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Unit 1, Module 1.1: Basic Algebra & Functions OBJECTIVES (a) The Real Number System Students should be able to: 1. identify sets of numbers, for example integers, whole Ch 2 p 20 numbers and real numbers; 2. understand the application of the real number axioms to Ch 1 p 1,2 algebraic operations; 3. use the concepts of identity, closure, inverse, commutativity, associativity, distributivity of addition and - not covered multiplication of real numbers; 4. understand that the real numbers are ordered; 5. obtain the solution set of a simple linear inequality; Ch 12 p 142 6. use the Cartesian system to represent ordered pairs and points in the plane; 7. construct simple proofs of elementary assertions concerning real numbers, and use counter-examples. (b) The Modulus Students should be able to: 1. know the notation for the modulus sign; 2. use the modulus sign, for example, 5 = 5, x = -x if x 0 3. know that |x| is the positive square root of x2 ; 4. find the distance between two real numbers; 5. understand that the operation of taking the modulus is not additive. (c) Algebraic Operations Students should be able to: 1. carry out operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication of polynomial and rational expressions; 2. factorize quadratic polynomial expressions leading to real linear factors (real coefficients only); 3. extract the factor a b from the expression an-bn for positive integral n; 4. use the Remainder Theorem; 5. use the Factor Theorem to find factors and to evaluate unknown coefficients; 6. understand the meaning of identity of polynomial expressions.

x if x 0

- not covered -

Ch 6 p 60 Ch 5 p 56 Ch 27 p 335

Ch 1 p 3 Ch 3 p 52 Ch 4 p 70 - not covered -

Ch 18 p 219-222

Ch 11 p 443-445

- not covered -

- not covered -

page 1 of 9

(d) Functions Students should be able to: 1. understand and use the terms function, domain, range, one-to-one function (injective function), onto function (surjective function), and one-to-one and onto function (bijective function); inverse, composition of functions, specifically as illustrated by quadratic functions; 2. (i) plot functions and their inverses, if they exist (include examples of linear, quadratic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions in real life situations) such as Linear any situation where the two variables are directly proportional Quadratic the trajectory of a ball under gravity Exponential decay, bacterial growth, cooling curves, examples from business, biology, economics Logarithmic principal compounded over a period of time; (ii) understand that, if g is the inverse function of f, then f(g(x)) = x; 3. perform calculations involving given functions; 4. identify an increasing or decreasing function, using the sign of { (f(a) f(b) } / (a-b), when a b; 5. understand and use the relationship of the graph of y=f(x) with that representing y = af(x); y = f(x+a); y =f(x)+a; y =af(x+b);y=|f(x)|, where a, b are real numbers, and, where it is invertible, with that representing y=f -1 (x). (e) Indices Students should be able to use the laws of indices to simplify expressions (including expressions involving negative and rational indices). (f) Equations Students should be able to: 1. solve linear equations in one unknown; 2. solve quadratic equations in one unknown, by (i) Factorization (ii) Expressing ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + h)2 + k and using the quadratic formula (iii) Sketching the graph of the quadratic function, including maximum or minimum points; 3. solve two simultaneous equations in two unknowns, one being quadratic and one being linear. (g) Trigonometry (i) Plane Trigonometry: Students should be able to: 1. understand the definition of a radian; 2. convert from degrees to radians, and from radians to degrees; 3. understand that, unless otherwise stated, all angles will be assumed to be in radians; 4. use the formulae for arc length i.e. I = r and area of sector i.e. A= r2 ; 5. use the sine and cosine rules for triangles; 6. know that the area of the triangle is A = ab sin C.

Ch 11 p 124-141

Ch 3 p 43-68

+ Ch 17 p 206-207

Ch 2 p 24-26

Ch 2 p 23-25

Ch 3 p 41-42

- not covered -

Ch 10 p 104-111

Ch 6 p 138-140

Ch 7 p 68-78 Ch 7 p 79-80

Ch 6 p 151-156 Ch 7 p 241

page 2 of 9

(ii) Trigonometric Functions: Students should be able to: 1. define the trigonometric functions sin x and cos x for angles x of any value (including negative values), using the coordinates of points on the unit circle, and to define the functions tan x, cot x, sec x and cosec x; 2. graph the sin x, cos x and tan x functions; 3. relate the periodicity and symmetries of the sine, cosine and tangent functions to their graphs; 4. understand that sin(x + / 2) = cos x; 5. understand that, for small angles x, sin x x

Ch 15 p 172-182

Ch 6 p 144-163

Ch 7 p 234-6

OBJECTIVES (a) Co-ordinate Geometry Students should be able to: 1. use Cartesian coordinate systems to locate points in 2 and 3 dimensions; 2. calculate the gradient of the line segment joining two points; 3. calculate the co-ordinates of the mid-point of the line segment; 4. calculate the distance between two points given in co-ordinate form; 5. find the equation of a straight line i) given by the co-ordinates of two of its points; ii) given by the co-ordinates of a point and the gradient of the line; iii) in the normal form x cos + y sin = p ; 6. understand the relationships between the gradients of parallel and mutually perpendicular lines; 7. write the equation of a circle with given centre and radius; 8. distinguish and interpret the Cartesian equations of the standard ellipse and the standard parabola; 9. obtain the Cartesian equation of a curve, given its parametric representation. (b) Inequalities Students should be able to find the solutions of linear and quadratic inequalities, and inequalities of the form (x+a)/(x+b)>0, using algebraic and graphical methods. (c) Systems of Linear Equations Students should be able to: 1. solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns by the method of multiplication and addition of equations; 2. recognize whether the system has one, no or infinitely many solutions, and find any such solution; 3. interpret the outcome of 2. above with reference to the geometry of pairs of lines in the plane. (d) Trigonometry Students should be able to: 1. use the formulae for sin( A B ) and cos( A B ) ;

Ch 36 p 455 Ch 6 p 60

Ch 4 p 69 Ch 12 p 470

Ch 6 p 61-64 Ch 4 p 69-100 Ch 8 p 87

???

- not covered -

Ch 22 p 283

Ch 7 p 205-207

page 3 of 9

2. use the compound angle identities to prove simple identities, and know and be able to use the identity cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 , as well as the corresponding identities for tan, cot, sec and cosec; 3. develop and use the double angle identities for sin 2 A, cos 2 A ; 4. use the double angle identities to prove other identities; 5. develop and use the expressions for sin A sin B, cos A cos B ; 6. express a cos + b sin in the form R cos( ) and

Ch 16 p 184

Ch 7 p 200-225

Ch 22 p 284-291

7. solve trigonometric equations of the form sin kx = c, cos kx = c, or any equation which can be reduced to the above forms, and find all solutions within a specified interval; 8. find the general solution of equations of the form

+ Ch 6 p 177

a sin + b cos = c.

(e) Complex Numbers Students should be able to: 1. recognise the nature of the roots of the general quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 when b 2 4ac < 0 , and relate the sums and products of the roots to the coefficients a and b ; 2. recognize equality of two complex numbers; 3. add, substract, multiply and divide complex numbers in the form a+bi, where a and b are real numbers; 4. express complex numbers in the form a+bi where a, b are real numbers, and identify real and imaginary parts; 5. find the principal value of the argument of a non-zero complex number, where < ; 6. find the modulus and conjugate of a given complex number; 7. represent complex numbers, their sums, differences and products on an Argand diagram; 8. interpret modulus and argument of complex numbers on the Argand Diagram. (f) Vectors Students should be able to: 1. express a vector in the form or xi+yj; y

Ch 4 p 44-46

Ch 1 p 12-14

- not covered -

Ch 13 p 532-558

2. add and subtract vectors; 3. distinguish between a vector quantity and a scalar quantity; 4. recognize that the position of a point can be expressed in terms of a position vector; 5. define and use unit vectors; 6. find displacement vectors; 7. find the magnitude and direction of a vector, and know and use the appropriate notation for these concepts; 8. multiply a vector by a scalar quantity; 9. determine whether two vectors are parallel;

Ch 12 p 455-468

page 4 of 9

Ch 12 p 496-498

10. use the scalar product of two vectors to establish the Ch 36 perpendicularity of two vectors. p 449-465 Unit 1, Module 1.3: Calculus I OBJECTIVES (a) Limits Students should be able to: 1. appreciate the need for the concept of a limit to understand the continuity of graphs of functions; 2. explain the concept of limit of a function; 3. describe the behaviour of a function f (x ) as x gets arbitrarily close to some given fixed number, using a descriptive approach; 4. use the limit notation lim f ( x ) = L, or f ( x ) L ;

xa

Ch 3 p 58-61

xa xa

- not covered -

then

xa

xa xa

- not covered -

and, provided G 0,

xa

lim f ( x) / g ( x) = F / G ;

6. use limit theorems in simple problems, including cases in which the limit of f(x) at a is not f(a), e.g.

2 lim ( x 4) /( x 2) ; x2

7. understand the concept of continuity of a function; 8. identify the region over which a function is continuous; 9. demonstrate the existence of roots of equations, using the Intermediate Value Theorem. (b) Differentiation I Students should be able to: 1. demonstrate understanding of the concept of the gradient at a point on a graph as the limiting value of gradients of chords; 2. demonstrate understanding of the concept of derivative as a gradient of the tangent to the graph at x=a; 3. know the definition of the derivative as a limit; 4. know that differentiability of a function at a point implies its continuity there, but that the converse is not true; 5. use the f (x ) notation for the derivative; 6. differentiate from first principles such simple functions as a, x, x2,x3; 7. demonstrate an understanding of how to obtain the derivative of xn, where n is a natural number; 8. demonstrate understanding of simple theorems about derivatives of y = af ( x), y = f ( x ) + g ( x ); 9. calculate the derivatives of polynomials by using 7. and 8. above repeatedly; 10. know how to differentiate products and quotients of polynomials; 11. demonstrate understanding of the concept of the derivative as a rate of change;

Ch 13 p 124-134 Ch 35 p 441

Ch 3 p 60-61 Ch 16 p 645

Ch 13 p 150-157

Ch 5 p 106-119

page 5 of 9

12. use the sign of the derivative to investigate where a function is increasing or decreasing; 13. understand the concept of stationary point; 14. determine the nature of stationary points; 15. locate stationary points, maxima and minima by considering sign changes of the derivative; 16. understand the definition of the derivative function; 17. calculate second derivatives; 18. understand the significance of the sign of the second derivative; 19. use the sign of the second derivative to determine the nature of stationary points; 20. recognize situations when the second derivative procedure is not appropriate; 21. sketch graphs of polynomials and rational functions, using the features of the function and its first and second derivatives; 22. describe the behaviour of such graphs for large values of the independent variable. (c) Integration I Students should be able to: 1. approximate the area under the graph of a continuous function by sums of areas of rectangles, using the notation; 2. understand the need for integration as the inverse of differentiation in order to find the area under the graph of a continuous function; 3. demonstrate understanding of the indefinite integral and the use of the integration notation

Ch 14 p 162-171

Ch 5 p 122-131

- not covered -

Ch 11 p 427-435

Ch 9 p 337-340

f ( x)dx;

Ch 20 p 244-238 Ch 9 p 299-301

4. know that the indefinite integral represents a family of functions which differ by constants; 5. demonstrate use of the following integration theorems:

6. evaluate indefinite integrals of polynomial functions, using integration theorems; 7. define and calculate

Ch 9 p 341

8. know the Trapezium Rule; 9. use the Trapezium Rule as an approximation method for evaluating the area under the graph of a function; 10. apply integration to the finding of areas and of volumes of revolution; 11. formulate and solve differential equations of the form Ch 16 p 682-693

y = f (x).

Ch 9 p 335

page 6 of 9

Unit 2, Module 2.1: Calculus II OBJECTIVES (a) Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Student should be able to: 1. identify situations that can be modelled as an exponential decay or growth; Ch 17 p 206-207 2. understand that there is a function called the exponential function denoted by ex; 3. understand that there is a function called the natural Ch 17 logarithm function denoted by ln x; p 212 > x = ey ; 4. understand that y = ln x < 5. sketch the graphs of the functions e and ln x ; 6. understand that the graphs of e and ln x are reflections of one another about the line Y = x ; 7. investigate the properties of the function e from its graph; 8. investigate the properties of the function ln x from its graph; 9. simplify expressions by using the laws of logarithms, such as ln( PQ) = ln P + ln Q, ln( P / Q) = ln P ln Q, ln Pa = a ln P ; 10. use logarithms to solve equations of the form ax=b; 11. solve problems involving changing of the base of a logarithm. (b) Differentiation II Students should be able to: sinx 1. understand that lim = 1 , using a geometrical

x 0

Ch 3 p 58-64

approach; 2. obtain the derivatives of sin x and cos x from first principles; 3. understand that the derivative of ex is ex; 4. apply the chain rule in the differentiation of composite and parametric functions; 5. use the concept of implicit differentiation; 6. demonstrate that the derivative of ln x is

Ch 24 p 300

1 ; x

Ch 8 p 255-269 p 274-288

8. differentiate functions involving a combination of xn, ln x, ex, sin x, cos x, tan x; 9. obtain higher derivatives, for example, f (x ) and f (x ) . (c) Integration II Students should be able to: 1. express a proper rational function in partial fractions in the cases where the denominator is of the forms

Ch 24 p 302-306

2. express an improper rational function as a sum of a polynomial and partial fractions; 3. integrate rational functions, using partial fractions;

Ch 30 p 363-369

Ch 1 p 5-9 + Ch 8 p 271-272

Ch 31 p 378-308

Ch 9 p 318

page 7 of 9

4. use the method of substitution to integrate functions (the substitution will be given in all but the most simple cases). 5. integrate by parts integrals such as

Ch 31 p 377 Ch 32 p 386-7 Ch 29 p 357

Ch 9 p 309-311 Ch 9 p 312-315

x sin dx, x

exdx, ln xdx ;

6. formulate a differential equation from a simple model Ch 33 involving a rate of change; p 394-398 Ch 9 7. solve first order linear differential equations with constant Ch 32 p 332-336 coefficients, for example, y = f ( x ), y ky = f ( x ), where p 388-392 k is a real constant and f is a linear function. Unit 2, Module 2.2: Sequences, Series and Approximations OBJECTIVES (a) Sequences Students should be able to: 1. understand the concept of a sequence {a n } of terms a n Ch 15 p 586 as a function from the positive integers to the real numbers; th (no 2. write a specific term from the formula for the n term, or Ch 19 recurrence) from a recurrence relation; p 227-232 +p 236 3. describe the behaviour of convergent, divergent and periodic sequences; 4. identify arithmetic and geometric sequences; Ch 15 p 589-595 5. use simple applications of mathematical induction as a - not covered - Ch 15 p 629 form of proof. (b) Series Students should be able to: 1. define a series as the sum of a sequence; 2. use the sigma () notation, and identify the n term of a series, given in the sigma notation; 3. identify arithmetic and geometric series and obtain expressions for their general terms and sums; 4. recognize that all arithmetic series are divergent, and that geometric series are convergent only if |r| < 1, where r is the common ratio; 5. calculate the sum of arithmetic and geometric series to a given number of terms; 6. calculate the sum of a convergent geometric series. (c) The Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Index Students should be able to: 1. recall the meaning of n! and C n ; 2. expand ( a + x ) for positive integral values of n; 3. apply the binomial theorem to real world problems, e.g. in mathematics of finance. (d) Errors Students should be able to: 1. define absolute, relative and percentage error in compound quantities involving inexact data; 2. calculate maximum absolute, maximum relative and maximum percentage error; 3. calculate error bounds for given expressions.

n n

th

Ch 19 p 230-243

Ch 15 p 586-603

Ch 34 p 420-424

Ch 15 p 603-610

- not covered -

- not covered -

page 8 of 9

(e) Roots of Equations Students should be able to: Ch 35 p 441 Ch 16 p 645 1. test for the existence of a root of f ( x ) = 0 within a given interval; 2. explain, in geometrical terms, the working of the Newton-Raphson method; Ch 35 Ch 16 p 446-448 p 666-669 3. solve equation f ( x ) = 0 using the Newton-Raphson method. Unit 2, Module 2.3: Probability and Mathematical Modelling OBJECTIVES (a) Probability Theory Students should be able to: 1. identify the sample space for a given experiment; 2. identify events from a given sample space; 3. calculate P(A), the probability of an event A occurring as the number of successful outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes; 4. recall and use the property for any event A that

0 P( A) 1;

5. recall and use the property that the probability of the sample space is 1; 6. recall and use the property that P ( A) = 1 P ( A) , where

7. recall and use the property that

- not covered (covered in 2nd edition)

events; 8. give examples, and identify events that are mutually exclusive or independent; 9. recall and use the property that P ( A B) = P( A) + P( B), where A and B are mutually exclusive events; 10. recall and use the property that P ( A B ) = P ( A) . P (B ) where A and B are independent events; 11. construct and use tree and Venn diagrams in solving simple problems in probability; 12. define conditional probability, P(A/B), as the probability that an event A will occur given that event B has occurred, and use the formula P ( A / B ) = P ( A B ) to solve P(B) probability problems; 13. use the binomial distribution as a probability model. (b) Mathematical Modelling Students should be able to: 1. give a clear account of the process of mathematical modelling; 2. choose a real world problem capable of being modelled with the use of some syllabus items contained in Units 1 and 2 and/or any other body of mathematics; 3. carry out the modelling process for the chosen situation; 4. discuss and evaluate the solutions obtained in a written report.

- not covered -

- not covered -

page 9 of 9

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