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HYDROTREATING

?What Is Hydrotreating
The term hydrodesulfurization was used to describe processes that removed sulfur compounds from crude oil fractions by reaction with hydrogen. As the processes evolved to include nitrogen and oxygen removal, together with the hydrogenation of aromatics and olefins, the group of processes became known as hydrotreating. Hydrotreatment simply results in the conversion of organic sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds to hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or water, respectively. At the same time olefins and aromatics may be converted to saturated hydrocarbons without any cracking of the hydrocarbons. When high-boiling crude oil fractions are hydrotreated under more severe .conditions a proportion of the heavy molecules may crack as impurities are removed

:Hydrotreating Sulfur impurities in products manufactured from crude oil products are undesirable because hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, etc., formed during product use. It contents in crude oil :which may be categorized in the following groups Free elemental sulfur .1
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(Mercaptans & tiols (R-SH .2 Hydrogen sulfide .3 Sulfides .4 ('Disulfides (R-S-S-R .5 ('Poly sulfides (R-Sn-R .6 (Thiophenes and their derivatives such as BT (benzothiophene) and DBT (dibenzothiphene .7 For many years it was possible to obtain acceptable quality gasoline and kerosene by selecting low-sulfur, or sweet, crude oils. Sour crude oils contain dissolved hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, organic sulfides, thiophenes, and elemental sulfur in varying amounts. These could be sweetened by a number of chemical processes. High-sulfur crude oils were more difficult to desulfurize and the chemical and solvent extraction processes were combined with or replaced by relatively cheap and more efficient catalytic processes that could also remove gum-forming compounds from cracked gasolines. For a short time from 1946 bauxite or fullers earth was used without the addition of hydrogen. It was found that sulfides and mercaptans reacted with impurities in the bauxite and that this together with some mild cracking of hydrocarbons produced sufficient hydrogen to hydrogenate thiophenes. It was soon realized that the catalytic desulfurization was actually a mild, selective hydrogenation .process that did not saturate aromatics molybdate catalysts supported on bauxite or Fullers earth wasDuring the 1950s, cobalt/ used. The new catalysts were most effective when hydrogen was added to the feed. This also had the effect of reducing the deposition of carbon, and allowed for longer operating cycles before regeneration was necessary. More effective cobalt/molybdate catalysts were developed using -alumina as support. The activation step for the catalyst involved the formation of metal sulfides, and when the catalyst was pre-sulfided before use, it was found that light distillates, kerosene and even crude oils could be treated effectively with these catalysts. Operating conditions depended on the boiling range of the fraction being treated. Catalyst

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temperature was usually limited to about 400 C in order to avoid excessive carbon deposition while total pressure was increased from 300500 psig for low-boiling distillates and up to 7001000 psig for higher-boiling or cracked feeds. Liquid space velocity was usually up to 8 h-1, with a hydrogen/oil ratio of about 1000 scf of hydrogen per barrel of feed for low-sulfur distillates. Lower space velocities, in the range from 0.53 h-1, with hydrogen/oil ratios up to 10,000 scf per barrel, needed to be used for higher-boiling residues. In the hydrotreating of heavy feeds, more carbon was deposited by thermal cracking than in the hydrotreating of lighter feeds. Catalyst regeneration was required after operation for less than 24h. The use of hydrodesulfurization became more widespread as catalytic naphtha reforming processes were introduced. The operation of platinum catalysts needed an increasingly strict sulfur specification for the naphtha, and as a bonus, the cheap by-product hydrogen from the reforming process could be used to hydrotreat other refinery product streams. The use of hydrotreating was extended to kerosene, gas oil, and vacuum gas oils as government regulations on sulfur emissions became more stringent and as better cobalt molybdate catalysts became available. By the late 1970s, when atmospheric and vacuum .residues were also being desulfurized In the early hydrotreating processes, sulfur compounds were removed from the light hydrocarbon fractions used in gasoline by hydrogenation over cobalt/ molybdate catalysts to produce hydrogen sulfide and a saturated hydrocarbon. Around the same time, it was found that nickel/molybdate catalysts were more active for the hydrogenation of nitrogen compounds to ammonia and a hydrocarbon while also giving some saturation of olefins and aromatics. In modern refineries both cobalt/molybdate and nickel/molybdate catalysts are :now widely used in the purification of various crude oil fractions. These include Straight-run naphthas, used as feedstock for catalytic reforming and steam reforming processes. They must contain less than 1 ppm of sulfur and nitrogen to avoid poisoning .platinum or nickel catalysts

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Cracked gasoline, to hydrogenate undesirable sulfur and nitrogen compounds as well as .olefins Middle distillates such as diesel fuel, kerosene, jet fuel, domestic heating oil, and other gas oils, to remove sulfur for environmental reasons. Hydrotreating is also used to increase the .smoke point or cetane number by hydrogenating aromatic components Vacuum gas oils, used as catalytic cracker or hydrocracker feeds, to remove sulfur, .nitrogen, and metal impurities Atmospheric and vacuum residues, to remove as much sulfur as possible to provide low- sulfur fuel oils. It is also used to hydrogenate asphaltenes and porphyrins to reduce both Conradson carbon and metal contents. As the boiling point and the specific gravity of the fractions increase, more severe hydrotreating operating conditions are needed. A lower space velocity and more extensive hydrogen recycle are needed to limit deactivation of the catalyst by deposition of coke. The catalyst must be regenerated after shorter intervals and discarded .more often than when using light fractions

:Process Description of Hydrotreating in ORC-I The naphtha hydrotreating process of the ORC-I in BYCO Petroleum Pakistan is a hydrotreating unit with gas recycles because of high excess hydrogen. A typical hydrodesulfurization plant has two main sections: reaction section and separation section. At first, feed straight run naphtha (SRN) mixed with makeup and recycles hydrogen and then heated up to the reaction temperature (300 390C) in the heat exchanger and furnace. The hot gases are introduced into the HDS reactor at a pressure of 30 to 130 atm. The reactor is a fixed bed type with the flow from top to bottom. The hot reaction products are partially cooled by flowing through the heat exchanger where the reactor feed was preheated, then flows through fan cooler and then flows through a trim cooler. The resulting mixture of liquid and gas enters the gas separator vessel atabout35 Cand 3to 5atmospheresofabsolutepressure. Most of the hydrogen-rich gas from the gas
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separator vessel is recycle gas which is routed through an amine contactor for removal of the reaction product H2S that it contains. The pressure of gas is controlled by PCV-235. The H2S-free hydrogenrich gas is then recycled back for reuse in the reactor section. Any excess gas from the gas separator vessel joins the sour gas from the stripping of the reaction product liquid .The liquid from the gas separator vessel flows to the suction of pump routed through are boiled stripper distillation tower. The bottoms .product from the stripper is the final desulfurized liquid product from hydrodesulfurization unit

:Reaction Mechanism
The main HDS catalysts are based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) together with smaller amounts of other metals. The nature of the sites of catalytic activity remains an active area of investigation, but it is generally assumed basal planes of the MoS2 structure are not relevant to catalysis, rather the edges or rims of these sheets. At the edges of the MoS2 crystallites, the molybdenum center can stabilize a coordinatively unsaturated site (CUS), also known as an anion vacancy. Substrates, such as thiophene, bind to this site and undergo a series a reactions that result in both C-S scission and C=C hydrogenation. Thus, the hydrogen serves multiple rolesgeneration of anion vacancy by removal of sulfide, hydrogenation, and :hydrogenolysis. A simplified diagram for the cycle is shown

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Note that the direct removal of a sulfur atom from dibenzothiophene requires 2 molecules of hydrogen, while the indirect removal of sulfur from a hindered dibenzothiophene requires 5 molecules of hydrogen per sulfur atom. This is important when estimating hydrogen requirements for deep desulfurization. In sterically hindered compounds, such as dibenzothiophenes with alkyl groups in the 4- and/or 6-position, HDS rates are low because the alkyl groups keep the sulfur atom away from the catalyst surface. The benzothiophene core is planar because it is aromatic. But after saturation removes aromaticity from one or both of the 6-carbon rings, the molecule can twist, allowing the sulfur atom to reach the .catalyst
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Metal sulfides are "supported" on materials with high surface areas. A typical support for HDS catalyst is -alumina. The support allows the more expensive catalyst to be more widely distributed, giving rise to a larger fraction of the MoS2 that is catalytically active. The interaction between the support and the catalyst is an area of intense interest, since the .support is often not fully inert but participates in the catalysis The main purpose of the hydrotreater is to clean up a naphtha fraction so that it is suitable as charge to a platforming unit. There are six basic types of reactions that occurs in .hydrotreating unit Conversion of organic sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide.1 Conversion of organic nitrogen compounds to ammonia.2 Conversion of organic oxygen compounds to water.3 Saturation of olefins.4 Conversion of organic halides to hydrogen halides.5 Removal of organo-metallic compounds.6 Sulfur Removal For bimetallic platforming catalyst, the feed naphtha must contain less than 0.5 weight ppm sulfur to the selectivity & stability characteristics of the catalyst. Removal of sulfur in hydrotreating is relatively easy 0.2 weight ppm of sulfur is maintained as standard practice. If sulfur contents are less the 0.15 wppm then they are injected in the platforming unit for :smooth operation. Typical reactions are

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Generally, operation at 315-340C (600-645F) average reactor temperature will give acceptable rates of the desired hydrogenation reactions and will not result in a significant amount of olen/hydrogen sulfide recombination. The sulfur recombination reaction typically occurs at temperatures greater than 340C (645F). This temperature is dependent upon ,feedstock composition, operating pressure Nitrogen Removal Nitrogen removal is considerably more difficult than sulfur removal in naphtha hydrotreating. The rate of denitrification is only about one-fifth the rate of desulfurization. Most straight run naphthas contain much less nitrogen than sulfur, but attention must be given to ensure that the feed naphtha to Platforming catalyst contains a maximum ot 0.5 weight ppm nitrogen and normally much less. Any organic nitrogen that does enter the Platforming Unit will react to
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ammonia and further with the chloride in the recycle gas to form ammonium chloride. .Ammonium chloride will deposit in the recycle gas circuit or stabilizer overhead system Denitrification is favored more by pressure than temperature and thus unit design is important. The ammonia formed in the Denitrification reactions, detailed below, is .subsequently removed in the hydrotreater reactor effluent wash water

Oxygen Removal Organically combined oxygen, such as a phenol or alcohol, is removed in the Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit by hydrogenation of the carbon-hydroxyl bond, forming water and the corresponding hydrocarbon. The reaction is detailed below. Oxyegenates are typically not present in naphtha, but when present they are in very low concentrations. Any oxygenates in
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the product will quantalively convert to water in the Platforming Unit. It is important that the .hydrotreater product oxygenate level be reduced sufficiently

Oxyegenate removal is as difficult, if not more, than nitrogen removal. The specic organic oxygen species impacts ease or difficulty of removal. Units normally not designed for oxygen removal may find it difficult to get adequate product quality. Oxygenate removal is favored by high pressure and high temperatures. For high feed concentrations, lower liquid space velocities are required. Processing of such compounds should be done with care. Complete .oxygen removal is not normally expected and may only be 50% Olefin Saturation Hydrogenation of olefins is necessary to prevent fouling or coke deposits in downstream units. Olefins can polymerize at the Platforming combined feed exchanger and thus cause fouling. These olefins will also polymerize upstream of the naphtha hydrotreating reactor and cause heat transfer problems. Olefin saturation is almost as rapid as desulfurization. Most straight run naphthas contain only trace amounts of olefins, but cracked naphthas usually have high olefin concentrations. Processing high concentrations of olefins in a Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit must be approached with care because of the high exothermic heat of reaction associated with the saturation reaction. The increased temperature, from processing relatively high amounts of olefins, across the catalyst bed can be sufficient enough to cause sulfur recombination. The olefin reaction is detailed below

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Halide Removal Organic halides can be decomposed in the Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit to the corresponding hydrogen halide, which is either absorbed in the reactor eltluent water wash or taken overhead in the stripper gas. Decomposition of organic halides is much more difficult than desulfurization. Maximum organic halide removal is thought to be about 90 %, but is much less at operating conditions set forth for sulfur and nitrogen removal only. A typical organic .chloride decomposition reaction is shown below

Metal Removal Normally the metallic impurities in the naphtha feeds are in the part per billion (ppb) range and these can be completely removed. The Hydrotreating catalysts are capable of removing these compounds at fairly high concentrations, up to 5 weight ppm or more, on an intermittent basis at normal operating conditions. The metallic impurities remain on the Hydrotreating catalyst when removed from the naphtha. Some commonly detected components found on used Hydrotreating Hydrobon catalyst are arsenic, iron, catcium, .magnesium, phosphorous, lead, silicon, copper, and sodium

:LHSV & Residence Time Calculation

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LHSV (liquid hourly space velocity) = Volumetric flow of liquid feed Volume of catalyst 1bbl(US Oil) = 158.987 liters liters = 0.001 m 1 Volumetric flow of liquid feed = 3000 bbl/day(US Oil) =

3000x158.987x0.001 m/day 476.961 = m/hr 19.873 = Volume of catalyst or reactor = 9.9 m

LHSV = 19.873/9.9 = 2.0073 hr-1 Residence Time = Volumetric flow of liquid feed Residence Time = 9.9/19.873 = 0.4981 hr = 29.889 min Volume of catalyst

:Process Equipments Overview


Reactors The reactor used in hydrotreating process is fixed bed continuous flow type. This type of reactors are usually operate at steady state but by the passage of time the steady state operation is disturbed by the deposition of material on the bed of catalyst & also due to fouling. Catalyst containment is one of the goals of the design. Process vapors enter

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through the top of the reactor. via an inlet distributor, and flow down .through the catalyst bed and out the bottom of reactor Typically the naphtha hydrotreating reactor is constructed of carbon steel with an alloy lining. The inlet distributor located at the top of the reactor prevents the vapor from disturbing the catalyst bed and enhances the flow distribution through the catalyst. Usually there are two layers of graded bed material on top of the catalyst bed. This aids in flow distribution and minimizes the pressure drop across the reactor. The depth of each layer is a function of the reactor dimensions and the feed types. The top layer is typically 4 to 6 inches deep (100 mm to 150 mm) and consists of specially shaped inert ceramic material used to filter larger particles from the teed. The second layer ranges from 12 to 24 inches (300 mm to 600 mm) in depth and is another specially shaped material, but includes active metals. At the bottom of each reactor are ceramic support materials (balls) of different diameters which help in the flow distribution of the reactor efuent out of the reactor. The varying diameters of the support material are utilized to prevent catalyst migration. An outlet basket prevents the ceramic support material from .leaving the reactor Heaters The Charge Heater is typically a radiant-convection type with one firing zone, with fuel gas-fired burners located on the floor of the heater box. It is normally a cylindrical updraft type having vertical tubes in the radiant section and sometimes horizontal tubes in the convection section. The

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combined feed will first flow through the convection section and be preheated. There are a number of passes in the radiant section and each pass contains skin thermocouples. These thermocouples can warn of tube plugging from two-phase flow, mainly during startup. Dampers located in the stack above the convection section control draft through the heater. Draft gauges (vacuum gauges) are installed in the radiant sections, convection inlets, and before and after the damper to monitor draft through the heater. A negative pressure must be maintained for safe, .efficient heater operation. Thus the draft is of induced type Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers are used to heat and cool! many streams in the Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit. The shell and tube combined feed exchangers (CFE) allow the hot reactor effluent to add heat to the hydrotreating feed before the Charge Heater. The reactor effluent is then cooled further so that hydrogen can be separated from the unit product. The total reactor effluent is condensed by an air cooler and trim cooler. Heat exchangers are used for the reboiiers of the Stripper and Splitter Columns. Steam can .be used for the Stripper and Splitter Columns Compressors The Naphtha hydrotreating Unit has one or two reciprocating, motordriven compressors. One is booster & other is recycling compressor. The Purpose of booster compressor is to increase the pressure of gas. The recycle compressors circulate hydrogen-rich gas through the

hydrotreating reactor circuit. Without hydrogen circulation, large amounts

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of coke will form on the catalyst that will prevent the desired catalytic reactions. It is critical to maintain recycle gas ow when feed is being .charged to the unit Pumps There are many types of pumps used in the Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit. A high~ head multi-stage pump is usually used to supply feed to the reactor section that is at much higher pressure than the Feed Surge Drum. Proportioning pumps are used for chemical injection, such as inhibitor or .condensate Feed Surge Drum The Feed Surge Drum is a pressurized, horizontal killed carbon steel vessel. The naphtha hydrotreating feeds enter through a baffle distributor located at the bottom of the Feed Surge Drum and leaves at the opposite end. A level indicator and level glass show the hydrocarbon level. Maintaining a liquid seal in the bottom of the drum is important. The liquid outlet line has a vortex breaker. The Feed Surge Drum has a water boot to .collect and remove any tree water that might be present Separator The Separator is designed primarily to separate hydrogen from

hydrocarbon. The Separator is a horizontal carbon steel vessel lined with an alloy, and occasionally concrete, for corrosion protection. The cooled reactor effluent enters through a slot type distributor at one end of the vessel to permit proper mixed phase distribution. The hydrogen and liquid
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separate and both pass through a vertical mesh blanket. The mesh blanket is used as a demister pad to coalesce, or helps remove, entrained hydrocarbon droplets from the gas stream. A level indictor shows the hydrocarbon level and a level controller controls the flow of hydrocarbon from the separator to the Stripper. Maintaining a liquid seal in the bottom of the separator is important. The liquid outlet line has a vortex breaker. .There is also a water-boot to remove the injected water Over Head Receivers The Stripper and Splitter columns have receivers to collect condensed overhead vapors. The Stripper receiver inlet, has a slotted distributor to permit proper mixed phase distribution. A water boot collects any free water that might be present. A gas outlet nozzle permits noncondensable gas to go overhead. This valve also acts as the column pressure controller. The overhead receiver design temperature is much higher than its operating temperature. The receiver is designed to withstand temperatures that may develop if the overhead condenser .should fail Suction Drum The Recycle Compressor Suction Drum is a small vertical vessel designed to remove condensable material from the recycle compressor suction .stream and thus protect the compressor Stripper Column

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The stripper column is used to remove light ends, H2O and water from the light naphtha product stream. The stripper is typically fabricated out of killed carbon steel with carbon steel or stainless steel valve trays. The top part of the column is narrower than the bottom due to the lower volumes .of liquid and vapor in the top section of the column Splitter Column The Splitter is used to separate the light naphtha from the heavy naphtha product. The hexane (C6) components and heavier will be taken out the bottoms and sent to the Platforming Unit, tankage or blending system. The pentane (C5) components and lighter will go overhead where they are condensed and the net liquid will be sent to the tankage or blending. The Splitter is typically fabricated out of carbon steel with carbon steel valve .trays Valves The valves used in NHT are globe, gate & NRV .The NHT unit is totally controlled by DCS system. The control valves are of pneumatic type with .open to failure & close to failure mechanism

:Advantages
:Hydrodesulfurization

unit have some advantages such as

Sulfur & nitrogen removal to less than 10 ppm Complete removal of metal compounds from feedstock Reduction of environmental pollutants P a g e | 17

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Increase in catalysts age and reduction in poisoning of valuable metal catalyst Reduction in corrosion of process equipment Easy treatment of waste water Simple operation of process unit -

Conclusion
At the end it is concluded that NHT plays the vital role in cleaning of naphtha before its further processing. It increase catalyst regeneration cycle time & helps to attain maximum yield. Thus by the usage of hydrotreating technology we could also meet the specifications .for clean fuel as prescribe by EPA

Recommendations
Make sure that reactor temperature could not exceed 340 oC. Because as many time reactor exceeds that temperature the probability of coke deposition is increased thus
.catalyst

regeneration cycle time decreases

In order to minimize fuel consumption in furnaces use as many heat exchangers as you can & if possible use reformer furnace as heating source NHT feed to save money as well as energy

:Bibliography http://www.vurup.sk/sites/vurup.sk/archivedsite/www.vurup.sk/pc/vol51_2009/issue1/pdf/pc _1_2009_mohaddecy.pdf


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrodesulfurization http://chentserver.uwaterloo.ca/aelkamel/che720/che735/lectures_che735_stude nts/new-book-practical-advances-refinery/chapter7-hydrotreaterhydrocracker.pdf P a g e | 18

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http://chentserver.uwaterloo.ca/aelkamel/che720/che735/lectures_che735_stude nts/new-book-practical-advances-refinery/chapter7-hydrotreaterhydrocracker.pdf

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