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# 5-1 Standard form of a polynomial function End Behavior of a Polynomial function of degree with leading term aX^n a positive:

n even - Up and Up n odd - Down and Up a negative: n even - Down and Down n odd - Up and Down Turning point: 1. function of degree n (n>=1) has at most n-1 turning points 2. odd degree has an even number of tunring point 3. even degree has an odd number of turning point (could be zero turning point) Using differences to determine degree: 1st difference: Subtract the consecutive y-value 2nd difference: Subtract the consecutive first difference 3rd difference: Subtract the consecutive second difference ... and so on until they are constant ================================================================================ === 5-2 factored form of a polynomial Roots, Zeros, x-intercepts 1. x-b is a linear factor of the polynomial P(x) 2. b is a zero of the polynomial function y=P(x) 3. b is a root of the polynomial equation P(x)=0 4. b is an x-intercept of the graph of y=P(x) Factor Theorem The expression x-a is a factor of a polynomial if and only if the value a is a z ero of the related polynomial function. How multiple Zeros affect a graph If "a" is a zero of multiplicity "n" in the polynomial function y=P(x), then the behavior of the graph at the x-intercept "a" will be close to linear if n=1, close to quadratic if n=2, close to cubic if n=3, and so on. ================================================================================ === 5-3 Solving polynomial equations 1. Using factors Techniques: - Factoring out the GCF - Quadratic Trinomials (find factors with product ac and sum b) ax^2 + bx + c - Perfect Square Trinomials (a+b)^2 or (a-b)^2 - Difference of Squares (a^2 - b^2) = (a+b)(a-b)

- Factoring by Grouping - Sum or Difference of Cubes (a^3 + b^3) = (a+b)(a^2 -ab +b^2) (a^3 - b^3) = (a-b)(a^2 +ab +b^2) ================================================================================ === 5-4 Dividing Polynomials Long division :P(x) = D(x)Q(x) + R(x) if R(x)=0, then P(x) = D(x)Q(x) and D(x) and Q(x) are factors of P(x) The process stops when the degree of the remainder, R(x), is less than the degre e of the divisor, D(x). Synthetic division:write the coefficients (including xeros) of the polynomial in standard form. Omi t all variables and exponents. For the divisor (x-a), reverse the sign (use a). The Remainder Theorem: If you divide a polynomial P(x) of degree n>=1 by x-a, then the remainder is P(a ). ================================================================================ === 5-5 Theorems about roots of polynomial equations Rational Root Theorem: Let P(x)= a_n(x^n) + a_n-1(x^(n-1)) + .... + a_1x + a_0 - Integer roots must be factors of a_0 - Rational roots must have reduced form p/q, where p is an integer factor of a_0 and q is an integer factor of a_n. Conjugate Root Theorem If P(x) is a polynomial with rational coeffieients, then the irrational roots of P(x) = 0 occur in conjugate pair. That is if a + rt(b) is a irrational root wit h "a" and "b" rational, then a - rt(b) is also a root. If P(x) is a polynomial with real coeffieients, then the complex roots of P(x) = 0 occur in conjugate pair. That is if a + bi is a complex root with "a" and "b" real, then a - bi is also a root. Descartes's Rules of Signs The number of positive real roots of P(x)=0 is eitehr equal to the number of sig n changes between consecutive coefficients of P(x) or is less than that by an ev en number. The number of negative real roots of P(x)=0 is either equal to the nubmer of sig n changes between consecutive coefficients of P(-x) or is less than that by an e ven number. ================================================================================ === 5-6 The fundamental Theorem of Algebra

If P(x) is apolynomial of degree n>=1, then P(x) = 0 has exactly n roots, inclu ding multiple and complex roots. x^2 + 1 = 0 , i^2 = -1 - Every polynomial equation of degree n>=1 has exactly n roots, including multip le and complex roots. - Every polynomial of degree n>=1 factors into a product of n linear factors. - Every polynomial function of degree n>=1 has at least one complex zero. ================================================================================ === 5-7 The Binomial Theorem Pascal Triangle (coefficients Only) 1 - 0 power (row 0) 1 1 - 1 power (row 1) 1 2 1 - 2 power (row 2) 1 3 3 1 - 3 power (row 3) For each term, the exponents of the variables combine should be equal to the row number ================================================================================ === 5-8 The (n+1) point principle:For any set of n+1 points in the coordinate plane that pass the vertical line te st, there is a unique polynomial of degree at most "n" that fits the points perf ectly. ================================================================================ === 5-9 Transforming Polynomial Functions The graph of the function y= af(x-h) + k is a vertical stretch or compression by a factor a , a horizontal shift of h units, and a vertical shift of k units of the graph of y = f(x). Power function:- is a function of the form y = ax^b, where a and b are nonzero real numbers. ================================================================================ ===