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# Calculus

If c a
b
then the logarithm of c to the base a is b, i.e., c a
b
log
a
c b. Logarithms obey the following
laws:
log(pq) logp +logq log(
p
q
) logp logq log(p
q
) q logp log
b
p
log
a
p
log
a
b
logx log(
1
x
) log
a
a 1 log1 0 e
lnx
x
The limit of a function f (x) at x a
O exists if it approaches the same value from both sides of a, i.e., lim
xa

f (x) lim
xa
+
f (x) lim
xa
f (x); and
O is not dependent on the value of f (x) at x a; indeed f (x) may even be undened at x a.
A function f (x) is continuous at x a if and only if
O f (x) exists;
O lim
xa
f (x) exists; and O lim
xa
f (x) f (a).
A function which is not continuous is discontinuous. The function f
sinx
x
is discontinuous at x 0 despite
the fact that lim
x0

f (x) lim
x0
+
f (x) lim
x0
f (x) 1, because
sinx
x
is undened at x 0. This is a removable point
discontinuity, however, because it may be removed by simply re-dening the function so that f (x) 1 for x
0 and f
sinx
x
elsewhere.
There are four types of discontinuity so:
Type Example Type Example
Point
sinx
x
at x 0 Jump sgn x at x 0
Innite tanx at x

2
Oscillating sin
1
x
at x 0
A function y f (x) is differentiable at x a if and only if
O f (x) is continuous at x a
O
dy
dx

xa

dy
dx

xa
+

dy
dx

xa
f
t
(a)
i.e., the derivative exists and is equal to both the left and right hand derivatives at x a.
Limit theorems: If lim
xa
f (x) F and lim
xa
g(x) G, then
O If f (x) k; k constant, then lim
xa
f (x) F k
O lim
xa
[ f (x)g(x)] FG
O lim
xa
[ f (x) g(x)] F G
O lim
xa
[f (x)] lim
xa
f (x) F; constant.
O lim
xa
_
f (x)
g(x)
_

F
G
; G /0
lim
x0
sinx
x
1 lim
x 0
1cosx
x
0 lim
x 0
tanx
x
1
lim
h0
f (x +h) f (x)
h
f
t
(x)
d f
dx

d
dx
_
f (x)
_
lim
h0
f (a +h) f (a)
h
f
t
(a)
d f
dx

xa

d
dx
_
f (x)
_

xa
lim
xa
_
x a
x a
2
lim
xa
_
x a
(
_
x a)(
_
x +a)
lim
xa
1
_
x +a

1
_
a +a
lim
x
ax
2
+bx +c
px
2
+qx +r

a
p
LHospitals Rule: If lim
xa
f (x)
g(x)
is indeterminate and has the form
0
0
or

, then,
lim
xa
f (x)
g(x)
lim
xa
f
t
(x)
g
t
(x)
provided the limit on the RHS exists, or is or .
lim
h0
_
e
x+h
e
x
h
_

d
dx
_
e
x
_
lim
h0
_
e
k+h
e
k
h
_
e
k

d
dx
_
e
x
_

xk
lim
h0
_
e
h
e
0
h
_

d
dx
_
e
x
_

x0
1
Implicit differentiation of the function ax
2
+by
2
+cxy +dx +ey + f 0 is carried out so:
d
dx
_
ax
2
+by
2
+cxy +dx +ey + f
_

d
dx
(0) 0
d
dx
_
ax
2
_
+
d
dx
_
by
2
_
+
d
dx
_
cxy
_
+
d
dx
(dx) +
d
dx
_
ey
_
+
d
dx
_
f
_
0
2ax +2by
dy
dx
+y
d
dx
(cx) +cx
d
dx
_
y
_
+d +e
d
dx
_
y
_
+0 0
2ax +2by
dy
dx
+c y +cx
dy
dx
+d +e
dy
dx
0
dy
dx
_
2by +cx +e
_
(2ax +c y +d)
dy
dx

_
2ax +c y +d
2by +cx +e
_
Derivative of sinx from rst principles:
lim
h0
_
sin(x +h) sinx
h
_
lim
h0
_
sinx cosh +cosx sinh sinx
h
_
lim
h0
_
sinx +cosx sinh sinx
h
_
lim
h0
_
cosx sinh
h
_
(cosx)lim
h0
_
sinh
h
_
cosx(1) cosx
Derivative of cosx from rst principles:
lim
h0
_
cos(x +h) cosx
h
_
lim
h0
_
cosx cosh sinx sinh cosx
h
_
lim
h0
_
cosx sinx sinh cosx
h
_
lim
h0
_
sinx sinh
h
_
(sinx)lim
h0
_
sinh
h
_
sinx(1) sinx

d A
d

d A
dx

dx
d
; for small changes, A
_
d A
dx

dx
d
_
0
remember that must be in radians.

d
dx
(sinx) cosx
d
dx
(cosx) sinx
d
dx
(tanx) sec
2
x

d
dx
(cosecx) cosecx cot x
d
dx
(secx) secx tanx
d
dx
(cot x) cosec
2
x

d
dx
_
sin
1
x
a
_

1
_
a
2
x
2

d
dx
_
cos
1
x
a
_

1
_
a
2
x
2

d
dx
_
tan
1
x
a
_

a
a
2
+x
2

_
sinxdx cosx +C
_
cosxdx sinx +C
To integrate
_
cos
2
xdx use the identity cos2x 2cos
2
x 1.
To integrate
_
sin
2
xdx use the identity cos2x 12sin
2
x.
Factorize odd powers of cosx or sinx into cosx or sinx multiplied by even powers of cosx or sinx and inte-
grate as above.
Integrals of powers of sinx and cosx:
_
sin
2
xdx
x
2
sin
2x
4
+C
_
sin
3
xdx cosx +cos
3
x
3
+C
_
cos
2
xdx
x
2
+sin
2x
4
+C
_
cos
3
xdx sinx sin
3
x
3
+C
The PTA or power-trig-angle mnemonic applies so:
d
dx
_
sin( f (x))
_
p
p
_
sin( f (x))
_
p1
cos( f (x)) f
t
(x)

d
dx
_
b
f (x)
_
b
f (x)
f
t
(x) lnb
d
dx
_
log
b
f (x)
_

f
t
(x)
f (x)
1
lnb
2
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
d
dx
_
x
a
f (t )dt f (x) F(x)
d
dx
_
x
a
f (t )dt F
t
(x) f (x)
d
dx
_
g(x)
a
f (t )dt f [g(x)]g
t
(x) F(x)
d
dx
_
g(x)
a
f (t )dt F
t
(x) f [g(x)]g
t
(x)
_
b
a
f (t )dt F(b) F(a)
_
a
b
f (t )dt F(a) F(b)
_
b
a
f (t )dt [F(b) F(a)]
Some standard integrals are:
_
(ax +b)
n
dx
(ax +b)
n+1
a(n +1)
+c; n /1
_
f
t
(x)[ f (x)]
n
dx
[ f (x)]
n+1
n +1
+c; n /1
_
f
t
(x)
f (x)
dx ln[ f (x)[ +c
_
1
x
dx ln[x[ +c
_
f
t
e
f (x)
dx e
f (x)
+c
_
e
mx
dx
e
mx
m
+c
To obtain f
1
(x) when f (x) y is given, rst re-arrange terms to obtain g(y) x. The inverse function, if it
exists, is then given by f
1
(x) g(x).
Swap method: to nd the inverse of f (x) x 1, rst let y f (x) x 1. Then swap x and y to get x y 1.
Then make y the subject of the formula to get y x +1 f
1
(x) x +1.
Any function that is symmetrical about the line y x is its own inverse. Examples include y x itself and
y
1
x
, etc.
A relation is a rule assigning or mapping elements of a set X to elements of a set Y .
A function f is a relation that maps every element in set X with a unique element in set Y .
The set X is called the domain of the function and the set Y is called the co-domain. We say f : X Y and
also f : x y where x X and y Y .
The set of all images of f in Y is called the range of f . If the range is identical to the co-domain, the function
is said to be an onto function or a surjection.
If each element in X has unique image in Y , i.e., f (x) f (y) x y, the function f is said to be one-to-one,
or an injection.
A function that is both one-to-one and onto is called a bijection. Such a function has an inverse.
With parabolas of the form y f (x) (xa)
2
+b, the domain must be restricted to exclude one arm (usually
the left) so that an inverse function f
1
(x) may be dened. This means, in the above case, that the domain of
f is {x : x R, x a}. The inverse function is the reection of the graph on the line y x which is also the result
of transformation by the matrix
_
0 1
1 0
_
.
Exact values of trigonometric functions for standard angles
0

6

2
sin 0
1
2
1
_
2
_
3
2
1
cos 1
_
3
2
1
_
2
1
2
0
tan 0
1
_
3
1
_
3
A S
T C
3
The quadratic y ax
2
+bx +c has a maximum if a <0 and a minimum if a >0.
Systematic curve sketching of the curve y f (x)
O Is there any obvious symmetry?
o If f (x) f (x), the function is even and the graph is symmetrical about the y-axis.
o If f (x) f (x), the function is odd and the graph is symmetrical for a 180 rotation about the origin.
o If the equation has the from y
2n
f (x), and the equation is unchanged when y is substituted for y,
the graph will be symmetrical about the x-axis.
O Find the points where the graph cuts the the x and y axes, i.e., the x- and y-intercepts. Note that the x-axis
is where y 0 and the y-axis is where x 0.
O Examine the behaviour of f (x) as x , i.e., look for horizontal asymptotes of the form y y0 lim
x+
f (x)
or y y1 lim
x
f (x).
O Investigate whether f (x) is undened for any values of x, i.e., look for vertical asymptotes of the form x
x0 where lim
xx

0
f (x) and/or where lim
xx
+
0
f (x) . For rational functions, these occur at the poles, or
the roots of the denominator polynomial.
O If the above steps indicate the presence of a stationary points, where f
t
(x) 0, nd its location and nature
(whether it is maximum, minimum or point of horizontal inection.) Do this without differentiating the
function, unless it is trivial to do so.
Sketching graphs of the form y [k x[ +m
O Locate the value of x for which k x 0 x k
O Note that [k x[ is derived from y x and draw this graph until it cuts the x-axis at x k
O At x k, reect the graph y x on the x-axis to give the V at x k
O Finally, move the graph vertically m units where m may be positive, zero, or negative.
O For graphs of the form y [x k[ +m, use the graph of y x as starting point and observe that the break is
again at x k.
O Note also that the graph of the inverse of such a function is not generally a function.
Sketching absolute value functions
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
|x+3| + |2x6|
x
y
slope = 1
slope = 2
slope = 3
slope = 1
slope = 2
slope = 3
y = |x + 3|
y = |2x 6|
y = |x + 3| + |2x 6|
The Newton-Raphson method for estimating roots fails in the following cases: (a) the values of x diverge in
successive iterations; (b) the rst value x0 was not chosen close enough to the root (X, 0); and (c) there is a
discontinuity between x0 and the root (X, 0), i.e., x0 and (X, 0) are not on the same side of the discontinuity.
4
A stationary point is one where f
t
(x) 0 and it may be a turning point like a maximum or minimum, or a
point of horizontal inection as shown below:
Function Value Meaning
f (x) 0 Root of f (x) 0
f
t
(x) 0 Stationary point
f
tt
(x) 0 Might be point of inection
Function Value Meaning
f
t
(x) 0 Turning point
f
tt
(x) <0 Local maximum
f
t
(x) 0 Turning point
f
tt
(x) >0 Local minimum
Function Value Meaning
f
t
(x) 0 Horizontal
f
tt
(x) 0 inection
f
ttt
(x) /0 point
f
t
(x) /0 Oblique
f
tt
(x) 0 inection
f
ttt
(x) /0 point
If the line g(x) is tangent to the curve f (x) at the point(a, b), then, (a) g(a) f (a) b and (b) g
t
(a) f
t
(a).
If the quadratic f (x) ax
2
+bx +c 0, we complete the square as follows:
O Dividing by a, we get x
2
+
b
a
x +
c
a
0
O Observing that the perfect square (x +k)
2
x
2
+2kx +k
2
, we need to express the coefcient of x in the
quadratic in the form 2k. Clearly we may write
b
a
x 2
b
2a
x so that the quadratic now becomes x
2
+2
b
2a
x +
c
a
0 where k
b
2a
O The constant termin the perfect square is k
2

_
b
2a
_
2
. So we add and subtract this term from the quadratic
to get
_
x
2
+2
b
2a
x +
_
b
2a
_
2
_
+
c
a

_
b
2a
_
2
0
Note that the term in square brackets is a perfect square. So the quadratic now becomes
_
x +
_
b
2a
__
2
+
_
c
a

_
b
2a
_
2
_
0 where the expression in the second square brackets consists only of constants.
Solving, we get
_
x +
b
2a
_
2

b
2
4a
2

c
a

b
2
4ac
4a
2
giving
_
x +
b
2a
_

_
b
2
4ac
2a
. This simplies to the quadratic
formula x
b
_
b
2
4ac
2a
.
In the quadratic f (x) ax
2
+bx +c 0, where a, b, c are all real, the expression b
2
4ac is called the discrim-
inant. The roots of the quadratic are as follows (a) b
2
4ac >0: two real roots; (b) b
2
4ac 0: one repeated
real root; (c) b
2
4ac <0: no real roots; one pair of complex conjugate roots; (d) sum of roots equals
b
a
; (e)
product of roots equals
c
a
.
The remainder theorem states that if P(x) is a polynomial in x, the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x k)
equals P(k).
The factor theorem states that if P(x) is a polynomial in x and if (x k) is a factor of P(x), then we may write
P(x) (x k)Q(x) where Q(x) is another polynomial of degree one lower than P(x). Setting x k, we have
P(k) (k k)Q(k) 0[Q(k)] 0, i.e., P(k) 0 if k is a zero of P(x), or equivalently, if (x k) is a factor of P(x).
f (x)
Replace x

by x c
f (x c)
Replace x

by bx
f (bx c)
Multiply

RHS by a
af (bx c)

RHS
af (bx c) +d
The graph of y af (bx c) +d is that of y f (x): (i) translated right c units; (ii) dilated parallel to the x axis,
scale factor 1/[b[, (and reected in the y-axis if b is negative); (iii) dilated parallel to the y-axis, scale factor [a[
(and reected in the x-axis if a is negative); (iv) translated vertically upward d units.
5
f (x)
Replace x

by bx
f (bx)
Replace x

by (x c)
f (b(x c))
Multiply

RHS by a
af (b(x c))

RHS
af (b(x c)) +d
The graph of y af (b(x c)) +d is that of y f (x): (i) dilated parallel to the x axis, scale factor 1/[b[, (and
reected in the y-axis if b is negative); (ii) translated right c units; (iii) dilated parallel to the y-axis, scale factor
[a[ (and reected in the x-axis if a is negative); (iv) translated vertically upward d units.
y f (x) +a
Translation of y f (x) by a units
parallel to the y-axis
y f (x a)
Translation of y f (x) by a units
parallel to the x-axis
y f (x) Reection of y f (x) in the x-axis y f (x) Reection of y f (x) in the y-axis
y af (x)
Dilation of y f (x) parallel to the
y-axis by a scale factor a
y f (ax)
Dilation of y f (x) parallel to the
x-axis by a scale factor
1
a
The binomial theorem for a positive integer power n Nis:
(a +b)
n

_
n
0
_
a
n
b
0
+
_
n
1
_
a
n1
b
1
+
_
n
2
_
a
n2
b
2
+. . .
+
_
n
n 2
_
a
2
b
n2
+
_
n
n 1
_
a
1
b
n1
+
_
n
n
_
a
0
b
n
where
0! 1; a
0
b
0
1;
_
n
0
_

_
n
n
_
1; and
_
n
1
_

_
n
n 1
_
n;
_
n
k
_

n!
(n k)! k!

_
n
n k
_

n!
k! (n k)!

n(n 1)(n 2) . . . (n k +1)
123 k
Complex numbers may be expressed in the following forms:
z x +i y algebraic rectangular form
r cis algebraic polar form
(x, y) ordered pair, rectangular form
(r, ) ordered pair, polar form
r
_
(x
2
+y
2
) r >0
tan
y
x
< <
Multiplication of a complex number by i is equivalent to a 90CCW rotation of that number on the Argand
diagram. Moreover, (a) i
1
i ; (b) i
2
1; (c) i
3
i ; and (d) i
4
1. Four multiplications by i are equivalent
to the identity transformation.
If z a +i b r cis then the complex conjugate z z

a i b r cis() and zz zz

[z[
2
a
2
+b
2
r
2
.
e
i
+1 0
Representing a +i b and c +i d as the ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) we dene the four arithmetic operations
so:
(a, b) +(c, d) (a +c, b +d) (a, b) (c, d) (a c, b d)
(a, b) (c, d) (ac bd, ad +bc) (a, b) (c, d)
1
c
2
+d
2
(ac +bd, bc ad)
Representing z r cis and w s cis, we have:
Complex
Number Modulus Argument Transformational Relationship to z
z r Identity
z r Reection about the x axis
i z r +

2
Rotation anti-clockwise by

2
z
1 1
r
Enlargement with factor
1
r
and reection about x axis
zw r s + Enlargement with factor s and rotation anti-clockwise by radians
z
w
r
s
Enlargement with factor
1
s
and rotation clockwise by radians
6
Loci on the complex plane
[z w[ r circle with solid perimeter, centre w and radius r
[z w[ <r shaded circle with solid perimeter, centre w and radius r
[z w[ <r shaded circle with dotted perimeter, centre w and radius r
a(z) +b(z) >c Region above dotted line with Cartesian equation ax +by c
a(z) +b(z) <c Region below dotted line with Cartesian equation ax +by c
a(z) +b(z) c Solid line with Cartesian equation ax +by c
[z w[ [z v[ perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points w and v
argz k ray from origin at angle k radians to the x axis
[ argz[ k ray from origin at angles k radians to the x axis
arg(z w) k ray from w at angles k radians to the x axis
[z[ argz linear spiral of the form r
a <z <b annulus or ring between two concentric circles of radius a and b
[z w[ <p; [z v[ <q intersection of two circles of centres w and v and radii p and q respectively
nth root of complex numbers: to solve z
n
a +bi
O Rewrite in polar form z
n
r cis
O Rewrite using a generalized argument z
n
r cis(+2k)
O The nth roots are given by z
k
r
1
n cis(
+2k
n
); k 0, 1, 2, . . . (n 1)
For z cis e
i
we have
cos(n)
1
2
(e
i n
+e
i n
)
1
2
(z
n
+z
n
) sin(n)
1
2i
(e
i n
e
i n
)
1
2i
(z
n
z
n
)
Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) has the following characteristics:
O The differential equation or equation of motion is
d
2
x
dt
2
x a
2
that the acceleration always acts in a direction opposed to the displacement of the body.
O It has solutions of the form x(t ) Asin(t +) or x(t ) Acos(t +) where is a constant of integration,
called the phase shift, and is dependent on the initial conditions, i.e., the value of x(0).
O is a constant called the angular velocity and is related to the period T (time for one full oscillation) and
frequency f by T
1
f

2

.
O A is the amplitude and equals the distance between the extreme and equilibrium positions.
O
Quantity Name Meaning Units
A Amplitude
Distance between mean and ex-
treme positions.
length, e.g., metres
Angular velocity
The SHM is the projection or
shadow on the x axis or y axis of a
point moving with constant angu-
lar velocity on a circle of radius
A.
radians per unit time. e.g.,
T Period
The time taken for one complete
oscillation.
time, e.g., seconds
f Frequency
Number of oscillations per unit
time.
reciprocal time, e.g. hertz
Phase shift
Depends on the initial position of
the point rotating on the circle and
is equal to the angle at time t 0
with the x axis.
7
The growth/decay differential equation is
dy
dt
ky. It has the solution y y0e
kt
where y(0) y0. If k is
positive, it is growth; and if k is negative, it is decay. The ratio
dy
dt
y
k and represents the percentage growth or
decay rate; or alternatively the growth or decay constant.

_
b
a
v(t )dt is displacement between times t a and t b.

_
b
a
v(t )dt

## is magnitude of displacement between times t a and t b.

_
b
a
[v(t )[ dt is distance travelled between times t a and t b.
a(t )
2
r(t ) for both circular and elliptical motion.
For circular motion, av a, v 0 for all t ; this is not true for elliptical motion.
In uniform circular motion, the speed is always constant with changing direction; but in elliptical motion,
both the speed and direction are always changing.
In rectilinear motion, the sign of the displacement vector indicates direction, i.e., towards or away from some
xed point.
Velocity Acceleration Effect
+ Slowing down
+ Slowing down
+ + Speeding up
Speeding up
Volumes of solids of revolution. If the function y f (x) is rotated about the x axis between the limits a and b,
the volume of the solid of revolution is
_
b
a
y
2
dx
_
b
a
[ f (x)]
2
dx
If the function is, instead, x g(y) and the axis of rotation is the y axis, the volume is then given by
_
b
a
x
2
dy
_
b
a
[g(y)]
2
dy