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PERSPECTIVE PRIVIND CONCEPTUL DE COMUNICARE NONVERBAL PERSPECTIVES ON NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION


Conf.dr. Alexandra Florena COSTIN
Universitatea Tehnic din Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The communication problems in the contemporary society have triggered many elaborate researches on the communication process. Communication has been approached from diverse points of view, all trying to answer key questions regarding its nature, causes, typology, and effects. The interest has grown even bigger once established that communication involves not only messages, but also the relationships it creates around the messages and the behaviour behind these. Another step forward in the mapping of this concept was the finding that verbal communication is powerful and unique due to its character, but in mixed messages, listeners tend to pay more attention to and rely on nonverbal communication. The paper intends to review the concept of nonverbal communication as contrasted to verbal communication. It will explain the appearance of erroneous perceptions regarding nonverbal communication and how the well-known five axioms about communication in general underline even more the contrast between the two communication categories: verbal and nonverbal. Keywords: Verbal/nonverbal communication, perception errors, communication axioms.

INTRODUCERE

INTRODUCTION

Indiferent de forma pe care o mbrac i de perspectiva din care este analizat, actul comunicrii se prezint ca o interfa extrem de complex i dinamic, situat la grania dintre mai multe tiine. Cu toate c factorul de stres exercitat de expunerea public a ideilor este considerat de statistici n domeniu ca fiind foarte ridicat, depind alte angoase majore ale vieii cotidiene, comunicarea oral formal sau informal prelegerea, prezentarea, discursul, dezbaterea, negocierea - a devenit un exerciiu frecvent pentru specialiti i nespecialiti, pentru locutori cu talent nnscut sau pentru cei care au dobndit prin

Irrespective of its format and the analytical perspective applied to it, communication is an extremely complex interface, situated at the borderlines of several sciences. Although the stress factor exercised by ones public delivery of ideas is considered by specialized statistics as very high, surpassing other major forms of anxiety, the formal/informal oral communication - lectures, presentations, speeches, debates, negotiations has become a frequent practice for specialists and non-specialists, for natural-born speakers and for those who have acquired effective oral communication skills

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practic ndelungat deprinderile eficiente de comunicare oral. Motivaia vorbitorilor este evident: oricare ar fi domeniul la care se refer mesajul transmis, comunicarea verbal (i implicit, cea nonverbal) reprezint cea mai bun modalitate de expunere a propriilor idei, de a convinge auditoriul de valoarea i pragmatismul acestora, de punere n valoare a celui care transmite mesajul. Cu alte cuvinte, emitorul este un creator al crui mesaj pune n lumin informaii cu privire la persoana i la viziunea sa asupra obiectului comunicrii (Blackar, 1979, apud Abric, J-C, 2002 ). Dei tipologia comunicrii verbale este foarte diversificat (de exemplu, prezentrile se clasific n funcie de caracterul lor formal/informal, de numrul de prezentatori i de persoane care recepioneaz mesajul, de stilul de expunere a materialului, precum i de alte considerente), relevana sa este semnificativ. Strategiile de comunicare i interaciunea eficient sunt factori de succes profesional i personal, pentru c un numr important de probleme profesionale se pot rezolva tehnic sau n domeniul afacerilor, dar i prin negociere social. Specialitii n afaceri, tehnic i alte domenii sunt interesai, n primul rnd, de domeniul lor de expertiz, dar, dac informaiile despre importana muncii lor nu pot transmite clienilor, sponsorilor, co-partenerilor, deprinderile lor profesionale sunt mai puin valoroase. Cu alte cuvinte, deprinderile profesionale trebuie s fie nsoite de deprinderi de comunicare. ntr-o lume diversificat i interactiv, pe msur ce specialitii progreseaz n carier, comunicarea eficient le este tot mai necesar. Muli specialiti lucreaz n echip, iar munca n echip este dificil n afara unei comunicri eficiente. Procesul de transmitere de informaii este perceput ca interaciune social, de completare a nelesului i mediere ntre cel care deine informaia i cel care are nevoie de aceasta. Pe lng aspectele sociale implicate n comunicarea profesional, cele legale, ca protejarea individului sau a firmei mpotriva nerespectrii legalitii sunt tot o chestiune de comunicare (Huckin, T., Olsen L., 1991) .

through hard work. The speakers motivation is obvious: whatever the issues addressed by the transmitted message, the verbal communication (and, implicitly, the nonverbal one) represents the optimum way of delivering ones ideas, of convincing the audience of their value and pragmatism, of casting favourable light on the speaker. In other words, the sender is a creator whose message highlights information regarding his/her person and vision on the communication object (Blackar, 1979, apud Abric, J-C, 2002). Although the verbal communication typology is very diverse (for example, presentations are classified according to the formality/informality level, number of presenters, of listeners who receive the message, the delivery style as well as other issues), its relevance is always significant. The communication strategies are factors of personal and professional success, as a great number of professional problems can be solved technically or in the business field, but also through social negotiation. Specialists in business, technology and other fields are primarily interested in their field of expertise, but if information about the importance of their work cannot be transmitted to clients, sponsors, co-workers, their professional skills are less valuable. In other words, professional skills go hand in hand with communication skills. In a diversified and interactive world, effective communication becomes more and more necessary to specialists while they are progressing in their career. Many specialists work in teams, and teamwork is difficult without communication. The process of transmitting information has been perceived as social interaction, meant to complete meaning and mediate between the one who has the information, and the one who needs it. Besides the social issues involved in professional communication, the legal ones, such as protection of individuals or companies against law infringement are also a matter of communication (Huckin, T., Olsen L., 1991).

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COMUNICARE NONVERBAL; DIFERENE

VERBAL SIMILITUDINI

I 2 I

VERBAL AND COMMUNICATION; AND DIFFERENCES

NONVERBAL SIMILARITIES

A. Mehrabian i M. Weiner (apud Tran, V., Stnciugelu, I., 2010), au identificat trei aspecte eseniale ale mesajului transmis: cuvintele, limbajul corporal i tonalitatea vocii. Cercetrile pe care le-au efectuat asupra mesajelor mixte au relevat c interlocutorul va atribui sens mesajului bazndu-se pe cele trei tipuri de aspecte, n urmtoarea proporie: 55% din impact este rezultatul limbajului corporal - poziia corpului, contact vizual, gestic, 38% este rezultatul paralimbajului - tonul i inflexiunile vocii i doar 7% din impact este cauzat de cuvinte. Cercetrile au artat, de asemenea, c procentajele se aplic doar atunci cnd interlocutorii vorbesc despre sentimente sau atitudini i c ele se pot modifica considerabil n funcie de unele variabile. Frecventele exagerri precum i absolutizarea procentajelor nu ne mpiedic s recunoatem c mesajele nonverbale reflect, n majoritatea cazurilor, cu acuratee i n mod realist, ceea ce emitentul dorete s transmit. Dac, n general, comunicarea lingvistic este considerat ca fiind mai puternic dect alte modaliti de comunicare, exist totui situaii n care ea devine subsidiar acestora. Comunicarea verbal i cea nonverbal coexist n aprope toate situaiile de comunicare. n practic exist circumstane frecvente care ilustreaz modul n care mesajul nonverbal exercit un impact puternic asupra mesajului verbal, pe care l eclipseaz sau l contrazice. Faptul c, atunci cnd apare o discrepan, o contradicie ntre mesajul verbal i cel nonverbal interlocutorul tinde s dea crezare mai ales mesajului exprimat nonverbal este definitoriu pentru puterea de impact pe care comunicarea nonverbal o are asupra celei verbale. Un vorbitor va ncerca, n mod inutil, s mimeze o stare de relaxare atta timp ct nervozitatea micrilor sale sau limbajul nchis al corpului indic altceva. Credibilitatea mesajului verbal se va diminua sau chiar pierde din cauza vocii ezitante sau a evitrii contactului vizual. Contradicia dintre limbajului verbal i cel

A. Mehrabian and M. Weiner (apud Tran, V., Stnciugelu, I., 2010) identified three core issues of the transmitted message: words, body language and voice quality. The researches they conducted on mixed messages revealed that the meaning the listeners attribute to messages depends on three types of issues in the following proportion: 55% of the impact results from body language - stance, eye contact, gestures; 38% is the result of paralanguage - tone and voice quality, while only 7% of the impact is caused by words. Researches have also shown that the percentages are applicable only when the interlocutors talk about feelings and attitudes and that these can change considerably according to some variables. Frequent exaggerations and the overgeneralization of the percentages cannot prevent one from admitting that in most of the cases, nonverbal messages reflect the speakers intentions accurately and in a realistic way. In general, linguistic communication is considered to be more powerful than other communication types, although under certain circumstances it might be secondary to these. The verbal and nonverbal types of communication coexist in almost all communication contexts. In practice, there are frequent situations that illustrate how the impact of the nonverbal message overshadows and contradicts the verbal one. The fact that, when there is a discrepancy, a contradiction between the verbal message and the nonverbal one the interlocutor tends to believe mostly the one expressed nonverbally, is relevant to the power of impact the nonverbal communication has on the verbal one. A presenters attempt to pretend that he/she is relaxed will be meaningless as long as the nervosity of his-her movements as well as the closed body language show something else. The credibility of the message will be weak or even inexistent because of the hesitating voice and avoidance of eye contact. The contradiction between the verbal and the nonverbal message can

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nonverbal poate fi deliberat, folosit ca o ncercare de atenuare a sensului negativ al mesajului. Critica verbal nsoit de un zmbet sau o expresie prietenoas va atenua coninutul negativ al mesajului. Comunicarea nonverbal poate accentua, completa, contrazice, repeta sau reactualiza comunicarea verbal (Chiru I., 2003). Din punct de vedere al continuitii, a structurii i gradului de organizare, a msurii n care sunt controlabile, ntre cele dou tipuri de comunicare exist similitudini i diferene. Comunicarea verbal folosete doar cuvntul pentru transmiterea de informaii. Prin contrast, cea nonverbal are la dispoziie gesturile, mimica, folosirea spaiului, contactul vizual. Comunicarea nonverbal este nestructurat, mai puin logic i abstract dect cea verbal, aa cum vom dezvolta ideea n seciunea despre axiomele privind comunicarea. Comunicarea verbal este controlabil, astfel c, n cazul n care persoane emotive trebuie s susin o prezentare dificil, nvarea mesajului pe de rost, dei nu este recomandabil, poate fi un sprijin important. Comunicarea nonverbal este guvernat de factori biologici, i, n consecin spontan i mai greu de controlat. Comunicarea verbal reflect contient procese mentale logice, n timp ce comunicarea nonverbal transmite n mod incontient emoii, atitudini. Comunicarea nonverbal este un cod primar, dezvoltat naintea codului comunicrii verbale. Culturile diferite au coduri diferite, acceptate ca valide n mod convenional n cadrul aceleai culturi. Cnd unui locutor i este necunoscut codul comunicrii nonverbale i nu l poate dobndi prin informare sau negociere, comunicarea verbal nu are acuratee (de exemplu, micarea afirmativ a capului, care corespunde lui da n cultura romneasc, n unele pri din India i

be deliberate, used as an attempt to diminish the negative meaning of the message. The verbal criticism accompanied by a friendly expression or a smile will reduce the negatice content of the message. The nonverbal communication can highlight, complete, contradict, repeat or update the verbal message (Chiru I., 2003). From the point of view of continuity, of structure and the extent to which they can be organized and controlled, there are similarities and differences between the two communication types. The verbal communication uses only words to transmit the information. By contrast, the nonverbal one can use gestures, face expression, space control, and eye contact. The nonverbal communication is unstructured and less logical and abstract than the verbal one, as it will be shown in more detail in the section about communication axioms. The verbal communication is controllable, so that, in case an insecure person has to deliver a presentation, learning the message by heart, although not recommended, can be an important support. The nonverbal communication is governed by biological factors, and, as a consequence, spontaneous and difficult to control. The verbal communication reflects logical mental processes consciously, while the nonverbal one transmits emotions and attitudes unconsciously. The nonverbal communication is a primary code, developed before the verbal one. Different cultures have different codes, conventionally accepted as valid within the same culture. When a speaker has no knowledge of the nonverbal communication code and cannot acquire it through information or negotiation, the verbal communication lacks accuracy (for example, the nodding, which corresponds to yes in the Romanian culture, corresponds to no in some Indian regions, while in Japan it merely indicates

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corespunde lui nu, iar n Japonia indic simplul fapt c interlocutorul acord atenie mesajului (Green, A., 2002, p. 70). Comunicarea nonverbal este continu, n timp ce comunicarea verbal este segmentat.

that the listener is attentive to the delivery of the message (Green, A., 2002, p. 70). The nonverbal communication is continuous, while the verbal one is delivered in segments.

ATRIBUIRI, DISPONIBILITATE EURISTIC I STEREOTIPII CA ERORI DE PERCEPIE N COMUNICAREA NONVERBAL

ATTRIBUTIONS, AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC AND STEREOTYPES AS PERCEPTION ERRORS IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

Axioma 1 asupra imposibilitii noncomunicrii: este imposibil s nu comunici (Watzlawick, P, Beavin, J.H., Jackson, D., 1976) consider c debutul comunicrii ntre locutor i cel care recepioneaz mesajul are loc nainte de rostirea primelor cuvinte sau de angajarea ntr-o conversaie. Conform efectului de primordialitate (Miclea, 1999, apud Ilu, P., 2001) prima informaie are o mai mare pondere n evaluarea locutorului dect cele ulterioare. Prezena unei persoane, dei nu implic relaionare la nivel verbal, nseamn angajarea ei ntr-o form de comunicare prin aceea c este evaluat, ca i comportament nonverbal de ctre auditoriu. Auditoriul i formeaz o opinie, chiar dac subiectiv, despre vorbitor, stabilete expectane, care, la rndul lor vor determina nivelul de interes acordat vorbitorului, fundamentate pe simpla prezen a cestuia. O impresie negativ determinat de limbajul corporal se corecteaz cu dificultate, ntruct comunicarea se realizeaz pe un palier al contientului, dar mai ales pe un palier al subcontientului. Prin atribuiri se ncearc deducerea motivelor, cauzelor care i determin pe indivizi s acioneze ntr-un anumit mod. Comportamentul corporal al locutorului determin deducii n legtur cu trsturile sale de personalitate. Credina n coerena general a personalitii individului (efectul de halo) ne face s credem c o trstur central a personalitii le asimileaz pe celelalte n acelai fel - de exemplu, asumm c un individ plcut ca i comportament este i inteligent (Ilu, P., 2001).

Axiom 1 on the imposibility of noncommunication, one cannot not communicate (Watzlawick, P, Beavin, J.H., Jackson, D., 1976), considers that the beginning of communication between the speaker and the the listener takes place before the first words are uttered, before they engage in a conversation. According to the primacy effect (Miclea, 1999, apud Ilu, P., 2001), the first information has a greater importance for the speakers evaluation than the following ones. Although a persons presence does not involve verbal communication, the assessment of his/her nonverbal behaviour by the audience means the beginning of a communication relationship. The audience forms an opinion, even if subjective about the speaker, establishes expectations which will determine the level of interest based on his/her mere presence. A negative perception caused by the body language is corrected with difficulty, as communication is achieved on a conscious level, but mostly on a subconscious level. Through attributions one tries to find out reasons, causes that have determined individuals to act in a certain way. The speakers body language causes inferences about the characteristics of his/her personality. The belief in the general coherence of ones personality (the halo effect) makes people believe that a central personality characteristic assimilates the others in the same way - for instance, one assumes that a charismatic person is also intelligent (Ilu, P., 2001). Baron & Byrne (1987, apud Pnioar, 2006) have analysed mental shortcuts as communication barriers. Through superficial nonverbal communication analysis, mental shortcuts interfere and distort correct images.

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Baron & Byrne (1987, apud Pnioar, 2006) au analizat scurtturi mentaleca bariere n comunicare. Prin analiza superficial a comunicrii nonverbale, scurtturile mentale intervin avnd ca efect distorsionarea imaginii corecte. Disponibilitatea euristic este tendina de a aprecia un eveniment conform primelor impresii, care, la o analiz mai atent, i pierd credibilitatea sau devin inconsistente. Acest proces mental are ca i cauz nevoia pragmatic de a eticheta un fenomen nou. n majoritatea mprejurrilor, rezultatul aplicrii disponibilitii euristice duce la erori de judecat, la neglijarea unor probabiliti implicate n situaie. Reprezentativitatea euristic, sau neglijarea faptului c un eantion nu acoper n ntregime capacitile unei clase ntregi se bazeaz pe generalizare, pe integrarea incorect a unui fenomen nou ntr-o clas deja cunoscut. n mod asemntor, stereotipurile care includ un fenomen ntr-o clas cu caracteristici deja cunoscute duc la generalizare i la obstrucionarea comunicrii. Contient sau nu, stereotipurile i pun amprenta asupra comportamentului individual, perturbnd comunicarea. Stereotipurile sunt convingeri sociale, general mprtite care se refer la personalitatea, comportamentul, atitudinea i valorile unei persoane. Pe baza acestor reprezentri, conform sistemului propriu de referin, auditoriul atribuie semnificaii situaiei de comunicare, anticipeaz i ateapt un anumit tip de aciuni i interaciuni, interpreteaz realitatea i se adapteaz acesteia. Informaia referitoare la individ, parvenit via comunicare nonverbal este organizat, filtrat i etichetat cu uurin, ducnd la ncadrarea rapid, dei eronat a individului ntr-o anumit categorie.

Availability heuristic is the tendency to appreciate an event according to the first impressions, which, under closer scrutiny, lose credibility and become superfluous. This mental process is triggered by the pragmatic need to label a new phenomenon. In most of the circumstances, the result of availability heuristic leads to judgmental errors, to neglecting probabilities involved in the situation. Availability heuristic or neglecting the fact that a sample does not entirely cover the characteristics of a whole class is caused by generalization and incorrect integration of a new phenomenon in an already known class. Likewise, stereotypes including a new phenomenon into a class with already known characteristics lead to overgeneralization and obstructions in communication. Consciously or not, stereotypes influence the individuals behaviour, flowing communication. Stereotypes are largely shared social beliefs about an individuals personality, behaviour, attitudes and values. The audience attributes meanings to the communication circumstance, anticipates and expects a certain type of action and interaction, interprets reality and adjusts to it, based on these representations and on the personal reference system. The information referring to the individual, acquired via nonverbal communication is organized, filtered and labeled with ease, leading to his/her quick inclusion, even if erroneous into a certain category.

FIVE AXIOMS REGARDING COMMUNICATION APPLIED TO NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION


The conceptualization of the Palo Alto School

CINCI AXIOME PRIVIND COMU- can be summarized by considering everything as NICAREA APLICATE LA communication, including the way in which one relates to the world. Communication reflects all COMUNICAREA NONVERBAL

Demersul de teoretizare al colii de la Palo Alto poate fi rezumat prin aceea c totul este comunicare, inclusiv modul n care omul relaioneaz cu lumea. Comunicarea reflect toate procesele raiunii, furniznd regulile de nelegere a lumii, pentru c toate domeniile ca tiina, arta,

reasonable processes, providing rules for understanding the world, as all the domains such as science, art, everyday relationships are nothing else but segments encapsulated in communication (Tran,V., Stnciugelu, I., 2010) The Palo Alto School introduced a new perspective on communication, the holistic one.

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relaiile cotidiene nu sunt dect sectoare nglobate n comunicare (Tran,V., Stnciugelu, I., 2010) coala de la Palo Alto a introdus o nou perspectiv asupra comunicrii, perspectiva holistic. Comunicarea nu mai este privit ca un model liniar, determinist, ci ca un model circular, ca un proces social permanent, de sincronizare a comunicrii verbale (cuvinte) i a celei nonverbale (gesturi, priviri, spaiu). Cele cinci principii/axiome de comunicare interuman formulate de Watzklawick fac referire att la comunicarea verbal ct i la cea nonverbal. Prin axioma 1 este stabilit imposibilitatea noncomunicrii. Conceptul de comunicare este transpus, ca aplicabilitate, dincolo de comunicarea verbal i intenionalitate spre comunicare nonverbal i neintenionalitate. Orice comportament (aciunea sau lipsa acesteia, vorbirea, gestul, tcerea) are potenial de mesaj. Gesturile fizice, poziia corporal, cele mai subtile expresii faciale comunic sentimente i atitudini spre un receptor extern. A fi om nseamn a comunica ntotdeauna, fie i doar pe plan neintenional, nonverbal i subcontient. Din punctul de vedere al noii teorii, comunicarea verbal i intenional reprezint doar vrful unui iceberg uria, care nchide ntr-o unitate comportament unui individ integrat organic ntr-o totalitate cuprinznd alte moduri de comportament: tonul, postura, contextul (Tran,V., Stnciugelu, I., 2010). n conformitate cu axioma 2, orice comunicare este organizat la nivelul coninutului i al relaiei. Comunicarea nu doar transmite un mesaj, ci i construiete o relaie, aceasta din urm nglobnd primul aspect i facilitnd interpretarea coninutului. Fiecare individ rspunde la coninutul comunicrii n contextul relaiei dintre el i interlocutor. Tonul cu care este rostit o anumit fraz, gesturile de accentuare sau de nuanare care o nsoesc pot duce la o interpretare diferit a informaiei coninute n mesaj i la construirea unei anumite relaii. ntr-o relaie apropiat ntre cei doi interlocutori mesajul poate s piard din fora de impact, n timp ce ntr-o relaie n care cei doi interlocutori se afla n raport de ef-subordonat, mesajul poate fi accentuat prin acest relaie. Axioma 3 se refer la punctuaie, respectiv la nceputul i sfritul unei secvene de comunicare.

Communication is no longer regarded as a linear, deterministic model, but as a circular one, a permanent, social process of synchronization of the verbal communication (words) and the nonverbal one (gestures, eyecontact, proxemics). The five inter-human communication principles/axioms formulated by Watzklawick refer to both verbal and nonverbal communication. Axiom 1 establishes the impossibility of noncommunication. The communication concept is transposed, as applicability, beyond verbal communication and intentionality towards nonverbal communication and non-intentionality. Any behaviour (action or lack of action, speech, gestures, silence) is potentially a meaningful message. Physical gestures, body language, the most subtle facial expressions communicate feelings and attitudes to an external receiver. To be human means to always communicate, even if nonintentionally, nonverbally and subconsciously. From the point of view of the new theory, the intentional verbal communication represents the peak of a huge iceberg, which comprises in a unity an individuals behaviour, organically integrated in a totality containing other modes of behaviour: tone, posture, context (Tran,V., Stnciugelu, I., 2010. In agreement with axiom 2, any communication act is organized as content and relationship. It does not just transmit a message, but also builds a relationship, the latter containing the first aspect and facilitating content interpretation. Each individual responds to the communication content within the contextual relationship between him/her and the interlocutor. The tone of a certain sentence, the accompanying gestures which highlight or explain it in more detail can lead to a different interpretation of the information contained in the message, and to constructing a certain relationship. In a close relationship between two interlocutors the message can lose some of its impact power, while a bosssubordinate relationship will emphasize the impact of the message. Axiom 3 refers to punctuation, which marks the beginning and the end of a conversational sequence, respectively. Interpersonal communication is circular, each message being simultaneously a stimulus and a response. The organizational pattern

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Comunicarea interpersonal este circular, fiecare mesaj fiind simultan i stimul i rspuns. Modul de organizare a secvenei de comunicare este personal pentru fiecare interlocutor. Punctuaia depinde de percepia subiectiv a vorbitorilor, iar n cazul n care acetia nu cad de acord asupra punctuaiei, fiecare atribuie un sens diferit discuiei n desfurare. Att emitorul ct i cel care primete mesajul structureaz fluxul informaiei n mod diferit, evalundu-i comportamentul ca un rspuns la stimulul celuilalt. Analogia cu punctuaia din comunicarea scris este evident, precum i cu capacitatea acesteia de a modifica nelesul unui mesaj. Indicii nonverbale care puncteaz comunicarea sunt, de exemplu gesturile minii, indicnd frustrare, nerbdare, dorina de a accentua ceva, sau expresia feei indicnd plictiseal, oc, simpatie, etc. Axioma 4 este privit ca o completare a axiomei 2. Comunicarea uman are o natur att analog ct i digital n transferul de informaii. Aparent, coninutul se transmite digital, iar relaia analog, prin analogie, prin coresponden. Termenul digital este folosit n aceast axiom (4) prin raportare la elementele definite ale comunicrii, ca de exemplu cuvinte sau gesturi cu sens clar. Sensul analog este propriu mai ales comunicrii nonverbale. n comunicarea nonverbal exist o reprezentare care evoc lucrul, ideea la care se refer. De exemplu, un zmbet evoc un sentiment pozitiv, de prietenie; o strngere de mna evoc ideea de fraternitate, de acord. Comunicarea analog, care include orice form de comunicare nonverbal este cod primar, are o extindere mai mare dect cea digital i confer mai mult credibilitate mesajului transmis (vezi procentele stabilite de Mehrabian). Comunicarea digital este relativ recent i mai abstract. Cele dou tipuri de comunicare coexist i se influeneaz reciproc. Toate procesele de comunicare sunt simetrice sau complementare, dac ele se ntemeiaz pe egalitate sau, respectiv, pe diferen. Comportamentul comunicaional formulat de axioma 5, cel de egalitate sau de diferen din perspectiva autoritii deinute de interlocutori, este reprezentat i n comunicarea nonverbal. Atitudinea dominant, poziia corporal, contactul

for each communication sequence is personal to each interlocutor. Punctuation depends on the speakers subjective perception, and when they disagree on punctuation, each of them gives a different meaning to the ongoing discussion. Both the emitter and the receiver structure the information flux differently, evaluating their personal behaviour as a response to the others stimulus. The analogy with the punctuation of the written communication is obvious, as well as with its power to modify the meaning of a message. The nonverbal cues which punctuate communication are, for example, hand gestures, indicating frustration, impatience, desire to emphasize something, or the face expression, indicating boredom, shock, empathy, etc. Axiom 4 is regarded as a completion of axiom 2. Human communication is dual in nature: in the information transfer, it is both digital and analogue. Apparently, the content is transferred digitally, while the relationship analogously, by analogy, by correspondence. The term digital is used in axiom 4 in its relationship to defined communication issues, for instance words or gestures with a clear meaning. The analogue meaning characterizes mostly the nonverbal communication. In the nonverbal communication, there is a representation which evokes the thing, the idea it refers to. For instance, a smile evokes a positive feeling, of friendship; a handshake evokes a feeling of brotherhood, of agreement. The analogue communication, which includes any nonverbal communication is a primary code used more widely than the digital one and confers more credibility to the transmitted message (see Mehrabians percentage). The digital communication is relatively more recent and abstract. The two communication types coexist and exert a mutual influence. All communicative processes are symmetric and complementary, on condition they are set up on equality or difference, respectively. The communicative behaviour as formulated by axiom 5, behaviour of equality or difference, from the point of view of the authority held by the interlocutors, is present in the nonverbal communication, too. The dominant attitude, the body language, the eye contact clearly show the existence or lack of a parity rapport between the

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vizual denot cu claritate existena sau absena unui raport de egalitate ntre interlocutori.

interlocutors.

CONCLUZII

CONCLUSIONS

Revoluionarea conceptului de comunicare a nsemnat recunoaterea faptului c oamenii nu folosesc comunicarea pentru scopuri temporare ci i construiesc existena prin comunicare. Departe de a fi considerat o simpl form de comunicare auxiliar, de suport, comunicarea nonverbal este responsabil pentru eficientizarea procesului de comunicare verbal. Aportul acesteia este major: ea poate accentua, completa, contrazice, repeta sau reactualiza comunicarea verbal. Perceperea greit a limbajului corporal datorit anumitor factori perturbatori rezult n erori de comunicare, putnd duce pn la eecul total al acesteia.

The acknowledgement that people do not use communication for transitory goals but build their existence on it revolutionarized the communication concept. Far from being considered a simple form of auxiliary communication, the nonverbal one is responsible for the efficiency of the verbal communication process. The nonverbal communication contributes to this in a major way, as it can highlight, complete, contradict, repeat or update the verbal communication. The erroneous perception of the body language due to some interferences results in communication flows, or, under certain circumstances in complete failure.

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