrusive magmatic a. Extrusive-hydrothermal b. Exhalation II. Sedimentary deposits A. Weathered zone (oxidation and enrichment) B. Placers C. Residual D. Biochemical-inorganic E. Salts F. Fuels G. Desending ground water deposits III. Metamorphic deposits A. Thermal contact metamorphism B. Metamorphic rocks C. Methamorphosed ore deposits D. Rarely formed metamorphic deposits 8. Bateman, 1942

1. Magmatic concentration. High T and P. I. Early magmatic. A. Disseminated crystallization. B. Segregation. C. Injection. II. Late magmatic. A. Residual liquid segregation. B. Residual liquid injection. C. Immiscible liquid segregation. D. Immiscible liquid injection. 2. Sublimates. Low T and P. 3. Contact metasomatism. Intermediate to high T and P. 4. Hydrothermal processes. T and P conditions from low to high. I. Telethermal II. Epithermal III. Leptothermal IV. Mesothermal V. Hypothermal VI. Xenothermal 5. Sedimentation. Low T and P. 6. Bacteriogenic. 7. Submarine exhalative volcanism. Low to high T and P. 8. Evaporation. Low T and P. I. Marine II. Lake III. Groundwater 9. Residual and Mechanical Concentration. Low T and P. I. Residual concentration. II. Mechanical concentration. Placers. A. Stream B. Beach C. Eluvial D. Eolian 10. Surficial oxidation and supergene enrichment. Low T and P. 11. Metamorphism. Intermediate to high T and P. I. Metamorphosed deposits. II. Metamorphic deposits.

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Stanton, 1972 I. Igneous associations A. Mafic and ultramafic associations 1. Cr-Ni-Platinum Group Elements 2. Fe-Ni-Cu-S-Platinum Group Elements B. Felsic associations 1. Carbonatite-Rare Earths-Cu-P 2. Anorthosite-Fe-Ti 3. Quartz monzonite-granodiorite-Cu-Mo-S II. Sedimentary affiliations A. Fe, B. Mn, C. Limestone-Pb-Zn, D. Sandstone-U-V-Cu, E. Conglomerate-Au-UPyrite III. Marine-Volcanic associations IV. Vein associations A. Precious metal-Te, B. Base metal-S, C. Ag-Co-Ni-As V. Metamorphic Affiliations A. Contact metamorphism B. Regional metamorphism C. Dislocation metamorphism Guilbert & Park, 1986

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I. Mafic igneous rock associations A. Layered mafic intrusions B. Anorthosites C. Kimberlites D. Carbonatites E. Ultramafic volcanic rocks II. Oceanic crust associations III. Intermediate to felsic intrusion associations A. Igneous iron deposits B. Porphyry base-metal deposits C. Hydrothermal iron deposits D. Cordilleran vein-type deposits E. Pegmatites F. Granitic tin and uranium deposits IV. Subaerial volcanic associations V. Submarine volcanic associations A. Volcanogenic massive sulfides B. Banded iron formations C. Exhalite gold deposits VI. Submarine volcanic-sedimentary associations VII. Chemical sedimentation A. Sedimentary base-metal deposits B. Sedimentary iron deposits C. Sedimentary manganese deposits D. Phosphate deposits E. Evaporites F. Manganese nodules VIII. Clastic sedimentation (Placers) IX. Weathering A. Laterites B. Supergene sulfide enrichment X. Regional metamorphism XI. Solution-remobilization XII. Epigenetic deposits of doubtful igneous connection A. Mississippi Valley type Pb-Zn B. Colorado Plateau type U C. Unconformity-related U