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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Sweat&Ventilation Understand the importance of ventilation to prevent sweat damage to cargo during carriage p g Define "ship sweat" and "cargo sweat Understand how "ship sweat" and "cargo sweat" sweat can occur and the actions required to minimise their occurrence Describe the principle of forced ventilation

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Slide 1

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Sweat&Ventilation To describe the operations of two types of forced ventilation and humidity control systems State reasons for the ventilation of cargo spaces d i during carriage other than f the i h h for h minimisation of sweat Obtain information for special ventilation techniques for the carriage of bulk coal and bagged rice

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Slide 2

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Sweat&Ventilation Varyingclimatesandtemperatures Consequenteffectsoncargoesdue toheatingandcooling Excessiveoverheating severedeterioration Rapidcooling condensation,sweat

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SP-SMA

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoEffect Cargoes are mainly of two kinds Hygroscopic & NonHygroscopic Hygroscopic cargoes are mainly of vegetable origin such as grain flour cotton tobacco grain, flour, cotton, tobacco, wood and the like, all of which are affected by the humidity of the atmosphere, attracting, retaining and giving off moisture

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoEffect Hygroscopic cargoes cause ship's sweat by virtue of changes in temperature, particularly when passing from warm areas to cooler conditions. More prevalent with sudden falls in outside temperature.

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoEffect NonHygroscopic cargoes are mainly of solid nature, such as steel products, machinery, earthenware, canned goods and , j g the like, which can be subjected to damage from cargo sweat (condensation) in the form of rusting, staining and discolouration.

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoEffect Non NonHygroscopic More prevalent if loading has taken place in cold climates and the cargo later subjected to warm climatic

conditions, when internal condensation is likely to be more applicable.

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoEffect Non NonHygroscopic Temperature changes in the cargo need not be more than one or two degrees a day to activate sweat, irrespective of larger outside temperature fluctuations. When passing from cold to warm region it may be advisable to seal off ventilators in order to avoid problems of sweat which may arise.

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Slide 8

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Sweat&Ventilation ColdtoWarm climates Condensationoncargo

Cargosweat Stopventilation

Warm toColdclimates Condensationonship sstructure Condensationonshipsstructure Shipssweat Allowventilation. Others evolutionofgasesandodoursbycargo maybeabsorbedbyothercargowithinthehold
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

DewPoint

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Slide 10

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

DewPoint

Dew Point is the temperature to which a sample of air must be cooled for it to become saturated

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MD/Aug07

SP-SMA

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoSweat Condensation directly on to the cargo. Cargo sweat can arise when passing from colder to warmer climatic conditions, since the cause is from the warmer moisture laden air condensing on the cargo. g g Its prevention is by sealing off the ventilating facilities, although extractor fans will be necessary to offset any moisture effects emanating from the cargo itself, or its dunnaging materials.
Slide 12

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Cool to Warmer Atmospheric Conditions: Cargo Sweat


18C DP14C

Cargo Sweat
23C DP18C

18C

Cease Ventilation
18C 28C DP21C 18C

MD/Aug07

SP-SMA

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ShipsSweat Condensation on the ship's structure takes place when the "DEW POINT in a cargo space exceeds the temperature of the structural parts of the ship. It is minimised or eradicated, by passing adequate volumes of outside air over the cargo, more particularly necessary in vessel passing from warm to cooler atmospheric conditions.
Slide 14

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Warm to Cooler Atmospheric Conditions: Ships Sweat

Ventilates
23C
DP 22C

18C

DP 22C

Ships Sweat
28C
DP 22C

MD/Aug07

SP-SMA

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CARGO
HYGROSCOPIC NON-HYGROSCOPIC

VEGETABLE ORIGIN GRAIN, FLOUR, COTTON TOBACCO, WOOD

NON-VEGETABLE ORIGIN CAN GOODS, MACHINERY EARTHENWARE, STEEL

MAY CAUSE SHIPS SWEAT

MAY BE DAMAGED BY CARGO SWEAT

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Hygrometer/Sweat/DewPoint
A knowledge of hygrometry is essential to understanding sweat and its problems since it is concerned with retention of water vapour in concentrations of air. The controlling factor is the relationship between the temperature and humidity of the air. Air having 100% humidity is said to be "saturated". The dew point is normally obtained by use of wet and dry bulb thermometers, the readings referred to conversion table which give the dew point.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Ventilation Purpose is to remove heat, moisture, odours and dangerous gases from the compartment. Lack of ventilation can result in large damage claims due to deterioration, sweat, g taint or rust damage, and can also cause a dangerous buildup of poisonous and explosive gases. Ventilation may be natural, forced or mechanical.
Slide 18

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheRulesofHoldVentilation PracticalGuidelines
In ventilating practice, the ship officer can collect only limited evidence of hold atmospheric conditions through the use of "wet" and "dry" bulb temperature readings in a few locations in the holds and on the open deck. If there is any circulation of air in the hold it can be assumed that the former will be representative of the overall hold conditions unless the thermometers are placed close to ventilator inlets.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheRulesofHoldVentilation PracticalGuidelines Wet and dry bulb readings are taken in a few locations in the holds and on the open deck. g p From these readings the dew points are obtained. Comparing the dew points of hold air and the outside air enables decisions to be taken as to weather or not to continue ventilating.

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheRulesofHoldVentilation PracticalGuidelines Ifthedewpointoutsideislowerorequalto thatoftheholddewpoint .............continueventilation Ifthedewpointoutsideishigherthanthe holddewpoint ................donotventilatewithoutsideair

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Slide 21

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

VentilationofCargoHolds
OUTSIDEDEWPOINT LESSTHANOR EQUALTO HOLDDEWPOINT OUTSIDE DEWPOINT GREATERTHAN HOLDDEWPOINT

CONTINUE VENTILATION

CEASE VENTILATION

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ColdtoWarmVoyage Hygroscopic Cargoes Not critical, therefore ventilation not essential. On opening hatches at destination form a

immediate

condensation

may

surface but will dry off when cargo is discharged.


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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Dry = 25C Wet = 20 C 20C RH = 65 % DP = 17C

0.013

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

WarmtoColdVoyage Hygroscopic Cargo Highly critical (eg. tropical produce en route to U.K.). Ventilation should be as vigorous as possible during the early stages but eventually the outside dew point will be too low. This is most difficult voyage situation in which to arrange satisfactory ventilation.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ColdtoWarmVoyage NonHygroscopicCargo No ventilation; cargo sweat would occur on the surface of the stow if relatively warmer moisture laden air was admitted. Ex ..... steel exports U.K. to tropical ports.

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

WarmtoColdVoyage NonHygroscopic Cargo Ship sweat inevitable but cargo unaffected unless condensation drips back on to the stow. It is emphasized that the above p guidelines are only basic. The proximity of both types of cargo in the same space will cause modifications to achieve a satisfactory balance of ventilation effectiveness.

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Slide 27

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

MechanicalVentilation A ventilation and humidity control system comprising of: Holdfansandductsystem Instrumentsforrecordingoutside and insidewetanddrybulb temperatures Adehumidifier,amachinefor removingmoisturefromtheair.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

MechanicalVentilation CargoCaire &Drihold Designed to enable the space to be ventilated in the normal way, or to be an enclosed system of recirculation with dry air addition. If the dew point of the outside air is lower p than the dew point of the inside air, the system should be set to ventilate. If the dew point outside is higher than the inside dew point, the system should be set to recirculate and add dry air.

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Slide 29

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

AdvantagesofMechanical VentilationOverNaturalVentilation Increase of air flow Recirculation and drying air to prevent cargo sweat. Avoiding ship's sweat when weather restricts natural ventilation, t l til ti Drying holds after washing. Drying deep tanks after ballast. Drying parcel of cargo that have become wet by rain.

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

MoistureMigration As the ship proceeds on her voyage there will be some transfer of moisture through the stowed cargo. This movement is called moisture migration.

It has been found that moisture migration g coupled with ship's sweat can result in damage to cooler parts of the cargo unless the excessive moisture can be removed. Adequate dunnage to protect cargo from contact with steelwork is vital.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

MoistureMigration To enable a more detailed consideration of the conditions in the hold and outside, six temperatures are relevant. 1O t id Ai T Outside Air Temp & 2D P i t Dew Point 3Hold Temp & 4Dew Point 5Sea Temperature 6Temperature of Cargo Mass
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MECHANICAL VENTILATION

FAN & DUCT SYSTEM

INSTRUMENTS

DEHUMIDIFIER

Advantages: Increaseairflow Recirculation&dryairtopreventsweat Avoidshipssweatwhenweatherrestrict naturalventilation Dryholdsafterwashing Drydeeptanksafterballast Drycargothatiswetbyrain


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DRIHOLD CARGOCAIRE
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheDrihold SystemforthePreventionofSweat System of cargo space ventilation and humidity control is designed to enable the cargo spaces to be ventilated by outside air Or sealed off from outside air as required, to prevent ship's sweat or cargo sweat respectively. Apparatus for dehumidifying the air in the hold is also introduced.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheDrihold System Equipment consists of a Drihold Ventilating Unit having a reversible fan which enables the unit to supply fresh air to the cargo space, or exhaust the vitiated air from the cargo space. d i drying unit, where th moisture i condensed it h the i t is d d out from the air by means of dehumidifying coils, fed with cold brine from a refrigerating plant. A heat exchanger, arranged over the coils, warms up the chilled air leaving the dehumidifying coils by extraction of heat from the air entering the drier
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheDrihold System When VENTILATING, (Dew Point of outside air is lesser than Dew Point of space), the air is drawn through the natural ventilator and passed around the space to be exhausted by the Drihold unit and delivered to atmosphere. An arrangement of valves in the Drihold unit enables the cargo space to be sealed off from the atmosphere, under which conditions the fan in the unit draws entirely from the space and returns air to the space to be recirculated continuously.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheDrihold System The Air Drying Unit can then be introduced into the air circuit in order that any moisture emanating from the cargo may be condensed out and thus prevent the Dew Point from rising in the cargo space. T Two D Dew P i sensitive i Point i i instruments, one; outside air, and the other aircargo space, (dial, pointer), indicates whether VENTILATION should be adopted, or the holds sealed and RECIRCULATION OF THE AIR, with drying introduced.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheDrihold TheDrihold System

Extract heat

Condensed out any cargo moisture

Ventilate-Dew Point outside air less than cargo space

Recirculate-Dew Point outside air higher than cargo space

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheDrihold TheDrihold System


Dry Air Low Dew Point Baffle Heat Exchange Warm Damp Air High Dew Point

Cold Brine Circulation Cool Dry Air

Pressure Trap

Drain Condensation

Drying Unit
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheCargoCaire Verysimilartothedrihold system,i.e. dependingUpontherelevantdewpoints, eithertoventilateorrecirculate Majordifferenceisinthemethodusedto extractmoistureandtodrytheairwhen usingrecirculation l Dryingagentusedissilicagel,inertglass likesubstancewiththecompositionof quartz,havingtheabilitytoremove considerablequantitiesofmoisturefrom theair
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheCargoCaire The silica gel can be used over and over again and need never be replaced provided it is kept clean. In the dry air unit, the silica gel is enclosed in cylindrical containers arranged in two sets, so that while one set is drying air from the holds, the other is having its entrapped moisture removed.

obs/2009

Slide 41

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

The figure below shows diagrammatically the flow of air through the dry air unit and how the air flow is controlled by four way valves.

"CARGO CAIRE" mechanical ventilation system Air flow diagram


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De-humidifying Cycle Re-activation Cycle

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE
To Cargo Hold

Air Cooler

Upper 4-Way Valve

7 Silica Gel Bed 3 From Atmosphere

Re-activation Air Heater Re-activation Fan

Silica Gel Bed 8

To Atmosphere

Lower 4-Way Valve 2 From Cargo Hold or Atmosphere 1 Absorption Fan


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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheCargoCaire Airtobedriedisdrawnintotheunitthrough asetoffiltersbytheabsorptionfan(1)and carriedtothelowerfourwayvalve(2). Withthevalveinthepositionshown,theair isdivertedtothebottomofthepairofsilica gelbeds(3)ontheleftofthediagram. gelbeds(3)ontheleftofthediagram Theairisdriedasitflowsfromthebottom upandthroughthegelbedsandtotheupper fourwayvalve(4). Thebaffleinthevalvesdivertstheflowofair overthecooler(5)andouttothedryairduct, whichcarriesittothehold.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheCargoCaire Simultaneously, the pair of gel beds (8) on the right of the diagram is being reactivated. Air is drawn through a set of filters into the unit by the reactivation fan (6) and passes over the reactivation air heater (7) to the upper fourway valve (4). (4) Here the valve baffle diverts the hot air to the top of the gel beds (8) which are dried by forcing the air down and through the silica gel. The wet air is passed from the bottom of the beds to the lower fourway valve (2) where it is diverted to the wet air duct and discharged to the atmosphere.
obs/2009 Slide 45

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

TheCargoCaire After an hour of operation with the beds (3) on the absorption phase and the beds (8) on the reactivation phase, the electric timer makes contact to operate the valve changing motor. This rotates the sprockets on the twoway valves through 1800 and the valves in their new g positions reverse the air flow through each pair of beds. Beds (3) are then being reactivated and beds (8) are supplying dry air. In this way there is a continuous, automatic flow of air through the unit, ensuring a constant supply of dry air for the hold circulating systems.
obs/2009 Slide 46

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

VentilationwithSpecificCargoes Some cargoes chemical reactions occur Constitute a source of danger from fire and explosion, contaminate or deteriorate other susceptible cargo bl All reaction productswater vapour, gases, fumes , odours etc must be removed by the only practical method ventilation

obs/2009

Slide 47

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

VentilationwithSpecificCargoes Coal Cargo Evolves methane, which in admixture with certain proportions of air will ignite with a sparkcoal mine Coal is liable to spontaneous combustion caused by a chemical reaction with oxygen All cargo battens (spar ceilings) removed, ventilation trunks to hold bottom shut off. Adequate ventilation provided, no smoking sign placed.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

VentilationwithSpecificCargoes Grain cargoes Germination due to temperature and moisture Through ventilation essential Saturated air with water vapour removed by current of drier air Ventilation to adjust hold temperature to that of outside air

obs/2009

Slide 49

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

VentilationwithSpecificCargoes Rice Gives off moisture, heat odour and carbon dioxide. Through ventilation essential to prevent cargo damage Fruit Cargo Accurate control of temperature deterioration occur Ventilation using cooling system, maintain circulation
obs/2009 Slide 50

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ProductDescription Clementines belong to the rue family (Rutaceae) and come originally from southern China. They are a cross between the mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and th S ill orange (Cit ti l t ) d the Seville (Citrus auratium) They are an easily peelable ("Easypeeler"), moderatesized, ellipsoidal orange citrus fruit containing no or few seeds.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ProductDescription In addition to oranges, the group of citrus fruits, which are mainly cultivated in subtropical regions, also includes lemons, grapefruits, mandarins, limes and easypeelers. Easypeeler is the name given in particular to crosses between oranges and mandarins whose peel is very easy to remove.
obs/2009 Slide 52

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ProductDescription Citrusfruitsareberryfruitconsistingofthree layers: Theouteryellow/orangepeel(exocarp,flavedo), Theglandsofwhichexudetheessentialoils, Th l d f hi h d th ti l il whichproducethetypicalcitrusodor Thewhitishmesocarp (albedo)theendocarp consistingof8 10segmentsfilledwithjuicesacs (vesicles)
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

ProductDescription
Thedegreeofripenessofcitrusfruitisdeterminedon thebasisofthreecriteria: Bytheripenessindex: ThisisdeterminedbytheBrix value,whichisameasureofthesugar/acidratioofthe fruit.CitrusfruitwithaBrix valueofbetween10and16 havegoodflavour. Bycuttingatpurchase:Freshnessisdeterminedby cuttingthefruitinhalffromthestemendtothe oppositeend. Ifthefruitiswitheredatthestemend,itmustnotbe shipped. Bypeelcolour:Thecolourofthepeelisnotnecessarily areliableindicatorofripeness,butitssurfaceglossis.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Quality /DurationofStowage The presence of stem and green leaves on the product does not indicate impaired quality. Green leaves are a sign of freshness and should be regarded as promoting sales. Experience has shown that it is the care taken with preparation of the fruit for shipping which very largely determines whether individual batches withstand the rigors of transport. Such preparation for shipping is carried out in packing houses.

obs/2009

Slide 55

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Quality /DurationofStowage This include postripening of green or unsatisfactorily coloured fruit to achieve a saleable peel colour in ripening rooms. Removal of dirt, sooty mould, spraying residues and scale insects in washers. Coating with a layer of wax and treatment with preservatives and marking accordingly. h d k d l Grading of the fruits by size (gaging), colour and other external features. Counting, weighing and packing. Marking each package with details of number of fruit, quality class, variety and origin. Storage until shipment in cold stores.
obs/2009 Slide 56

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Quality /DurationofStowage Waxing to prevent loss of aroma and weight is required because the washing process removes the natural wax layer. The film of wax sprayed onto the peel only partially seals the pores so that the fruits are still able to respire.

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MD/Aug07

SP-SMA

Slid Slide 57 57 e

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

MaximumDurationofStowage&Transport MaximumDurationofStowage&Transport

Temperature

Rel.humidity

Max.durationofstorage

Source

6 - 9C 4.4C

85% not stated

12 weeks 2 - 4 weeks

[1] [39]

obs/2009

Slide 58

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CargoHandling Clementines are highly pressure and impactsensitive and appropriate care must therefore be taken during cargo handling. The cold chain must at all costs be maintained, since otherwise there is a risk of rapid spoilage. In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, as there is otherwise a risk of premature spoilage.
obs/2009 Slide 59

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

StowageFactor

2.2 m3/t (12 kg fruit crates) The stowage factor depends very much on weight categories and the packaging units used.

obs/2009

Slide 60

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Stowagespacerequirements Cool,dry,goodventilation Segregation Markerpen/oilcrayon,segregatingnets Cargosecuring Becauseofitsconsiderableimpact andpressure Becauseofitsconsiderableimpact andpressure sensitivity,packagesofthiscargomustbesecuredin suchawaythattheyarepreventedfromdamaging eachother.Spacesbetweenpackagesorpalletsmust befilled,topreventslippageortipping. Byselectingthecorrectpackagingsizeorcargounit, holdscanbetightlyloaded(withoutspaces).

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Slide 61

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Loading Theholdsorcontainersmustbe appropriatelyprecooledbeforeloadingis begun. Thepulptemperatureshouldnotbe<4C or>25 30Casstoragelifeandappearance areimpairedoutsidethisrange. Fruitspuncturedforpulptemperature measurementmustbediscardedasthey wouldrapidlyspoilandinfecttheother fruit. Themeasuredvaluesshouldberecordedin allcasesinordertopreserveevidence
obs/2009 Slide 62

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Ventilation
Clementines require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions. Recommended ventilation conditions: circulating air, 60 80 circulations/hour with continuous supply of fresh air. The addition of fresh air is extremely important y p as citrus fruit can start to ferment within a few hours due to anaerobic respiration (resulting in total loss of the fruit). If ventilation is inadequate, storage damage may occur, taking the form of a bitter flavour and peel scab.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

FreshFruits In fresh fruit, metabolic processes continue even after harvesting. The fruit absorbs oxygen (O2) and excretes varying amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4) as well as aromatic compounds during g the ripening p g p process. If ventilation has been inadequate (frost) or has failed owing to a defect, lifethreatening CO2 concentrations or O2 shortages may arise. Therefore, before anybody enters the hold, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out.

obs/2009

Slide 64

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

FreshFruits The TLV for CO2 concentration is 0.49 vol.%. Levels of respiratory gases which promote ripening, such as ethylene as well as carbon dioxide, should be kept as low as possible. If ventilation is inadequate storage damage inadequate, damage, such as a bitter flavour and peel scab, may occur. The supply of fresh air must thus be constant in order to dissipate these gases.

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Slide 65

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Clementines:Strongpleasantodour Clementines:Strongpleasantodour
Due to their high content of highly volatile essential oils (formic and acetic acid, ethenal, ethylene and the odour substance limonene), citrus fruits are in general a highly odour contaminating cargo and must thus not be stowed or stored together with fruit, vegetables and other odour sensitive foodstuffs odoursensitive foodstuffs. Meat, butter, eggs, fats and cheese are particularly prone to absorbing the citrus odour. Cold stores must therefore be carefully deodorized before different goods are transported on the next voyage. Wooden dunnage tainted with the citrus odour must not be reused for odoursensitive goods.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

InsectInfestation/Diseases
Blue mould rot or storage rot is the most feared storage disease of citrus fruits and is caused by two species of mould: green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which is of an olivegreen colour, and blue mould (Penicillium italicum), which is of a bluegreen colour. The fungal spores mainly penetrate through small injuries and initially form white, circular spots of fungal growth, growth which are subsequently covered from the centre outwards with a green or bluegreen sporulating layer. The peel becomes spongy, the pulp soft a typical instance of wet rot. Development is optimal at 20 27C; growth still flourishes at 10C and comes to a standstill only at 4C. Blue mould is transferred from fruit to fruit by contact. Seawater, rain and condensation water promote green and blue mould growth.
obs/2009 Slide 67

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Fruits&Vegetables They are living organisms, they respire even after harvesting. Respiration is part of the natural ripening process. During respiration, they generate heat and give off gases and moisture that will speed up deterioration as well. Controlling the following factors can reduce deterioration of perishables.

obs/2009

Slide 68

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

CoolingtheTemperature Is the most powerful and effective way to minimize deterioration. The faster the proper temperature is reached, the longer the expected life of the product. Cooling of fresh produce should begin as quickly as possible after harvest. Reefer containers should not be used to reduce the temperature of the cargo. Instead, they are designed to maintain rather than to lower the temperature of the cargo. Therefore, precooling all perishable products immediately after harvest and before shipment or storage is essential.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Humidity Relative humidity directly affects the quality of almost all products. If humidity levels are too low, fruits, vegetables and related products may wilt or shrivel. hi l If relative humidity is too high, mould may develop to deteriorate the cargo.

obs/2009

Slide 70

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Ethylene Another way to minimize deterioration is to remove the ethylene gas. Ethylene, a selfgenerating fruit ripening regulator, is necessary for the ripening of fruits and vegetables. g However, it can also cause damage to various fruits, vegetables if it is not controlled in minimal level. We can minimize and control its accumulation by adequate ventilation.
Slide 71

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

AirCirculation Poor circulation can affect the commoditys temperature, relative humidity and ethylene accumulation. If the air cannot circulate properly in the cold room or container, shelf life of the product will be definitely affected

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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

AirCirculation

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Slide 73

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Packaging It is important that the packaging must allow air to circulate freely through the commodity, around the periphery of the container and in the area of the door. The important criterion here is to have uniform distribution of air throughout the load. This requires the cargo to be uniformly stowed. Different sized packaging obviously dictates different stacking patterns. The dimensions of loose cartons will inevitably not be sized to fit the container exactly so the resulting gap must be kept in proper location.

obs/2009

Slide 74

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Packaging
Don't load pallets or cartons up to ceiling height, which will restrict air flow along the return air passage over the top of the cargo to the evaporator fan. Marine containers are marked with a height limit. This should never be exceeded. Where di i il Wh dissimilar sized packaging i used, or i d k i is d cargoes do not fill the container fully, it is recommended that additional empty cartons or some other material is used to fill up the void space so that the air passages remain uniform. In order to have optimal air circulation and cooling effect. It's advisable to pack commodity with carton and make holes in cardboard all sides.
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CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Loadfing PatterninreeferContainer

obs/2009

Slide 76

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

obs/2009

Slide 77

CAREOFCARGODURINGCARRIAGE

Mixing fresh products in a single reefer is very important in their compatibility. If carrying temperature is too low or too high to one product could cause cargo damage. Shipper should also b aware of the Shi h ld l be f h respiration levels and ethylene produced by the commodities at certain temperatures and maturity levels and & their degree of tolerance or sensitivity to those ethylene.

obs/2009

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