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Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 11871194

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Applied Thermal Engineering


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Exergy analysis of cogeneration power plants in sugar industries


S.C. Kamate a,*, P.B. Gangavati b,1
a b

K.L.E.S. Polytechnic, Hubli 580 031, Karnataka, India Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot 587 102, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
In this paper, exergy analysis of a heat-matched bagasse-based cogeneration plant of a typical 2500 tcd sugar factory, using backpressure and extraction condensing steam turbine is presented. In the analysis, exergy methods in addition to the more conventional energy analyses, are employed to evaluate overall and component efciencies and to identify and assess the thermodynamic losses. The analysis is carried out for a wide range of steam inlet conditions selected around the sugar industrys export cogeneration plant. The results show that, at optimal steam inlet conditions of 61 bar and 475 C, the backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant perform with energy and exergy efciency of 0.863 and 0.307 and condensing steam turbine plant perform with energy and exergy efciency of 0.682 and 0.260, respectively. Boiler is the least efcient component and turbine is the most efcient component of the plant. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 21 December 2007 Accepted 11 June 2008 Available online 21 June 2008 Keywords: Energy Exergy Cogeneration Bagasse Efciency

1. Introduction Manufacturing of white crystal sugar using double sultation process in the Indian sugar industries requires low-pressure steam (utilizing latent heat) at 2.5 bar and 120 C for juice heating and medium pressure steam at 8 bar and 210 C for sulfur melting and centrifuge [1]. In existing system, the steam is generated in the low-pressure boilers by burning all the bagasse generated. This system was developed when the possibility of export of power to grid was not envisaged and the storage of large quantity of combustible bagasse in the premises of the sugar factory was not an advisable option [2]. The sugar industry is now moving towards substantially improved power stations, by adopting HP/HT steam conditions and high efciency steam turbines, so that it can export surplus power to grid when the prices are attractive, or otherwise can save (fuel) surplus bagasse, which can be utilized for many other productive purposes. Wide range of steam inlet parameters are used in the sugar industries and vary between 21110 bar (a) in pressure and 300540 C in temperature [35]. Number of combinations is possible within these limits of pressure and temperature. The maximum pressure congurations employed internationally is 105 bar, in sugar mill at Okeelanta, FL, USA [6]. Further, most of the engineers involved in the design of bagasse-based cogen-

* Corresponding author. Tel./Fax +91 836 2278745. E-mail addresses: kamateksk@rediffmail.com (S.C. Kamate), pbgangavati123@ rediffmail.com (P.B. Gangavati). 1 Tel.: +91 8354 225345. 1359-4311/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.06.016

eration plants understand that higher HP steam inlet conditions result in a more efcient power plant. Sugar industry employs different cogeneration schemes to satisfy the plants process steam demand and generate surplus power by upgrading the steam inlet parameters. Steam turbines are indispensable for cogeneration plants in sugar industries, burning fuels such as bagasse, as technology is well matured. Though the choice of turbine depends upon the boiler pressure selected, but a simple backpressure type or extraction condensing type or a combination of these two could be a better choice [7,8]. The potential of power generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 15005000 MW, with most estimates around 3500 MW [9,10]. Thus sugar cane bagasse has strong potential in displacing the fossil fuels and can be extensively used in the boilers and furnaces for power generation. Obviously, this considerable amount of power should be generated efciently. Therefore, it is felt that, there is great need to provide a strong thermodynamic base, for the design of bagasse-based cogeneration plants in sugar industries. In the light of this, an exergy analysis is proposed for a heat-matched bagasse-based cogeneration plant of a typical 2500 tcd sugar factory using backpressure steam turbine and extraction condensing steam turbine. In the analysis, exergy methods in addition to the more conventional energy analysis are employed to evaluate overall and component efciencies and to identify and assess the thermodynamic losses. The analysis is carried out for a wide range of steam inlet conditions selected around the sugar industrys export cogeneration plant. The theoretical results obtained for a typical plant should assist in design improvements.

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Nomenclature

e0 gEX
/ EX Ib IST IC HP CF WCG QU NCV

chemical exergy of fuel (kJ/kg) exergetic efciency ratio of chemical exergy to net caloric value of fuel exergy boiler irreversibility (kW) turbine irreversibility (kW) condenser irreversibility (kW) high pressure centrifugal cogenerated power process heat (kW) net caloric value (kJ/kg)

tcd tonnes of cane crushed per day B boiler DM de-mineral water plant ws, w1, w2 steam ow rate (kg/s) total irreversibility (kW) IT exergy loss to exhaust gases (kW) IEXg HT high temperature PH process heater Cond condenser rej rejected

2. Description of the cogeneration plant Figs. 1 and 3 describe the, heat-matched cogeneration plant of a typical 2500 tcd sugar factory using backpressure and extraction (Figs. 2) condensing steam turbine and their representation on T S diagram is as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively. 2.1. Backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant (BPST) This is the widely practiced cogeneration plant conguration in the sugar industry. In this conguration, the cogeneration plant generates, only that much of steam, what is required for process heating as it is

a heat-matched plant and surplus bagasse is saved. Power generated is a by-product. Though the process needs saturated steam at 2.5 bar and 120 C, the exhaust steam is drawn at 10 C super heat, to avoid losses in the pipes, bends, joints, etc.

Fig. 3. Extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant.

Fig. 1. Backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant.

Fig. 2. TS diagram.

Fig. 4. TS diagram

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2.2. Extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant (CEST) This is the most established modern cogeneration plant conguration in the sugar industry. In this conguration, all the bagasse generated by the plant is burnt to produce steam. Surplus steam left over, after meeting the minimum process steam demand of the plant, is passed through the condenser to generate possible surplus power. 3. Analysis Cogeneration of heat and power implies production of two different kinds of energies. A common denominator should be rst established to determine the efciency of a cogeneration plant. The rst, the most straightforward criterion is based on the First Law analysis, which deals only with the quantitative side of energy, is the thermal efciency of conventional plant (gth)C and energy efciency or energy utilization factor (EUF) of cogeneration plant

e0 NCV0 2442w/dry :

The results of ultimate analysis of bagasse (dry basis) gives [6] c = 0.470, h = 0.0650, o = 0.4350, h = 0.03, NCV = 7650 kJ/kg. Substituting these values in Eq. (3) and (4) /dry = 1.1035. For wet bagasse, w = 0.50 and e0 = 9889 kJ/kg, / = 1.28. Alternatively the same results are established by experimental analysis of exergy methods for bagasse-based boilers [16]. The exergetic efciency of cogeneration plant as whole is determined as

gEX

W CG EQ : Ef W CG aQ CG ; Ef

Using the exegetic factor, Eq. (6) can be expressed as

gEX

where a = 0.260 for process heat obtained at 2.5 bar and 120 C. Ef is the chemical exergy of fuel bagasse

W net ; F CG W CG Q CG ; EUF F CG gth C

1 2

Ef mb e0 ;
where mb is the mass ow rate of bagasse burnt, kg/s. 3.2. Physical exergy of the ue gas and steam/water ows

where QCG is the process heat obtained at useful temperature TU, and WCG is the net electrical energy or power generated. Here, the process heat is the low-grade energy and WCG is high-grade energy [11]. Therefore, energy efciency cannot be the entirely satisfactory criterion of performance of the plant as it gives equal weightage to both heat and electricity. Thus, a thermodynamically more accurate evaluation can be based on exergetic efciency. Exergy is the measure of energy quality and exergetic efciency is a measure of perfectness of a thermal system [12,13]. Thermodynamics suggests the use of exergetic factor, which exactly indicates the quality of heat in terms of its work potential. An even more correct performance value is obtained if the exergy content of the fuel is also taken into account [14]. In the present analysis, the following assumptions were made: 1. The chemical exergy of fuel bagasse is considered as base to determine the overall exergetic efciency of the plant. 2. The physical exergy of ue gas and steam/water ows is used to determine the loss of exergy in the components of cogeneration plant.

Exergy analysis, applied to a cogeneration plant as whole, is also used to analyze performance of separate components of power plant. The plant is divided in to its sub-components such as boiler, turbine, condenser, process heater, etc. The distribution of physical exergy in the various components of plant is determined by applying exergy balance to each component. For a steady-ow processes

  T0 Q j W CV mef1 ef2 Edestroyed 0; Ej 1 Ti


where

ef1 ef2 h1 h2 T 0 S1 S2

V2 V2 1 2 gZ 1 Z 2 2

10

3.1. The chemical exergy of fuel bagasse The ratio (/) of chemical exergy (e0) of dry solid fuels to the net caloric value of fuel (NCV)0, with mass ratio of oxygen to carbon (O/C) varies from 0.667 to 2.67 in general and in particular for wood is given by Kotas [15]

is the specic exergy ow through components and sufxes 1 and 2 in Eq. (10) refer to the inlet and exit conditions. The exergy destroyed in the plants components is a function of entropy generation and ambient air temperature surrounding the component. It is important to note here is that the temperature surrounding the component in a cogeneration plant change substantially from place to place. For e.g. the temperature of air surrounding the boiler and condenser. The physical exergy associated with the ow of combustion/ue gas is determined as

af mg C pg T 0

 Tg Tg 1 ln ; T0 T0

11

where Tg is the ue gas temperature.

/dry

1:0438 0:1882h=c 0:25091 0:7256h=c 0:0383n=c ; 1 0:3035o=c 3

where c, h, o and n are the mass fractions of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, respectively. But in sugar industries mill wet bagasse with 50% moisture is directly burnt in the boilers. Taking moisture of the fuel into consideration the chemical exergy e0 of wet bagasse is given by [15].

Table 1 Steam to bagasse ratio and steam generation rate at selected optimal steam inlet conditions Pressure Temperature Steam to bagasse ratio Steam generation rate, ws 21 340 2.11 31 388 2.25 41 423 2.36 61 475 2.43 81 513 2.45 110 545 2.56 P (bar) T (C) kg/kg

e0 NCV0 whfg /dry :

18.33

19.72

20.55

21.11

21.39

22.50

kg/s

For water substance at T0 = 298.15 K, hfg = 2442 kJ/kg, Eq. (4) can be expressed as

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Table 2 Energy and exergy ow rates and efciencies for a heat-matched backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant of a 2500 tcd sugar factory Steam inlet pressure and temperature P (bar) 21 T (C) 340 Steam to bagasse ratio Fuel kg/s kWth kWex Steam ow rate kg/s Process heat QCG kWth EQ kWex Power WCG kWe Energy efciency EUF Exergetic efciency 2.11 6.85 52,402 67,747 14.45 31 388 2.25 6.42 49,113 63,494 14.45 41 423 2.36 6.12 46,818 60,527 14.45 61 475 2.43 5.95 45,518 58,846 14.45 81 513 2.45 5.90 45,135 58,351 14.45 110 545 2.56 5.64 43,146 55,780 14.45

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

4440 0.688 0.206 31,170

5502 0.755 0.239 31,170

6621 0.816 0.276 31,170

7649 0.863 0.307 31,170

7389 0.864 0.303 31,170

8553 0.930 0.344 31,170

gEX
Physical exergy of ue gases kWex Exergy losses Boiler Ib kWex % Exhaust gas IExg kWex % Steam turbine IST kWex % Condenser Icond kWex % Others Iother kWex % Total irreversibilities Itotal kWex % Exergtic efciency Boiler

16,678 53.50

15,169 48.70

13,803 44.30

12,247 39.30

11,906 38.20

10,556 33.90

1185 3.80

1185 3.80

1185 3.80

1185 3.80

1185 3.80

1185 3.80

913 2.90

1064 3.40

1001 3.20

1241 3.90

1914 6.14

1776 5.70

285 0.009

11

321 1.30

554 1.78

537 1.70

861 2.80

19,061 61.20

17,418 55.90

16,310 52.60

15,281 49.00

15,542 49.84

14,378 46.13

g2b
Turbine

0.214 0.86 0.211

0.252 0.87 0.249

0.287 0.89 0.287

0.322 0.89 0.318

0.330 0.83 0.310

0.370 0.86 0.346

g2t
Cycle

g2cycle

The physical exergy of ue gas produced by burning bagasse in the furnace and its utilization in the boiler for steam generation is determined as here under. The boiler operate between 950 and 1000 C furnace temperature and the exhaust gas temperature is limited to 150 C. The spreader stoker furnace permits of reducing the normal excess air to 30% (instead 4070%) and consequently of improving efciency substan-

tially [1]. The stiochiometric air fuel ratio required for combustion of bagasse is 5.76. But it is not possible in practice to burn bagasse in industrial condition by supplying only the quantity of air theoretically necessary; combustion will be poor and incomplete. In order to obtain complete combustion, it is necessary to supply certain excess air. Let the ow rate of combustion gas be 1 kg/s and that of bagasse be f kg/s, therefore the ow rate of air (1 f) kg/s.

S.C. Kamate, P.B. Gangavati / Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 11871194 Table 3 Energy and Exergy ow rates and efciencies for a heat-matched extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant of a 2500 tcd sugar factory Steam inlet pressure and temperature P (bar) 21 T (C) 340 Steam to bagasse ratio Fuel kg/s kWth kWex Steam ow rate kg/s Process heat QCG kWth EQ kWex Power WCG kWe Energy efciency EUF Exergetic efciency 2.11 8.75 66,938 85,680 18.33 31 388 2.25 8.75 66,938 85,680 19.72 41 423 2.36 8.75 66,938 85,680 20.55 61 475 2.43 8.75 66,938 85,680 21.11 81 513 2.45 8.75 66,938 85,680 21.39

1191

110 545 2.56 8.75 66,938 85,680 22.50

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

31,596 8239

7298 0.581 0.181 45,920

9472 0.613 0.206 45,920

11,935 0.650 0.235 45,920

14,069 0.682 0.260 45,920

14,114 0.682 0.261 45,920

16,917 0.725 0.293 45,920

gEX
Physical exergy of ue gases kWex Exergy losses Boiler Ib kWex % Exhaust gas IExg kWex % Steam turbine IST kWex % Condenser Icond kWex % Others Iother kWex % Total irreversibilities Itotal kWex % Exergtic efciency Boiler

24,552 53.46

21,221 46.21

18,276 39.80

14,991 32.65

14,409 31.38

10,776 23.47

1746 3.80

1746 3.80

1746 3.80

1746 3.80

1746 3.80

1746 3.80

1714 3.74

2038 4.44

2277 4.95

2510 5.55

2650 5.78

2795 6.09

395 0.86

515 1.12

511 1.11

635 1.40

653 1.42

759 1.65

28,407 61.86

25,520 55.58

22,810 49.68

19,882 43.29

19,462 42.38

16,076 35.00

g2b
Turbine

0.210 0.764 0.427

0.240 0.717 0.458

0.272 0.733 0.483

0.306 0.723 0.514

0.316 0.690 0.527

0.357 0.689 0.551

g2t
Cycle

g2cycle

fx C v mg C pg T g T 0 C pa T a T 0 :

12

On substituting the numerical values, Eq. (12) yields f = 0.1192 kg/s and 1 f = 0.8808 kg/s.

Air fuel ratio

1 f 0:8808 7:40 and f 0:1192 7:40 5:76 Excess air 0:285 or 28:5%: 5:76

The existing practice in sugar factories conrms the fact that about 2530% of excess air is supplied to the boilers. The exergy ow rates destroyed in the plants components are determined at optimal steam inlet conditions selected, and is given in Tables 2 and 3, respectively, for backpressure and condensing steam turbine cogeneration plants. The variation of loss of exergy in the plants components and improvement in exergy utilization at different HP/HT steam inlet conditions is examined.

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Exergy loss %

The exergy concept is further extended to determine the exergetic or second law efciency of major components like boiler and turbine of the plant. This efciency compares the actual work produced by a device to the work interactions associated with reversible device. The general expression for exergetic efciency of power producing/consuming device is

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111 Ib IExg IST Icond Itotal

g2

W act gact : W rev grev

13

While, Eqs. (14) and (15) are the expressions for the second law efciency of turbine (g2 urbine) and boiler (g2 oiler), respectively

Inlet steam pressure, bar


Fig. 8. Variation of exergy loss in the components of extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant.

g2 turbine g2 boiler

W net ST ; ws ef1 Pef2 ws h1 h8 T 0 s1 s8 : Ef

14 15

However, Eq. (15) can be modied suitably for backpressure turbine plant also. The cycle overall exergetic efciency (g2 cycle) is determined as

g2 cycle

gth C

grev

16

where gth c is based on the results of rst law analysis and grev is based on the reversible cannot heat engine operating between reservoirs at TL and TH (298 and 1273 K), respectively. 3.3. Analysis procedure The performance analysis of the cogeneration plant of typical 2500 tcd sugar factory considered is based on a constant steam supply of 14.45 kg/s, for process heating and power generated is a by-product. As these plants are heat-matched cogeneration plants, satisfying process steam demand is a must, and upgrading the steam inlet parameters generates the surplus power. Therefore, it is very essential to understand by what amount the steam inlet parameter are to be upgraded to get optimum thermodynamic advantage. There is no theoretical limit to the amount of superheat if the boiler can create it at any working pressure, however the practical limit of superheat temperature obtainable in the boiler using fuel such as mill-wet bagasse is around 520 C [6]. For the exhaust conditions of 2.5 bar and 120 C selected and 85% barrel efciency assumed, the optimal HP/HT steam conditions and corresponding steam to bagasse ratio, around the sugar industrys export cogeneration plant are selected for the analysis [17,18]. Table 1 shows the optimal HP/HT steam inlet conditions selected and corresponding values of steam to bagasse ratio and steam generation rate of a 2500 tcd sugar mill. The results are determined for the optimal conditions selected and a summary of the results obtained is given in Tables 2 and 3 for backpressure and extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plants, respectively. In each of these steam inlet conditions, 13.05 kg/s of steam at 2.5 bar and 120 C and 1.5 kg/s of steam at 8 bar and 210 C superheat is delivered. Only that much of steam what is required for satisfying the process steam demand, i.e.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 21 31 41 61 81 110

Efficiency

Exe. Eff EUF

Inlet steam pressure. bar


Fig. 5. Efciency comparison of backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant.

1 0.9 0.8

Efficiency

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 21 31 41 61 81 110 Exe. Eff EUF

Inlet steam pressure, bar


Fig. 6. Efciency comparison of condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant.

70

Exergy loss %

50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111

Ib IExg IST Iother Itotal

Exergetic efficiency

60

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 21 31 41 61 81 110 Plant Cycle

Inlet steam pressure, bar


Fig. 7. Variation of exergy loss in the components of backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant.

Inlet steam pressure, bar


Fig. 9. Exergetic efciency comparison for backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant.

S.C. Kamate, P.B. Gangavati / Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009) 11871194

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14.45 kg/s of steam is generated in backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant and surplus bagasse is saved. Where as, all the bagasse generated during crushing season is utilized to generate steam, the surplus steam left over after meeting the process steam demand through suitable extractions, goes to condenser in the extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant. The steam turbine has an isentropic efciency of 85% and expand steam from inlet conditions selected to 2.5 bar and 120 C in backpressure turbine and to 0.065 bar and 40 C in condensing turbine. The generator efciency of turbo generator is 92%. The exergetic efciency of the cogeneration plant as a whole is determined. The energy efciency and exergy efciency of the plant are compared. In the proceeding section, the distribution of loss of exergy in the plants components is estimated. Variation of loss exergy in the various components at different steam inlet condition selected is also determined. The exergetic efciency of each component in the plant is calculated. 4. Results and discussions The results presented in this paper are the exergy and energy ow rates for a heat-matched bagasse-based cogeneration plant of a typical 2500 tcd sugar factory and the second law or exergetic efciency of the plants components and cycle efciency. The results also show the distribution of loss of exergy in the plants components. It is seen from the results that, there is substantial improvement in both energy and exergy efciency of the plant with increase in steam inlet pressure and temperature in both the systems. The highest energy and exergetic efciency are 0.93 and 0.344, respectively, at 110 bar and 545 C steam inlet conditions. Thus backpressure steam turbine cogeneration system is the most efcient conguration. Figs. 5 and 6 show the efciency comparison of backpressure and condensing steam turbine cogeneration plants, respectively, at different optimal steam inlet conditions. The loss of exergy in the components of cogeneration plant and total irreversibility decrease with increase in steam inlet pressure and temperature. Further boiler is the major component contributing most to the plants total inefciency. The total irreversibilities and boiler irreversibility vary from 61.20% to 46.13% and 53% to 34% for back pressure steam turbine, and 61.86% to 35% and 53.46% to 23.47% for extraction condensing steam turbine, respectively, depending on the steam inlet conditions. Figs. 7 and 8 show the variation of distribution of loss of exergy in the plants components and total irreversibility at different optimal steam inlet conditions for both the systems. The exergetic efciency of the boiler, cogeneration plant, and cycle improve with increase in steam pressure and temperature inlet conditions in both the congurations. The highest exergetic efciency of the plant is 0.344 for backpressure steam turbine and cycle efciency of 0.551 for condensing steam turbine plant at steam inlet

conditions of 110 bar and 545 C. Thus, though the backpressure steam turbine plant attains higher exergetic efciency, condensing steam turbine cycle is the highly efcient power cycle. Figs. 9 and 10 show the exergetic efciency comparison of the cogeneration plant and cycle for backpressure and condensing steam turbine cogeneration system at different steam inlet conditions. 5. Conclusions A remarkable difference is seen between energy and exergy efciency of the same system at all the steam inlet conditions. The improvement in energy and exergetic efciency is substantial over range of higher HP steam inlet conditions selected. No doubt, the introduction of higher HP/HT steam conditions has more thermodynamic advantage as these steam inlet parameters yield better performance results. However, it is seen from the results that the improvements in performance values of plant at steam inlet conditions above 61 bar and 475 C are marginal in both the congurations, though there is substantial increase in steam inlet pressure and temperature. Therefore for little gains adopting very high HP/HT steam conditions is meaningless, unless otherwise its economic returns are justied. Boiler is the major component contributing most to the plants total inefciency, due to its inherent nature. A modern boiler with current technology could utilize only 37% of chemical exergy of the fuel in the steam generation and 63% is lost in combustion irreversibilities associated with boiler. Therefore there is enough scope for improving exergetic efciency of boiler. Further, exergetic efciency of the boiler improves substantially with higher HP steam inlet conditions. Thus, increasing steam generation pressure and temperature is one of the options to reduce exergy losses and improve exergetic efciency. The exergetic efciency of cogeneration plants in both the cases (0.344 and 0.293) is lower than the thermal efciency of a modern conventional power plant (0.40). However, in terms of technology development only cogeneration plants with exergetic efciency close to that of thermal efciency of conventional power plant should be used. The high values of EUF of system reect only the quantitative side of the process, and only exergy criterion can demonstrate the imperfections of these congurations. Backpressure steam turbine cogeneration plant is the most efcient conguration from the point of integrating process steam demand and incidental power generation. Extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant is the highly efcient steam power cycle from the surplus power generation point of view. Thus, the choice of plant conguration depends upon the project background and designers intelligence. In spite of all these considerations, bagasse-based cogeneration plants in the Indian sugar industries are normally considered as environmentally and economically attractive, as they burn (waste) fuel bagasse. References
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Exergetic efficiency

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 21 31 41 61 81 110 Plant Cycle

Inlet steam pressure, bar


Fig. 10. Exergetic efciency comparison for extraction condensing steam turbine cogeneration plant.

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