Anda di halaman 1dari 27

An ton s dng in

Nguyn tc c bn nht trong cc h tiu chun v xy lp in l phi m bo cho: + Bo v chng in git + Bo v chng cc tc ng nhit + Bo v chng qu dng + Bo v chng r in + Bo v chng nhiu lon in p. Nhng iu trn y nhm bo v con ngi, bo v ti sn v m bo an ton cho mi hot ng. 1. Tai nn do in c th c trn cng trng Vic s dng in trn cc cng trng lm cho nng sut lao ng ln cao. C gii ho thi cng khng th tch ri vic s dng in. in l nng lng chnh lm cc ng c hot ng. Vic s dng in mang li li ch to ln cho sn xut nhng phi tin hnh nhng bin php phng nga tai nn do in gy ra cho ngi sn xut. Mt t l cao ( trn 70%) vi cc v chy l do cc trang b in khng hp chun. Trong nhng tai nn v in th khng t hn 30% v gy cht ngi. Vic loi tr tai nn v in cn c tnh ton ngay t khi thit k cc bin php thi cng. Mi kh nng gy tai nn do in sinh ra cn c phng nga trc. Cn lp bin php phng nga v kin quyt thc hin nhng bin php phng nga tai nn v in lm cho sn xut c an ton v iu ny cng chnh l gp phn cho sn xut t cc mc tiu ca n. Tai nn do in c th gy ra trn cng trng quy t li ba dng chnh: Da ngi b tip xc trc tip vi dy dn hoc thit b ang mang in. Da tip xc trc tip vi kim loi ca thit b in c cch in nhng phn cch in b h hng.

Thn th ngi lao ng tip xc vi in d r trong t do dy in b t chm xung t m s tiu tn dng in cha p ng cc yu cu v an ton. Hin tng ny gi l in p bc. Cn mt dng tai nn xy ra do ngi lao ng khng tun th nghim tc cc quy trnh ng ct in. ng hoc ct in m khng kim tra k nhng mi lin quan n mch in s c thao tc: ng in khi c b phn ang thao tc trong mng m khng c bo trc. Ngt in t ngt lm ngi thi cng khng chun b trc phng php phng tai nn cng nh cc thao tc sn xut thch hp. 2. Tc hi ca dng in i qua c th ngi Dng in c in p trn 36 vn i qua c th ngi gy ra s hu hoi cc t bo ca ngi hoc lm h thn kinh c nhng phn x tiu cc. S nh hng n sc kho con ngi do dng in gy ra tu thuc in p, in tr ca ngi, cng dng in ca dy ti in, tn s v loi ng in. S tc hi ca dng in i qua c th li ph thuc ng i ca dng in v thi gian tc ng ca dng in. Nhng iu kin ngoi vi nh m ca mi trng, vt liu ca kt cu m c th tip xc nh sn nh, gh ngi ... in p s dng kh ph bin ca cc my mc v trang b mang in trn cng trng xy dng thng l 127, 220 v 380 vn, hin nay c th dng n 1000 vn. in truyn c qua c th thng qua lp sng ngoi da. Nu da kh th in tr ca lp sng ny t 60.000 n 400.000 Ohm/cm2. Nu da b t hoc c m hi, in tr ca lp sng ngoi da ch cn trn di 100 Ohm/cm2. Da nhiu m hi th in tr lp sng ngoi da cn 1000 Ohm/cm2. in p cao th lp sng ngoi da b hu hoi nhanh. in p thp th lp sng hu hoi chm hn. Trong tnh ton , thng ly in tr ca lp sng ngoi da l 1000 Ohm/cm2.

Khi da b m hoc nhiu m hi th in tr ca da gim r rt. Dng in qua c th ngi ta gy ra nhng phn ng lm thay i trng thi thn kinh, bin i thnh phn mu hay gy chy bng. Ngi ta bt u cm thy c dng in qua c th khi cng dng in khong 0,6 ~ 1,5 mA vi dng xoay chiu, tn s cng nghip l 50 hertz v 5~7 mA i vi dng in mt chiu. Tc hi ca dng in qua c th ngi tu thuc dng in mi tip xc ( dng 1 ), dng in dn qua c th ( dng 2 ) v dng in b gi li c th ( dng 3). Dng in mi tip xc vi c th( dng 1 ) ngi ta thng nm trong khong 0,6 ~ 5 mA. Dng in mi tip xc vi c th c coi l khi ngi ta cn c kh nng t tch mnh ra khi mng in. Dng in dn qua c th ( dng 2) trong phm vi 15 mA vi dng in xoay chiu v 50 ~ 80 mA vi dng mt chiu. Dng in lu gi li trong c th ( dng 3) khong 15~20 mA vi dng xoay chiu v 80 mA vi dng mt chiu. Dng in dn qua c th ngi ta ( dng 2) c th coi l t nguy him v khng gy tc hi ngay. Nhng nu khng tch c dng in nhanh khi c th th s tr ca dng in b tng lm cho c th b t lit. Dng in lu gi li trong c th ( dng 3) rt nguy him v dng ny gy ra co git h thng thn kinh, c bp b co dt mnh v sau b t lit, trc mt l c th khng th t iu khin c. Hin tng tip theo l ngng tim, ngng th. Nhi nghin cu v tai nn in cho thy ch cn dng xoay chiu 25 ~ 30 mA rt nguy him. Trn 50 mA c th gy ra tai nn nng n mc cht ngi. Dng in trn 0,1 A , tc l 100 mA thng gy cht ngi. V tn s th tn s in ph thng l 50 hoc 60 Hertz rt nguy him. Tn s cao ln nguy him li gim i. Khi tn s dng in trn 1000 Hertz thng khng gy ra nh hng n h thn kinh m ch gy bng cc b. Trong y t, nhiu loi thit b in li li dng tn s in cao iu tr mt s bnh.

V tr ca c th tip xc vi dng in ht sc quan trng v n to ra lung in dn qua c th. Ta hnh dung ra dng in qua c th phi dn t ngun c in n t hoc vt kim loi dn tip. Thng thng, dng in i t tay phi, qua c th dn xung chn ni vi t l lung nguy him nht i vi c th ngi. Lung ny dn dng in qua tim v phi nn d gy t vong. Lung in i qua ngi t chn n sang chn kia dn tip t nguy him hn v dng in ngn nht khng i qua cc b phn iu khin s sng quan trng trc mt ca c th nh tim, c, phi. Thi gian tc ng ca dng in qua c th cng di, cng nguy him. Dng in qua c th ngn hn 0,2 giy cha gy nguy him. T 0,5 giy bt u gy nguy him cho ngi. 3. Tai nn in vi h thng dy dn : trn khng v cp ngm Trong mng in xoay chiu c in p di 1000V, mi dy dn in lm cch li vi t. Tr s in tr cch in ca cc dy dn c ly theo kt qu tnh ton l 1000 Ohm/V . Vn dy l in p ca mng. C th ly in tr ca dy dn l Rcd = 1000 Ohm. in tr ca dy dn i vi t khi cho th nng ca t l 0 bao gm in tr cch in ca dy dn, ca cc in tr mc vo dy trn ng t dy dn n t c tng in tr l Rcd . Dng in i qua dy dn c in tr Rcd gi l dng in r . Tr s ca dng in r c gii hn l 10A. Khi ngi b chm vi mt cc ( mt dy ) i vi phn dn in in tr ca ngi coi nh mc song song vi in tr cch in ca pha . Nu chm phi hai dy trong mng ba pha hoc mt pha vi dy trung ho, to nn mch kn m ngi coi nh ni tip vi mch in rt nguy him n tnh mng. Sau y l mt vi khi nim nh lng trong tnh ton:

Khi ngi chm phi mt pha c in, mch in ang c cc in tr khc th dng in i qua ngi c in tr Rn s l:
In =
U 2 Rn + Rcd

= [ A]

Khi tip xc vi mt pha khng c in tr khc hay hai pha hai v tr khc nhau , c th coi ngi l vt dn in c in tr Rn c mc theo kiu ni tip , lc ny s c dng in qua ngi s l:
In = U , ( A) Rn

Nu in tr ca ngi ch l 1000 Ohm hoc nh hn th ngi chc chn s b t vong. Tai nn v in xy ra vi ngi do dy dn trn trn khng thng hay gp l b phn c th ngi chm phi dy dn in. Ngi cm hay mang vc thanh kim loi hoc cy di , m, va chm phi dy dn trn khng cng l l do in git. c nhiu tai nn khi xy dng di hoc gn ng in trn khng, cng nhn chuyn nhng thanh thp di va chm phi dy dn nn b in git. Khng t trng hp cng nhn thao tc trn u ct cao m dy dn ang mang in b in git do va chm vi dy in. Mt dng tai nn c th xy ra do ng in trn khng ct ngang trn ng l bn di khng m bo khong cch gia mt ng n ng dy theo ng quy nh vng vi phng tin xe c di chuyn bn di, nht l khi xe cht ti qu cao. ng dy dn trn khng vt qua ng giao thng bn di phi m bo cao ti thiu l 6 mt. Phi c tn hiu treo trn dy in nhc nh cao ca dy dn theo ng quy nh v ng dy in vt ngang ng l. i vi dy cp i ngm tai nn thng xy ra do my o t hot ng va chm vi dy cp dn. Khi lp bin php thi cng o t cn cm ch gii cho my o khng gy tai nn dng ny. Trong nhiu trng hp, phi ngt in trong dy cp khi thi cng o t gn ng cp

m bo an ton tuyt i cho cng nhn o t cng nh cho ng cp. My mc nng di chuyn ln ng cp ngm bn di m ng cp chn khng su cn thit hoc cp khng i trong ng bo v ng quy cch cng l nguyn nhn gy t cp, in b r qua t gy tai nn. ng cp ct ngang ng giao thng phi chn su sao cho p lc ca xe c di chuyn bn trn khng lm cp b dn di gy nguy him. Cp i di ng giao thng phi lun trong ng thp hoc ng b tng m ng knh ng phi ln hn ng knh ca dy cp ti thiu ba ln.

4. Tai nn in khi vn hnh thit b in Khi vn hnh thit b in cn c trang b cc nghi kh cch in , m bo an ton tuyt i. Cng nhn phi ng lm cc thao tc trong mi trng kh ro, chn ng c thm cch in. Chn phi mang giy m bo cch in. Tay ngi cng nhn phi i gng cch in. Phi mang knh v c m cch in. Khi tip xc vi cc b phn kim loi ang c in phi dng cc dng c chuyn c cch in tho ng. Nhng dng c ny phi c thng xuyn kim tra cch in p ng cc yu cu v an ton s dng in. Hin nay phn vn hnh thit b in t ng ho cao, iu khin bng my tnh. Cn khai thc ht kh nng ny. Khi iu khin h thit b in l theo phng php th cng, phi m bo cc iu kin trang b cho cng nhn nh yu cu trn. Tai nn hay xy ra khi vn hnh thit b in v bin php ngn nga phi nh sau: Mi trng vn hnh m t. Vi nhng iu kin mi trng m t, phi c bin php thch ng mi c vn hnh. Trang b c nhn khng p ng cc yu cu cch in cho mi b phn c th c kh nng va chm vi 6

cc b phn mang in. Khng iu kin trang b an ton, khng vn hnh thit b in. Va p dng c kim loi ang cm tay vo cc b phn c in. Phi ht sc ch khi thao tc v mi dng c phi c tay cm cch in vi in p tng ng. Khi ln cao , mt ng khng vng chi, khng cch in. Phi c sn ng vng chi v mt chn ng phi c lp thm hoc lp m cch in. Mi cng vic vn hnh thit b in cn ng trn cao phi c mt t cng tc t nht hai ngi, mt ngi thao tc v mt ngi cnh gii, nhc nh iu kin an ton. Mi thit b in phi c ni t dng in song song qua ngi nu xy ra l nh, khng gy t vong hay tai nn. 5. Tai nn in do thao tc k thut

Ngi cng nhn vn hnh cc thit b in v thi cng s dng in phi c hun luyn v an ton s dng in. Mi thao tc ca cng nhn phi thun thc, hn ch ti a cc thao tc do khng thun thc m va chm vi cc thit tr in. Ngi cng nhn phi c trang b cch in cho c nhn y v ch thi cng khi mang y cc trang b bo v cch in. Tro cao trn ct in, trn sn thao tc cc thit tr in phi mang dy an ton ng quy nh, phi s dng y trang b an ton cho c nhn nh m, knh, gng, giy, qun o. Khng bao gi c lm mt mnh trn cao m phi lm theo t cng tc t nht l hai ngi, mt ngi thi cng v mt ngi cnh gii tai nn. Trc khi thc hin thao tc k thut in cn kim tra mi iu kin an ton. Khi c nghi ng, th d cha r cui ngun in c ai ang thi cng hay khng, cn kim tra trc khi tin hnh ng in. Ch ni mch in khi mi iu kin v an ton m bo tuyt i.

6. Tai nn in do ni lm vic b m hoc thm nc Mi trng lm vic lin quan n an ton s dng in c chia thnh ba nhm: Cc phng t nguy him v in l phng c mi trng khng kh tng i kh. m tng i ca khng kh khng qu 75% khi nhit t 5 ~ 25oC. Sn ca loi phng ny c in tr ln v khng kh khng c cc loi bi dn in bay l lng. Phng nguy him nhiu l phng c m ln trn 75%, nhit trung bnh trn 25oC. m tng i c lc nht thi tng n bo ho nh cc phng hp hi, phng ang bo dng b tng bng hi nc nng. Mt s phng kh, c hoc khng c l si v trong phng c phun m nht thi. Nhng phng c nhiu bi dn in nh phng nghin than, xng chut ct thp cng l phng nguy him nhiu v mt an ton in. Nhng phng nguy him cn l phng c nhit trn 30oC lm ngi lao ng trong lun chy m hi. Khi ngi c m hi, khi va chm vi in th mi nguy him tng gp bi. Phng c bit nguy him l cc phng rt m. m tng i ca loi phng ny xp x 100%, mt tng, mt trn thng xuyn c lp nc ngng t. Phng thng xuyn m m sn li dn in nh bng tn dp chng trn hoc c nhng sn ng thao tc bng tn. Nhng phng gia cng cht n cng nh cc phng c hi d bt chy n, cc phng c nhiu bi khi to vi khng kh thnh cc hn hp n th d nh trong cc gian nh kho cha cht n trn cng trng thu in. Ti nhng phng ny, ng dy dn in phi c thit k c cch in cao. Trong mi ng dn cha dy in ch c c mt dy, khng c b tr nhiu dy dn in. Mi kh c in u c cha trong cc hp m iu kin cch in m bo khng gy ra hin tng phng in. Cng nhn thao tc v lao ng trong nhng mi trng nguy him cn c trang b qun o an ton cch in. 8

nh sng trong nhng phng ny cn y nhn r mi chi tit ca dng c, vt , my mc ang vn hnh v cha ng trong phng. 7. An ton khi hn My hn h quang in s dng cng sut in ln, dng in qua dy hn c cng cao ( xp x 100 A ) . Qu trnh hn, u que hn hoc m hn pht ra nh sng h quang ng thi pht ra cc tia hng ngoi v tia cc tm. nh sng h quang v cc loi tia hng ngoi, tia cc tm lm hi mt v da ca c th ngi. Kim loi b chy do nhit cao di tc ng ca dng in hoc hi chy lm bn vng ra x hn ( gi l tia la hn) c th gy bng v chy. Dy dn in hn thng tri ngay trn mt sn i li v my hn v v tr vt c hn khng c nh. Phi thng xuyn kim tra cch in ca dy dn dng in hn. Nu c du hiu b try, xc phi dn bng cch in kp thi, khng in r r ra bn ngoi. Nhiu v chy nh v chy kho lp t ti cng trng sng , nh Trung tm thng mi ITC thnh ph H Ch Minh nm 2002 do tia la hn gy ra. Cng nhn hn v ngi ph hn phi eo knh v mt n bo v mt v mt khi b nh sng v cc dng tia lm hi. Cng nhn hn phi mang gng tay di bo v tay khi b sc nng ca tia la hn, ca kim loi nng chy v bc x. Cng nhn cn mang giy cao c chng tia la bn vo chn. Phi lm nhng vch ngn khng ngi qua li nhn trc tip vo tia h quang. Ngi v nhn trc tip vo ngn la h quang khi ang hn c th b tn thng mt do tia bc x v cc tia cc tm, tia hng ngoi. Hn hi thng dng kh axtylen v xy. Bnh cha tng loi kh cn tch bit v hn hp hai kh ny, nu r r c th gy n mnh. Cc bnh kh hn phi xa ngun nhit v nh nng mt tri. Kho cha cc bnh kh phi c thng gi tht tt. Nhng bnh ang dng phi t trn 9

gi hay xe y, khng c ng n c t do. Thit b ct ngn la tt li ca thit b hn hi phi c lp trn van iu chnh ca bnh v van mt chiu phi c lp u ng dn, pha c ngn la. ng dn kh phi tt, d phn bit v c bo v chng nng v chng b va chm, bi bn hoc b du, m bm. Mi mi ni ( mngxng ) phi cht, kht, khng c r r. Khi bnh axtylen b pht nng, phi kho van ngay tc th, pht lnh bo ng s tn ngi khi khu vc s nguy him v tm nc lm lnh bnh nhanh chng ng thi pht lnh bo ng chy, gi cu ho. Khi cng nhn ang s dng cc cng c cm tay c in, phi tt in cc cng c ny trc khi t cng c xung t. Tuyt i khng c dim hay bt la trong ti khi hn. Khi hon thnh cc thao tc hn, phi kho cc van cn thn. Khng c dng kh xy phi bi trn qun o. Khi hn trong mi trng kn, kim loi c hn trc y sn, do nhit cao, kh c s bc hi lm nguy hi cho cng nhn. Khi s dng mt s loi que hn c bit cng c th c kh c bc ra gy hi cho cng nhn khi ht th. Nu mi trng hn khng th thng gi c th ngi lao ng phi c trang b mt n v c cung cp dng kh. Nu kim loi hn c che ph b mt bng cc hp cht c cha kim loi ch, km, thu ngn, cadmi th mi trng hn nht thit phi trang b ht khi v nhng hn hp c cc kim loi ny rt c, rt nguy him. Tt nht, trc khi hn nhng kim loi c ph bng sn hay cht do, hy ty sch sn v cht do ri mi tin hnh hn. 8. An ton in khi hn trong nc C hai cch hn di nc l: Cch hn t Cch hn kh Cch hn di nc theo kiu hn t l hn trc tip trong mi trng nc. Que hn l loi c bit dng hn di nc ging nh hn trn cn. Hn kiu ny hiu qu cao v kh 10

kinh t. Nng lng dng hn b tr trn xung ngay trn mt nc m bn di tin hnh cng tc hn. Ngun in hn l dng in khng i. Dng in t t 300 ~ 400 A. ng c ca loi my hn ny chuyn dng pht ra ngun in cho vic hn di nc. Th hn trong nc phi mc qun o th ln, c th hon ton cch bit vi nc. Mi trang b in nh dy dn, m hn, phi cch nc tuyt i. Vic b tr mch hn nh sau:

hn

My pht in Que hn

ni hn Cu dao Hn theo quy trnh t r v cng c hiu qu cao nn c s dng ph bin. Tc hn nhanh v cng tc chun b tn t thi gian. Tuy nhin kim loi nhng trong mi trng nc nn b ngui nhanh, s phn b phn t kim loi khng nh mu kim loi ban u m b gin. Tuy nhin cc iu kin v an ton lao ng kh ngt ngho. Nh m t qu trnh cng tc 11

hn th vic trang b an ton cn rt cn thn. Nhng tai nn c th xy ra l bng da, r in l kh d. Cch hn kh c chun b ht sc k cng. Phi lm mt bung kn bc quanh kt cu cn hn. Trong bung bm y kh, thng l kh helium cha xy c p sut 0,5 bary.Bung ny gi l bung p lc cao. Cng tc hn tin hnh trong bung kn ny nn cht lng m bo tt. Vic hn xy ra di p sut cao cn bng vi p sut ca mi trng nc bn ngoi bung kn cha kt cu hn.

ang hn di nc theo quy trnh t

nh ang hn di nc theo quy trnh kh Cc iu kin v an ton rt ngt ngho. Ngi phi hn trong bung kn v chu cnh p lc cao, nng cng nh nh sng chi chang ca tia la hn. Cc cht kh hydro v xy sinh ra khi hn d gy n m sinh ra tai nn. Kh nit to ra trong qu trnh hn s lu trong mu lm cho ngi lao

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ng b nh hng sc kho. Ngi th hn phi c hun luyn v ngh nghip, k nng cng nh rn luyn sc kho c th chu dng c iu kin lao ng. Trang b bo h c ch trng ng mc trnh n mc ti a nhng nh hng tiu cc n sc kho ngi cng nhn. Trang b to ra bung kn i hi ng b v phc tp nn gi thnh cui cng ca ng hn kh cao. Ch khi no i hi cht lng rt c bit mi dng phng php hn kh. 9. Hun luyn v thit k, lp t cng nh lao ng trong mi trng c in m bo an ton trong xy lp in. Khi thit k h thng in trn cng trng , phi t thit b bo v nh aptomat hoc cu dao in tng cho ng dy in chnh trong nh, cho tng ng dy in ph, cho tng thit b c cng sut ln. Phi t cu ch trc tng cm in, m bo khi c chm chp ct ngay c ngun in. Tit din dy dn phi chn sao cho c kh nng ti dng in n cc thit b, dng c in m n cung cp. Khng dng dy c tit din nh cho cc dng c in c cng sut qu ln trnh gy ho hon. Khng dng ph ti qu mc cho php ca cng sut thit k v s gy qu ti dn n chy thit b, dy dn, gy chy n. Khng dng dy in, thit b in trong nh c cht lng km. Nhng thit b in, in trong nh qu c cn phi c kim tra thng xuyn c k hoch i tu hoc thay th. Khng dng bp in un nu m khng c ngi trng coi. Thit b in, in dng trong nh khi khng s dng phi ngt ra khi ngun in. Trc khi ra khi nh hoc trc khi i ng phi kim tra li cc thit b, in, n, qut. Khng tr nh, ngi mc bnh tm thn s dng cc thit b in, dng in trong nh. 13

Khng lp t hoc cc thit b . dng in c to nhit nh chn lu, bng n, bn i, bp in trn cc vt dng d chy nh g, giy, giy cc tng, tm xp ngn nga ho hon. Khi ni dy phi ni so le v qun bng keo cch in cn thn. Khng t cc cht d chy ( gaz, xng, du , giy) gn cc thit b, dng c in nh n, bn i, bp in, cm in. Khi xy ra chy do chp in, phi nhanh chng ngt cu dao in tng, bo cho mi ngi xung quanh bit, bo cho cnh st PCCC v dng phng tin cha chy ti ch dp la. Cm dng nc cha la khi cha ct in. 10. Bin bo v nhng gii php an ton c bn cho h thng in tm trn cng trng chng in git, v tr nhng vt dn in phi t ni thch hp. Nhng cm phi t cao trn 1,2 mt. H thng u mi in phi trong khng gian c bo v nh t cha, phng ring. Phi chng in git do con ngi tip xc gin tip qua kim loi khi dng in b r. Phi lm cc tm che chn ni cha thit b in m nu con ngi v c th va chm ngoi mun. Cc vt dn in phi c cch in vi mc cch in an ton cho ngi. Vi nhng ph ti thng xuyn tip sc vi ngi c gi l thit b nhm II, nh qut my, ng ngt in, nhng thit tr m ngi hay tip sc phi lm bng vt liu khng dn in nh bnt hay loi nha tng ng. Bo v chng cc tc ng nhit thng dng cc thit tr che chn. Ch yu chng cc tc ng nhit nhm chng chy. Khng c lp t ng dy in, bng in trn ng thot him. Vt liu xy dng s dng ti li thot him phi l vt liu kh chy. Lu rng dng in r c th khng ln gy in git, lm nh hng n an ton ca con ngi nhng nu ko di c th gy ra chy. Trong h thng cc thit b in phi lp cc thit tr t ng ngt mch khi c s c. Ti nhng u mi ca cng trnh in nh 14

* Cc thit b phn phi v trm bin p trong nh , trm bin p ngoi tri * Cc b chnh lu * Cc my in , thit b khi ng , iu chnh v bo v * Thit b in ca my trc * Cc h thng thanh ci * Cc thit tr in phn * u mi cc thit b chiu sng * u ngun ng dy in 1 chiu v xoay chiu * u ng cp in lc * u ng dy dn in trn khng. phi c bng ghi r tn ca u mi ny, cc tnh nng k thut ch yu ca ton b u mi, s h thng cc thit b t trong u mi, ch dn vn hnh v an ton khi thao tc. Bng ln ch vit khng qu nh hoc qu dy c. Kh ch cao t nht 2 cm, nt dy trn 2 mm. ng dy trn qua l giao thng, ti im thp nht ca ng dy phi treo mt tm bin c kch thc 0,8 x 0,5 mt bng vt liu cch in, nn sn mu da cam nht. Trn bin phi ghi dng trn cng hai ch nguy him , dng di ghi cao hin nay ca dy ti im ct ny ( n v mt) so vi mt ng, tit din dy v in p ti. 11. H thng tip t Ti ni bt u ca dy tip a phi c bin bo nh du. C s ng tip a chn ngm gn trn tng c th nhn bit phn nm di t. K hiu ni bt u ca dy tip a.

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Mt s k t trong h thng tip t: T l k t u ghi cho c ni vi h thng tip a. I l k t u ghi cho c tch ri T l k t th hai cho c ni trc tip vi t N l k t th hai cho c ni vi trung tnh ti gc h thng lp t. TN-C l k t th hin dy trung tnh (N) v dy t (PE) ni vi nhau (PEN). TN-S l k t th hin dy trung tnh (N) v dy t (PE) khng ni chung TN-C-S l k t th hin TN-C hng ngc v TN-S hng thun trong cng h thng ( ngc li vi TN-S hng ngc v TN-C hng thun l khng c php. Vic la chn h thng tip t tu thuc tiu chun ca cc nc. Nc ta cha c cc tiu chun cho h thng ny nn B Xy dng ang khuyn khch p dng cc tiu chun ca th gii IEC 60364. C hai hnh thc ni t bo v cho thit b in: + Ni t bo v trc tip: Ni b phn kim loi trn v thit b in bng dy kim loi lc bnh thng, khng c in vi cc ni t bng st, thp chn di t c in tr nh i vi dng in r qua t v in tr cch in cc pha khng b h hng. Hnh thc ny thng p dng mng 3 pha c trung ho cch in. Dng in r trong cc mng vi trung ho cch in c in p di 1000V, khng ln qu 10A, cc ni t vi in tr tnh ton nh (<4 Ohm) s m bo h in p tip sc n tr s an ton U = 10 x 4 = 40V. in p tip sc thn my ny l in p ti a trong mng c trung ho cch in khi tnh in tr ca cc ni t v tr s ti a ca dng in r. Khi dng in r khng qu 4 ~ 6 A th in p tip sc m ngi v mc phi cn gim na. Trong trng hp tip sc nh th, ngi chm vo mng in coi l mc vo mng in r song song vi cc ni t. Khi : 16

In Rn = Ir Rn

hay :

R I n = I r nd R
n

vit li

In

= Ir

R nd Rn

Trong : In l cng dng in i qua ngi ( A ) Ir l cng dng in r ( A ) Rn l in tr tnh ton ca ngi ( Ohm) Rn l in tr ca cc ni t Th d : Nu chn tr s in tr tnh ton ca ngi l Rn = 1000 Ohm ; Rn = 4 Ohm ; Ir = 10 A th dng in i qua ngi s l :

= 10 .

4 = 0,039 A 10 + 4

Nu ngi lao ng c trang b qun o, giy bo h th dng in qua ngi cn nh hn na nn khi c ni t s khng gy nguy him cho ngi v thm ch cng khng nh hng n sc kho na. + Kiu ni t bo v qua dy trung ho dng dy dn ni v kim loi ca thit b in vo dy trung ho. Thng cch ni ny hay dng cho mng c in p di 1000 V, 3 pha 4 dy vi dy trung ho ni t. Khi c s c, thng cch in chng hn, xut hin dng in trn thn ca thit b in nh thn my th lp tc mt trong cc pha s gy on mch v lm chy cu ch bo v hoc b phn t ng tc ng ct in khi my. Khi tip sc vi thn my trong thi im on mch, ngi s mc song song vi mng kn v dng in qua ngi s l :

17

r +r +r +R +r I R
k n g s nd k

dm

; ( A)

Trong : rk l in tr nhy ca dy trung ho ( Ohm ) rg in tr ca giy (Ohm) Idm dng in on mch (A) Cc mng c in p di 1000V c lin h vi mng in c in p trn 1000V qua my bin p phi c dy trung ho ni t hoc phi c dy trung ho hay cc pha ni t qua cu ch xuyn thng. ng thi dy trung ho phi thc hin ni t lp li cch nhau khng qu 1000 mt vi cc cc ni t c in tr khng qu 4 Ohm. Khi dy trung ho trong phn on mch c ni t lp li, tr s dng in i qua ngi cng tng ng gim i. Tuy nhin khi dng in on mch ln, tr s dng in qua ngi trc khi cu ch bo v t c th gy nguy him. Trong trng hp ny phi s dng c cu ct in t ng. 12. Chng st tm khi xy dng

Chng st y cp n chng st trn cng trng. Chng st cho nh vnh cu thuc chuyn ring. Chng st trn cng trng ch yu bo v khi s phng in ca tnh in kh quyn, bo v cho ngi v ti sn trn cng trng. Nguy him nht l st nh trc tip. Cng ca tia la in ca st n 200.000 A v in p ti 150 triu Vn. Tia la in ca st c th phng xa ti hng cy s. Thi gian phng in ca st t 0,1 ~ 1 giy ng h v nhit n 6000 ~ 10.000 oC. Tnh in kh quyn xut hin l do s ma st ca hi nc v sau ca cc ht nc vi khng kh trong cc lp khng kh m. Khi ht nc di chuyn trong m my s tch in v m my s mang in tch . Tc dng tng h ca cc ht nc mang in v cc lung khng kh s phn chia 18

ra cc ht ln mang in tch dng, ht nh mang in tch m. Ht nh tch in m v ht ln lng ng xung pha di to thnh cc m my tch in dng. Khi m my tch in dng di chuyn, do hin tng cm ng tnh in m trn mt t s tch in m. Nh vy, trong thin nhin hnh thnh loi t in c bit vi lp khng kh gia, cc b mt t in l my v mt t. Khi th hiu t ti tr s cc hn s sinh ra s phng tia la in km theo tia chp chi lo v ting n d di. Trc khi xut hin s phng in th mt t, in tch cm ng m lt qua nhng phn nh ln khi mt t ca cc ngi nh, nhng im cao ca cng trnh, to nn hin tng ion ho khng kh trn ng i ti cc m my v lm gim in tr ring ca lp khng kh to sn hnh lang cho tia la in phng qua. Kh nng ca nhng im cao ca cng trnh b st nh trc tip cng ln khi khong cch gia im cao vi m my tch in cng gn. Ngoi ra kh nng st nh cn ph thuc vo cu to a cht tng st mt t, vo cc yu t kh quyn v cc yu t hnh hc khc. Vng c qung pyrit d b st nh hn cc khu vc khc. Khi cng trnh khng c bo v chng st , nu c st nh trc tip , cng trnh s b ph hoi hoc do khng kh b t nng chp nhong s lan rng nhanh, to ra ln sng khng kh t nng cng trnh. Nhit lng tng nhanh v t ngt l nguyn nhn ph hng cng trnh. St nh trc tip l biu th ca tia la in st. Hin tng tnh in v cm ng in t cng l biu th na ca st. Cm ng tnh in gy ra do tc dng ca cc m my mang in ln cc cng trnh trn mt t v km theo tia la gia cc b phn kim loi ca kt cu v thit b. Cm ng in t xut hin khi tia chp phng in lm pht sinh ra t trng nam chm trong khng gian thay i theo thi gian. T trng nam chm gy ra cm ng trong cc vng to ra mt dng in trong cc vt kim loi ko di. Tuy nhin dng in ny khng ln nn t nguy him m khi c cc vng kim loi khng kn, c th xy ra hin tng phng in lm t nng kim loi gy nguy him. Nhng tia la 19

do phng in ny c th gy n , nu khng gian chung quanh c hi nh ccbua hydro , s to n. Lm thu li l gii php thng dng chng st. St rt hay nh vo cc cng trnh ni t v tnh dn in khi ln ti v cng. Trang b cho mt h chng st gm b phn thu st, b phn dn st v b phn tiu st. B phn thu st c th l thanh kim, dy hoc li. Thanh kim thng dng bng thp, ng knh ln trn 20 mm, di 2,5 mt u trn nhn, u di gn vo im ta chc chn nh nh ct cao, im cao nht ca cng trnh. C th lm nhng tr thu li ng c lp cao vt ln khu vc mun bo v. Dy l bin php thu st nh dy kim loi c ng knh trn 12 mm, ni gia hai im ta chc chn, cao trn cc im cao nht ca cng trnh ti thiu 2 mt. Li thu li l nhng kim thu li ngn ( 0,75 ~ 1,00 mt, ng knh 14 mm ) hng ln tri, u di kim ngn ni vi dy thp c ng knh 14 mm. Hn cc kim ngn ny vi dy ni theo ng tiu chun hn ni ( ng hn di 140 mm nu hn mt m, 50 mm nu hn hai m). Khong cch gia nhng kim ny l 2 mt. Li t quanh chu vi nh nh hoc chy trn sng nc nh. B phn thu st khng c sn. Mun bo v chng g nn m km hay thm km. Ngoi ra, kim thu st c th bng thp trn, thp dt, thp ng hoc thp gc vi tit din ca phn kim loi mi kim khng nh hn 100 mm2 ( nu thp dt , b dy khng nh hn 3,5 mm ; nu thp ng , b dy ng khng nh hn 3 mm ) v chiu di hiu dng ca kim khng ngn hn 200 mm. Cng trnh c kim thu st nm mi trng c n mn , tit din nh kim khng nh hn 150 mm2 ( thp dt chiu dy khng nh hn 4 mm v thp ng , chiu dy thnh ng khng mng hn 3,5 mm). Mi kim thu st khng cn vut nhn nhng nu l ng th phi dng kim loi vt kn mi kim li. Kim thu st c th m km, m thic hoc sn dn in. Ti nhng mi trng t kim c n mn th kim thu st phi m km. Lp t kim thu st phi m bo chc chn trong sut qu

20

trnh s dng nht l phi chu c cc tc ng ngang do gi , lc v cc tc ng c hc khc. Nu t kim trn ct g , ct b tng ct thp th mi nh phi cao hn u trn ca ct t nht l 200 mm v kim phi c gn chc chn vo ct. Dy thu st l dy ni nhng kim thu st chng st nh thng lp t trn mt bng cao nht ca cng trnh , to nn vng bo v st cho cng trnh phi lm bng thp , tit din dy khng c nh hn 50 mm2. Dy cng khng nn lm c tit din ln hn 75 mm 2 v phi c sn dn in. Dy thu st t mi trng khng kh c ho cht n mn th tit din dy thu st phi m n 75 mm2. Vic c nh dy thu st vo kt cu cng trnh phi m bo chc chn v mt c hc v tip xc tt. Dy thu st c th to thnh hnh li t trn cc bng thp trn cch nhau t 1 ~ 1,5 mt v dy thu st ny phi t cao trn mi cng trnh t nht 0,60 mt. Cc dy hoc li thu st phi c kim tra m bo cho: + Mi khng b chc thng sinh dt, + Khng lm h hng cc lp chng thm, + Khng cn tr n vic thot nc trn mi khi ma, v + Dy khng cng qu v khi dy qua khe ln phi c on un cong t 100 mm n 200 mm trnh s co ko lm dy qu cng. B phn dn st thng lm bng dy kim loi. Dy dn st xung t c th lm bng thp trn , thp dt tit din khng c nh hn 35 mm2 v b dy thp dt khng c nh hn 3 mm. Nu t b phn thu st ch t mt dy dn xung t th tit din dy ny khng c nh hn 50 mm2. Nhng ni mi trng khng kh c ln ho cht n mn th tit din khng nh hn 50 mm2 v thp dt khng mng hn 3,5 mm.

21

Cu ni v dy ni ca thit b chng st v ai san bng in p c th lm bng thp trn , thp dt tit din khng nh hn 28 mm2 v b dy thp dt khng mng hn 3 mm. Ni khng kh c ho cht n mn tit din dy khng b hn 35 mm2 v thp dt khng mng hn 3,5 mm. Dy ni , cu ni v dy ni cn c sn chng g . Dy ni t b phn thu st xung b phn tip t phi chn l no ngn nht , khng nn c nhng on phi un nhn hay gp khc . Trng hp khng th lm khc c m phi un th khong cch gia hai on dy b un phi cch nhau t nht l 1/10 chiu di ca on dy phi un . Cc cc dy gn vo kt cu cng trnh khng xa nhau qu , phi nh hn 1,5 mt v khong cch t dy n mt kt cu phi ln hn 50 mm. Nn chn v tr t dy ny ch t ngi qua li v phi cch l ca i , ca s t nht l 1,5 mt. Li i c nhiu tr em qua li nh ti cc nh tr, trng hc th dy dn phi cch li i t nht l 5 mt. Ni no m khng cch ly c ngi v sc vt vi dy dn th phi t dy dn trong ng cch in trong phm vi khng gian t mt t n cao 2,5 mt. u ni dy dn st vo b phn tip t c th c ch ni tho ri c vi mc ch kim tra in tr ca b phn ni t . Hai u dy ca b phn ni v b phn tip t phi hn vi hai thanh ni bng thp dt dy trn 6 mm, rng trn 30 mm c l bt bu lng ni vi s l t nht l 2 lp 2 bu lng ni loi M12. Khong cch gia 2 l bu lng l 40 mm . Phi thng xuyn kim tra xit cht ca nhng bu lng ny. Khi cng trnh ch c mt dy dn t b phn thu st xung b phn tip t th khng c lm on ni m phi l mt dy ni lin v mi lin kt u l lin kt hn c nh. B phn tiu st cn gi l tip t ca h thu li l b phn ht sc quan trng.B phn ni t chng st c th lm bng thp trn , thp dt , thp ng vi phn tit 22

din kim loi khng nh hn 100 mm2. ( b dy thp dt , thp gc v thnh ng khng mng hn 4 mm). Nu t c tnh cht n mn th tit din trn phi ln hn 100 mm2. B phn ni t c th c sn dn in , m thic, m km nhng tuyt i khng c sn cch in hoc sn bitum , sn hc n hay bt k loi sn no c tnh cht cn tr vic dn in. Ngi thit k qui nh in tr yu cu ca b phn ni t tu theo in tr ca t ti khu vc cng trnh. Cn kim tra li tr s in tr sut ca t ( . . Cm ) ti hin trng. Mi s liu cho sn trong cc S tay ch tham kho v thit k k thut m thi. Tr s in tr sut tnh ton ( .tt ) bng tr s in tr sut o c ( ) nhn vi h s thay i in tr sut ( ), cn c gi l h s thi tit hay l h s ma . H s thay i in tr sut ca t theo thi tit ca cc kiu ni t cho trong bng sau:
Hnh thc ni t Thanh ( tia ) t nm ngang ( ni t ko di ) Cc ng thng ng su t b phn ni t (m) 0,5 0,80 1,00 0,80 Tnh t mt t n u mt trn cng ca cc H s thay i in tr sut ( ) 1,80 1,25 1,45 1,20 1,40 Ghi ch Tr s nh ng vi t kh ( o vo ma kh ) Tr s ln ng vi loi t m ( o vo ma ma )

1,40

Thng thng nn chn hnh thc ni t theo ch dn di y: (a) Khi tr s in tr sut t khng ln qu 3 x 10 4 . Cm th s dng hnh thc ni t cc chn thng ng , chiu di cc t 2,5 n 3 mt , u trn ca cc phi ng ngp su trong t t 0,50 n 0,80 mt.

23

Nu lp t su c in tr nh , t 3 x 10 4 . Cm tr xung hoc c mch nc ngm cn s dng hnh thc cc chn su v c th tng chiu di cc n 6 mt. Trong trng hp ny c th s dng cc b tng ct thp v cc mng bng b tng ct thp ca cng trnh lm b phn ni t chn su. Trng hp lp t trn c tr s in tr nh, cc lp t di l , si hoc c in tr sut ln th dng hnh thc ni t thnh tia t nm ngang theo kiu ni t ko di chn su 0,50 n 0,80 di mt t , chiu di mi thanh khng nn ly qu tr s chiu di ti hn , ng vi cc tr s in tr sut nh bng sau y:
Cm

, .

<5x104 25

5x10 35

04

10x1 50

20x10 80

40x104 10 0

lth , mt

Trng hp phi tng s thanh (tia) cng khng nn tng qu 4 thanh tia v gc to thnh gia cc thanh trn mt bng khng nn nh hn 90o. Nn u tin s dng hnh thc ni t ko di. (b) Khi in tr sut ca t bng t 3 n 7x104 .Cm, cn s dng hnh thc ni t hn hp ( cc kt hp vi thanh ). C th s dng ni t hn hp kiu hnh vung , hnh ch nht , hnh trn . Cc cc ch nn ng trong khong 2:3 chiu di ca thanh , tnh t u thanh , pha ni vi dy xung. (c) Khi tr s in tr sut ca t ln hn 7 x 104 .Cm , hoc t c nhiu tng , va cho php ko di thanh ti ch c tr s in tr sut nh nh h , ao , sng , sui nhng khng nn ko qu 100 mt. (d) C th dng bin php nhn to ci thin dn in nhng vng c in tr sut cao nh dng mui n ( NaCl ) pha nc ti cho khu at chung quanh dy 24

ni t . Theo quan im ca chng ti ( tc gi bi ging ny) nu dng phng php ny th phi ghi ch v nhc nh rng c 3~5 nm li phi kim tra in tr sut ca t v b sung mui nu khng s nguy him v in tr sut ca t ngy cng tng do nng mui gim do ma . Trong vic thi cng b phn thu st , b phn dn st , b phn tip t th vic hn ni ht sc quan trng . Mt trong nhng iu ht sc ch khi kim tra cht lng h chng st l kim tra cht lng mi hn. Mi hn phi m bo chiu di ng hn , m bo khng r , khng ngt qung , khng bt x , chiu cao ng hn phi p ng y . Thu li l h thng ht sc quan trng bo v ngi v ti sn trn cng trng chng st nh trc tip. Cn m bo cc yu cu sau y khi thit k v lp t h thu li: (i) B phn thu st phi m bo kiu dng chn , v tr t thit b , kch thc vt liu , kim tra lp m ca u kim , cc mi hn , ni . (ii) B phn dn st : v tr b tr , qui cch v s lng dy dn xung t , khong cch an ton n nhng v tr cn trnh , phng thc neo gn dy dn vo cng trnh , phng thc ni dy dn st , phng thc sn , m , ph tip xc . (iii) B phn ni t : qui cch vt liu , cch hn , ni , khong cch an ton n cc thit b kim loi trong nh , phi dng dng c o in tr t kim tra cc tr s in tr ni t. Khi t thit b chng st c lp, tr s in tr ni t xung kch phi t cc yu cu sau y : * Khng qu 20 nu tt < 5.104 .cm * Khng qu 50 nu tt 5.104 .cm Nu t thit b chng st ngay trn cng trnh v nhng cng trnh khng thng xuyn c ngi hoc lm vic , tr s in tr ni t xung kch qui nh nh sau: * Khng qu 20 nu tt < 5.104 .cm 25

* Khng qu 50 nu tt 5.104 .cm Nu t thit b chng st trn cng trnh c ngi v lm vic thng xuyn th in tr xung kch qui nh nh sau: * Khng qu 10 nu tt < 5.104 .cm * Khng qu 30 nu tt 5.104 .cm Nh c mi kim loi , c php dng mi lm b phn thu nu chiu dy ca mi : * Ln hn 4 mm vi cng trnh c nguy c n , chy. * Ln hn 3,5 mm vi cng trnh t nguy c n, chy. Mi kim loi phi m bo gn kt dn in ton mi v c 20~30 mt li ni vi dy dn st xung b phn ni t , ton nh t nht c 2 dy ni xung b phn ni t. Cn kim tra khi thit b chng st t ngay trn cng trnh : * Cc b phn dn in ca thit b chng st pha trn mt t phi t xa cc ng ng, ng dy in lc, in thoi, ng ten dn vo cng trnh v cc b phn kim loi c kch thc ln ca cng trnh vi khong cch ti thiu l 2 mt. Vi nhng b phn kim loi ca cng trnh nu khng thc hin c khong cch nu trn th cho php ni chng vi thit b chng st nhng phi thc hin ng th tng tng. Gii php ni nn hn ch n ti thiu. * Khong cch trong t t cc b phn kim loi ca thit b chng st ti cc ng ng kim loi , ng cp ngm dn vo cng trnh khng c nh hn 3 mt. Nu khng m bo c khong cch trn th c ni chng vi nhau ni gn nht nhng phi gim tr s in tr ni t cn 1 . Trng hp ny nht thit phi s dng cp dn in vo nh l loi c v kim loi sau ni phn v kim loi vi b phn ni t ca chng st. 13. S cu ngi b tai nn in

26

Bin php tt nht khi c ngi b tai nn in l ngt ngun in ang dn n ngi b tai nn. Khi khng th ngt ngun in dn n ngun gy tai nn th tm mi cch cch ly nn nhn khi dng in. Nhng vt dng cch ly nn nhn vi ngun in nn l cc thanh g, thanh tre, thanh nha di v cng y dy in hoc y ngi cch ly khi dng in. Nhng thanh ny phi kh v khng dn in. Ngi lm cc thao tc y phi ng trn ni kh ro, tay nn c gng khng dn in hoc dng qun o kh, ny lng lt bn tay khi cm vo vt cch ly nn nhn. Nu thy nn nhn c hin tng ngng th, phi nhanh chng lm h hp nhn to, sau gi y s, bc s y khoa v gi cho nhng ni cp cu. Phi lm h hp nhn to n khi c ngi chuyn trch cp cu n . Cng nhn cn c hun luyn v s cu v h hp nhn to khi hc ni quy an ton s dng in v trc khi c giao cng vic lin quan n in.

H hp nhn to hay cn gi l thi ngt

27