Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

49 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- UG Geotech Design Procedures
- Literature Review
- SAPAZ - Lateral vs Vertical Swell Pressures in Expansive Soils
- (Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration &_ Production) Leonardo Azevedo, AmÃlcar Soares (auth.) - Geostatistical Methods for Reservoir Geophysics-Springer International Publishing (2017).pdf
- BUET Msc Admission Test Suggestion
- Btech I Year Syllabus
- A Comparative Study of Interpolation Methods for Mapping Soil Properties
- Handout-1 - Site Investigations
- Underground storages in unlined mined caverns comparison with civil underground excavations
- ekologi eksperimental 1
- Direct Sequential Indicator Simulation
- dcp test
- Retaining Walls and Geotechnical Design to Eurocode 7 Summary
- 161336_(1)
- Soil Improvement, Prefabricated Vertical Drain Echniques
- Conditional Simulation
- OIIM
- 1-17Bogcfs
- Soil Nailing for Stabilization of Steep Slopes Nea
- SAMSUN ANADOLU TARIM

Anda di halaman 1dari 49

A

A

N

N

N

A

A

A

L

L

L

Y

Y

Y

S

S

S

I

I

I

S

S

S

O

O

O

F

F

F

S

S

S

I

I

I

T

T

T

E

E

E

C

C

C

L

L

L

A

A

A

S

S

S

S

S

S

I

I

I

F

F

F

I

I

I

C

C

C

A

A

A

T

T

T

I

I

I

O

O

O

N

N

N

F

F

F

O

O

O

R

R

R

K

K

K

U

U

U

A

A

A

L

L

L

A

A

A

L

L

L

U

U

U

M

M

M

P

P

P

U

U

U

R

R

R

S

S

S

G

G

G

R

R

R

O

O

O

U

U

U

N

N

N

D

D

D

A

A

A

S

S

S

S

S

S

E

E

E

S

S

S

S

S

S

M

M

M

E

E

E

N

N

N

T

T

T

S

S

S

I

I

I

T

T

T

I

I

I

S

S

S

A

A

A

F

F

F

F

F

F

U

U

U

R

R

R

B

B

B

I

I

I

N

N

N

T

T

T

I

I

I

M

M

M

A

A

A

N

N

N

S

S

S

O

O

O

R

R

R

U

U

U

N

N

N

I

I

I

V

V

V

E

E

E

R

R

R

S

S

S

I

I

I

T

T

T

I

I

I

S

S

S

A

A

A

I

I

I

N

N

N

S

S

S

M

M

M

A

A

A

L

L

L

A

A

A

Y

Y

Y

S

S

S

I

I

I

A

A

A

2

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

3

3

ANALYSIS OF SITE CLASSIFICATION FOR

KUALA LUMPURS GROUND ASSESSMENT

By

SITI SAFFUR BINTI MANSOR

Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree

of Master of Science

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

July 2003

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost I thank ALLAH for giving me the good health and thus strength to

accomplish the work of this research and completed the requirements of the thesis.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank City Hall Kuala Lumpur for allowing

me to pursue this study on full time basis and sponsoring the studies. It is important

to mention here that the Department of Architects and Special Projects, City Hall

Kuala Lumpur had given the best support by giving the permission to use the soil

investigation reports, which produced 889 boreholes. These are materials that formed

a mini database, which made the research possible. The Kumpulan IKRAM Sdn.

Bhd., Malaysia deserved to be commendable for giving their records of soils

information, which added to the data. My words of appreciation spread out to my

colleagues and friends who always gave me the encouragement and supports both

morally and technically.

I am very privileged to be supervised by the main supervisor, Prof. Madya Dr.

Mohammad Razip Selamat and the co-supervisors, Prof. Madya Dr. Fauziah Ahmad

and Encik Ahmad Shukri Yahaya. They are the people who guided, imparted their

knowledge to me, instilled confidence and built up my courage to pursue this work

till the end. Thank you very much for the tireless supervisions and discussions.

For the good cooperation and helps, I would like to thank the lecturers and staff of

the Civil Engineering Faculty of Universiti Sains Malaysia especially Cik Aida, Puan

ii

iii

Ros, Prof. Madya Dr. Haji Nordin-for his lectures in statistics, and Prof. Madya Dr.

Rosli. Also to the former UPA staff especially Puan Ani. Many thanks too, to all the

staff at the Universiti Sains Libraries both at Nibong Tebal and at Pulau Pinang for

their efforts and helps to find journals, books and notes which I needed for the

research.

I am very happy to have acquainted new friends who indirectly built my enthusiasms

in studies; they are Lulusi, Anita, Raqib, Nassser, Anas, Faisal, Encik Ahmad Bakri

and others. To all of them I really appreciate the friendship and will always be

remembered.

To my beloved mother, Puan Hajjah Ramlah Hamidon, thank you for the prayers and

love. To all my sisters, brothers, nephews and nieces too, thank you for all the

supports and being very understanding. I am dedicating this thesis to two important

people in my life, i.e., my late father, Tuan Haji Mansor Mohd Sahood who always

wanted me to be successful and my six-year old nephew, Adam Faris Fadill who

passed away during my studies.

Finally, of utmost importance is the invaluable cooperation and helps from my

beloved husband, Encik Hashim Hamzah Manaf who deserves to share every success

that I achieved and who stood by me during my strenuous work. Thank you and you

are always my inspiration.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

TITLE PAGE i

ACKNOWLEGEMENT ii

CONTENTS iv

LIST OF FIGURES viii

LIST OF TABLES xiii

LIST OF PLATES xvi

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xvii

ABSTRACT xx

ABSTRAK xxii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.0 DEVELOPMENT IN KUALA LUMPUR 1

1.1 SITE INVESTIGATION 3

1.2 SITE CLASSIFICATION 5

1.3 SITE ASSESSMENT 6

1.4 GEOTECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT IN

KUALA LUMPUR

8

1.5 THE PRACTICE IN KUALA LUMPUR CITY

HALL

8

1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH 9

1.7 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH 10

1.8 APPROACH OF THE RESEARCH 11

1.9 THE SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTERS IN THE

THESIS

12

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 14

2.0 INTRODUCTION 14

2.1 URBAN GEOLOGY 16

2.1.1 Geologic maps 16

2.1.2 Problematic soils 17

2.1.3 Foundations associated with problematic

soils

18

2.2 GEOTECHNICAL DATABASE FOR

MODELLING SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL

PROPERTIES

18

2.2.1 Introduction 18

2.2.2 Probabilistic estimation model 20

2.2.3 Correlation distance and variance of layer

thickness

27

iv

2.3 GEOSTATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR

INTERPRETING RESULTS OF SOIL

EXPLORATION

28

2.3.1 Introduction 28

2.3.2 Theoretical concepts 29

2.3.2.1 Random field 29

2.3.2.2 Statistical estimation of the

parameters of a random field

32

2.3.2.3 Estimation 32

2.4 OTHER LITERATURE 33

2.5 SUMMARY 33

3 DATA COLLECTION AND SITES

CLASSIFICATION

35

3.0 INTRODUCTION 35

3.1 SITE INVESTIGATION WORKS 39

3.2 CORRELATIONS FOR THE STANDARD

PENETRATION TEST

44

3.3 DESCRIPTION OF SOILS 45

3.4 METHODOLOGY 46

3.4.1 Sorting site investigation reports 46

3.4.2 Choosing and classifying soils characteristics 49

3.5 SOIL PROFILES 54

3.6 SUMMARY 60

4 ANALYSIS OF DATA 62

4.0 INTRODUCTION 62

4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 63

4.1.1 Measures of location or central tendency 64

4.1.2 Measures of spread 65

4.1.3 Measures of shape 66

4.2 ANALYSIS OF DEPTHS WHEN SPT NUMBER,

N IS 50

67

4.2.1 Descriptive statistics 67

4.2.2 Histograms of depths when SPT Number, N

is 50

68

4.2.3 Analysis of hard substrata depths when SPT

Number, N is 50

73

4.3 ANALYSIS OF TOTAL CLAY THICKNESS 74

4.3.1 Mean clay thickness 75

4.3.2 Histograms of clay thickness 76

4.3.3 Interpretation of the clay thickness 80

4.4 ANALYSIS OF SOFT CLAYEY SOILS

THICKNESS WHEN SPT NUMBER, N IS LESS

THAN OR EQUALS TO 4

84

4.5 ANALYSIS OF TOTAL SOFT AND LOOSE

SOILS THICKNESS WHEN SPT NUMBER, N IS

LESS THAN OR EQUALS TO 4

91

v

4.6 DISTRIBUTION OF DATA AND PROBABILITY

OF OCCURRENCE

97

4.6.1 The chi-square goodness-of-fit-test 97

4.6.2 Chi-square goodness-of-fit-test carried out as

a case study for total clay thickness in

Bandar Kuala Lumpur

99

4.6.3 Results from the case study of the two

options

99

4.6.4 Example of applying the probability density

function (PDF)

103

4.7 SUMMARY 103

4.7.1 Descriptive statistics analyses 103

4.7.2 Data distribution case study 106

5 INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUE

A CASE STUDY: BANDAR KUALA LUMPURS

CLAY.

108

5.0 INTRODUCTION 108

5.1 GEOSTATISTICS 108

5.2 SEMIVARIOGRAMS 109

5.3 POSITIVE DEFINITE VARIOGRAM MODELS 112

5.3.1 Models with a sill and linear behavior at the

origin

113

5.3.2 Spherical model 113

5.3.3 Spherical model with a nugget 114

5.3.4 Relationship between semivariogram and

covariogram

116

5.4 KRIGING 118

5.5 ALGORITHM FOR ORDINARY KRIGING

ESTIMATION

124

5.5.1 Assumptions 124

5.5.2 The Algorithm 125

5.6 COMPUTER SOFTWARE PROGRAMS 127

5.6.1 S+SpatialStats Version 1.6 127

5.6.2 Mathcad 2000 Professional 129

5.7 INTERPOLATION BY ORDINARY KRIGING A

CASE STUDIES

129

5.7.1 Steps taken to fit data into the model

variogram and to produce the ordinary

kriging prediction plots

134

5.7.1.1 Steps to fit 48 observed samples into

the model variogram

141

5.7.1.2 Worked example to solve the

prediction of clay thickness at

unsampled location

144

5.8 SUMMARY RESULTS OF INTERPOLATION

BY ORDINARY KRIGING

149

vi

vii

6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 152

6.0 INTRODUCTION 152

6.1 SUMMARY ON THE SITES CLASSIFICATION 152

6.1.1 The depth of penetration when SPT Number,

N is 50

156

6.1.2 Total clay thickness in a borehole log 159

6.1.3 Total soft clay thickness when SPT Number,

N is less than or equals to 4

162

6.1.4 Total soft and loose soils thickness when

SPT Number, N is less than or equals to 4

164

6.1.5 Conclusion on the sites classification 165

6.2 SUMMARY ON DATA DISTRIBUTION CASE

STUDY

167

6.2.1 Conclusion on the data distribution case

study

167

6.3 SUMMARY ON ORDINARY KRIGING

PREDICTION

168

6.3.1 Conclusion on ordinary kriging prediction 169

6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS 169

LIST OF REFERENCES 172

APPENDICES

Appendix A

Table 5.1 : The cumulated thickness of clay

in the 283 borehole logs

Appendix B

Table 5.2 : The cumulated clay thickness in

155 borehole logs

Appendix C

Table 5.3 : The cumulated clay thickness for

53 boreholes logs in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

Appendix D

Table 5.4 : Clay thickness from 48 sampled

data for Bandar Kuala Lumpur

Appendix E

Table 5.5 : The results of parameters

calculated to plot the empirical variogram.

The azimuth used is 0 and azimuth tolerance

is 90 degrees

Appendix F

A WORKED EXAMPLE TO SOLVE THE

PREDICTION OF CLAY THICKNESS AT

AN UNSAMPLED LOCATION IN

BANDAR KUALA LUMPUR BY

ORDINARY KRIGING TECHNIQUE

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title Page

1.1 Map of Kuala Lumpur showing the seven sub-districts 2

2.1 Concept of the Parabolic Estimation Model (Li and

Hayashi, 1999)

21

2.2 The locations of the cluster (1, 2,5, 2, 3,.5) used

to estimate point 0 by ordinary kriging procedure.

28

2.3 Illustration of random field (Auvinet et al., 2000) 30

3.1 Map of Kuala Lumpur showing the distribution of the

144 locations in the seven sub-districts where boreholes

were carried out

48

3.2 Map of Kuala Lumpur showing the distribution for

classes of depths when SPT Number, N was 50

51

3.3 Map of Kuala Lumpur showing the distribution for

classes of clay thickness

52

3.4 Layout plan for proposed 1824 units public housing on

lot 3254, Bandar Tun Razak Locations for boreholes

55

3.5 Proposed 1824 units public housing on lot 3254, Bandar

Tun Razak Soil profile 1, along cross-section: BH10

BH6 (IKRAM) BH11 BH12

56

3.6 Proposed 1824 units public housing on lot 3254, Bandar

Tun Razak Soil Profile 2, along cross-section: BH5

BH6 BH5 (IKRAM) BH7 (Continuation)

57

3.7 Proposed 1824 units public housing on lot 3254, Bandar

Tun Razak Soil Profile 3, along cross-section: BH13

BH15 BH14 BH 9 (Continuation)

58

3.8 Proposed 1824 units public housing on lot 3254, Bandar

Tun Razak Soil Profile 4, along cross-section: BH4

(IKRAM) BH3 BH4 (Continuation)

59

viii

4.1 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50. 283 samples formed the

data collated for Bandar Kuala Lumpur

69

4.2 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50 for Mukim Kuala Lumpur

70

4.3 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50 for Mukim Petaling

70

4.4 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50 for Mukim Batu

71

4.5 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50 for Mukim Setapak

71

4.6 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50 for Mukim Ampang

72

4.7 Histogram of observed frequencies against depths (m)

when SPT Number, N is 50 for Mukim Cheras

72

4.8 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Bandar Kuala

Lumpur

77, 100

4.9 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Mukim Kuala

Lumpur

77

4.10 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Mukim

Petaling

78

4.11 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Mukim Batu 78

4.12 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Mukim

Setapak

79

4.13 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Mukim

Ampang

79

4.14 Histogram of total clay thickness (m) for Mukim Cheras 80

4.15 Graph of classification for percentage clay thickness in

Bandar Kuala Lumpur

82

4.16 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Bandar Kuala Lumpur

85

ix

4.17 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Kuala Lumpur

86

4.18 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Petaling

86

4.19 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Batu

87

4.20 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Setapak

87

4.21 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Ampang

88

4.22 Histogram of soft clay thickness (m), when SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Cheras

88

4.23 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) when

SPT Number, N 4 for Bandar Kuala Lumpur

92

4.24 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) when

SPT Number, N 4 for Mukim Kuala Lumpur

92

4.25 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) when

SPT Number, N 4 for Mukim Petaling

93

4.26 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) when

SPT Number, N 4 for Mukim Batu

93

4.27 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) for SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Setapak

94

4.28 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) for SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Ampang

94

4.29 Histogram of soft and loose soils thickness (m) for SPT

Number, N 4 for Mukim Cheras

95

4.30 Histogram of total clay thickness in Bandar Kuala

Lumpur used in the study of second option. The

thickness of clay is greater than 0.00 m and less than

22.00 m

102

5.1 Traverse of equally spaced observations, h for the

calculations of semivariance (Davis, 2002)

111

x

5.2 A semivariogram model with sill and range (Davis,

2002)

114

5.3 Spherical model with nugget (Millard and Neerchal,

2001)

115

5.4 Idealized examples of covariance and semivariogram

showing the location of the range (Olea, 1999) a

117

5.5 An illustration to predict a value at unsampled location

(Olea, 1999)

119

5.6 Experimental and Model Variogram used in Kriging 121

5.7 Scatter and contour plot of clay thickness in Bandar

Kuala Lumpur using total 283 samples

131

5.8 Scatter and contour plots of 155 sampled data with clay

thickness only in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

132

5.9 Scatter and contour plots of 53 sampled data with clay

thickness only in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

133

5.10 Scatter plot of clay thickness against no. of boreholes for

the 48 samples in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

134

5.11 Scatter and contour plots of 48 sampled data with clay

thickness only in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

135

5.12 Geometric anisotropy carried out for 48 samples of clay

thickness in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

136

5.13 Empirical variogram for 48 samples clay thickness in

Bandar Kuala Lumpur

137

5.14 A spherical model variogram for 48 sampled data with

clay thickness in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

138

5.15 Surface plot for ordinary kriging predictions for 48

sampled data with clay thickness in Bandar Kuala

Lumpur

138

5.16 Kriging Standard Errors for surface plot using 48

samples with clay thickness in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

139

xi

xii

5.17 Contour plot of ordinary kriging prediction for 48

sampled data with clay thickness in Bandar Kuala

Lumpur

139

5.18 Kriging Standard Errors for contour plot of 48 sampled

data with clay thickness in Bandar Kuala Lumpur

140

5.19 The report of variogram model fitting Spherical

function and ordinary kriging for clay thickness data in

Bandar Kuala Lumpur, as produced by S+SpatialStats

140

LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

1.1 Four soil characteristics chosen 6

2.1 The types and characteristics of earth materials in the

Kuala Lumpur area

17

3.1 Information on the sub-districts and boreholes collected 37

3.2 Approximate correlation of Standard Penetration Number and

consistency of clay ( Teng, W.C., 1974)

44

3.3 Relation between relative density and Standard Penetration

Number (Capper and Cassie, 1975)

44

3.4 The preliminary data taken from S.I. reports on one of the

projects site in Bandar Tun Razak, Mukim Kuala Lumpur

47

3.5 Classes for depths when the Standard Penetration Number, N is

50

49

3.6 Classes for total clay thickness 50

3.7 Classes for total soft clayey soils thickness when SPT Number,

N 4

53

3.8 Classes for total thickness of soft and loose soils when SPT

Number, N 4

53

4.1 Summary of descriptive statistics for sub-soil layers when

SPT Number, N is 50

68

4.2 Summary of hard substrata depths when SPT Number, N is 50,

for various classes in the seven sub-districts

73

4.3 Descriptive statistics of clay thickness in the seven sub-districts 75

4.4 Percentages of sites belonging to various Classes based on clayey

soil thickness and based on depths when SPT Number, N is 50

83

4.5 Descriptive statistics for soft clay thickness when SPT Number,

N 4

85

xiii

4.6 Percentages of sites belonging to various Classes based on soft

clay thickness and based on depths when SPT Number, N is 50

together with the sum of the two soils characteristics

90

4.7 Descriptive statistics for soft and loose soils thickness when SPT

Number, N 4

91

4.8 Percentages of soft and loose soils thickness when SPT Number,

N is less than or equals to 4 and depth when SPT Number, N is

50

96

4.9 Summary of analyses for the soils characteristics by ranking the

seven sub-districts

105

5.1 The cumulated thickness of clay in the 283 borehole logs Appendix A

5.2 The cumulated clay thickness in 155 borehole logs Appendix B

5.3 The cumulated clay thickness for 53 borehole logs in Bandar

Kuala Lumpur

Appendix C

5.4 Clay thickness from 48 sampled data for Bandar Kuala Lumpur Appendix D

5.5 The results of parameters calculated to plot the empirical

variogram. The azimuth used is 0 and azimuth tolerance is 90

degrees

Appendix E

5.6 The parameters of boreholes with known clay thickness and

predicted borehole no. 66

144,

Appendix F

5.7 Samples clay used as cross validation in the ordinary kriging

prediction

150

5.8 Results of interpolation at 5 unvisited sites using ordinary kriging

technique

150

6.1 Summary of mean values of the four soils characteristics in the

various sub-districts

153

6.2 Percentages of sites belonging to various Classes based on the 4

soils characteristics

154-155

6.3 The mean depths of penetration when SPT Number, N is 50 and

the rank for the seven sub-districts

156

6.4 The ranks of sub-districts in the different classes based on depths

when SPT, N is 50

158

xiv

xv

6.5 The percentages sum of Class 3 and Class 4 for depths when SPT

Number, N is 50 and the sub-districts are also ranked

159

6.6 Mean clay thickness. The sub-districts are ranked from the lowest

to the highest mean

159

6.7 The ranks of sub-districts in the different classes based on total

clay thickness

161

6.8 Mean thickness of soft clay when SPT Number, N is less than or

equals to 4. The sub-districts are ranked from the lowest to the

highest

162

6.9 The ranks of sub-districts in the different classes based on soft

clay thickness when SPT Number, N is less than or equals to 4

163

6.10 Mean thickness of soft and loose soils when SPT Number, N is

less than or equals to 4 for various sub-districts

164

6.11 The ranks of sub-districts in the different classes based on soft

and loose soils thickness when SPT Number, N is less than or

equals to 4

166

xvi

LIST OF PLATES

Plate Title Page

3.1 The general site condition in Kampong Limau/

Kampong Selamat, Jalan Pantai, Kuala Lumpur before

S.I. work was carried out

41

3.2 Two drilling rigs used for the soil exploration work at

Kampong Limau/ Kampong Selamat, Jalan Pantai

Dalam, Kuala Lumpur

42

3.3 The Standard Penetration Test was in progress at the

Kampong Limau/ Kampong Selamat, Jalan Pantai

Dalam, Kuala Lumpur

43

3.4 Standard Penetration Test sample obtained from the split

spoon sampler

43

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Symbols and abbreviations Explanation

a The range in a variogram model

a The practical range in a variogram model equals 2/3 a

C The autocovariance function to test data for spatial

correlation

C The sill in variogram models, denoted by C=

1 0

C C +

0

C The nugget effect in a variogram model

ij

C C C , ,

02 02

The covariance between two points

h

C The autocovariance function for values of lag interval

h

CV The Coefficient of Variation

i

E The expected frequency in the class interval

th

i

n i

f f f f f ... ..., , ,

3 2 1

The frequency of observations

0

H The null hypothesis

1

H The alternative hypothesis

th

i ith class interval

K The kurtosis measure

k The number of class intervals

e

M The median of a set of observations

2 1 0

, , m m m The means of the soil properties

N, n The size of sample

n-h The number of comparisons between pairs of points

xvii

i

O The observed frequency in the class ith

p The number of parameters

p-value The probability value

P

R

The given domain (p=1,2 or 3)

) (

i

u R A random part

s The sample standard deviation

2

s

The sample variance

k

s The skewness

S.I. Site investigation

SPT Number, N Standard Penetration Number

) ( ), (

2 1

x s x s

v v

The standard deviations of variables respectively

2 1

, x x

u

i

) , (

j i i

y x u The location coordinates vector

V(X) A geotechnical variable

2 1 0

, , Var Var Var The variances

) (u W The random variable with location coordinates vector,

w The soil property

) (

i

u w Soil property at location u

) (

0

u w Soil property at unknown location, 0

) (

0

u w An estimator of ) (

0

u w

x The sample mean

grp

x Grouped mean

n

x x x x ,..., , ,

3 2 1

The variables

xviii

) ( ),..., ( ), ( w Z y Z x Z Observed values at locations x, y and z respectively

The spacing /distance between observations

h The distance vector between any two points

) ( h The stationary autocorrelation function of soil

properties

) ( h The semivariogram

) (

2

X

The variance at point X

2

) (

E

The square error of the estimator

Ground space as a random field of W ) (u

2 1

, The weights of soil properties at locations 1 and 2

respectively

Lagrange multiplier/ parameter

) (x

v

Mean of a variable V(X)

2

0

A chi-square goodness-of-fit test

2

1 , p k

The experimental chi-square statistic

The level of significance

xix

ABSTRACT

Data from a total of 889 boreholes from 144 locations in the Federal Territory of

Kuala Lumpur were collected and a database was set up. Most of these borehole logs

were taken from site investigation (S.I.) reports of the Department of Architects and

Special Projects, City Hall Kuala Lumpur and 12 records for Mukim Cheras were

sourced from Kumpulan IKRAM Sdn Bhd., Malaysia. For this research, four site

characteristics were recorded for each borehole log. These characteristics are basic

and play important roles in determining the quality of each site. The first

characteristic was the depth when an achieved value of Standard Penetration Test

(SPT), N is 50. The second was the total thickness of clay in each borehole. The third

was the total soft clay thickness in the borehole portion where SPT Number, N is less

than or equals to 4. The fourth characteristic was the total thickness of soft and loose

soils, other than the soft clay, in the borehole portion where SPT Number, N is less

than or equals to 4. The four characteristics were assessed in the comparative study

of the subsurface soils of the seven sub-districts in Kuala Lumpur. Sites were

grouped based on the characteristics so that a generalization could be attempted to

describe the quality of ground at locations within Kuala Lumpur. The variability of

the substrata soils from one place to another was also studied. Based on depths when

SPT count of N equals to 50, four classes of sites were appointed. Based on the total

thickness of clayey soil in each borehole, five classes of sites were appointed. Based

on the total thickness of soft clayey soil in each borehole, five classes of sites were

also appointed. Based on the total thickness of soft and loose soils in each borehole,

another five classes of sites were appointed. The data collected for this work were

xx

xxi

analysed in three stages. First, a descriptive statistics was carried out on the data.

Second, the clay thickness data were tested if they fit a normal form of distribution

by using the chi-square goodness-of-fit test. Finally, the ordinary kriging technique

was used to predict the clay thickness at unvisited locations. The second and third

analyses were carried out as case studies involving clay thickness for Bandar Kuala

Lumpur. In terms of thickness of clayey soils, the highest percentage was found in

Mukim Batu and the lowest percentage was in Mukim Petaling. Based on the results

of analyses on the characteristics, the soils in Mukim Batu were found as relatively

unfavorable to work with because they had the most amounts of clayey and soft-

loose soils. In similar consideration, the three best areas to work with were Mukim

Petaling, Bandar Kuala Lumpur and Mukim Ampang. In the case study, the clay

thicknesses of all 283 samples in Bandar Kuala Lumpur fitted the log-normal

distribution. After eliminating the zero-clay data and outlier data i.e. those with more

than 22.0 m of clay, the data of the remaining 152 samples fitted the normal

distribution. The probability of clay thickness being 2.0 m in a borehole in Bandar

Kuala Lumpur is 0.26. In the other case study, statistical analyses involving ordinary

kriging was attempted to estimate the clay thickness at five locations in Bandar

Kuala Lumpur. The result was that four out of five predictions were as accurate as

the actual clay thickness. The overall product of the study is a procedure of analyzing

S.I. data for an area when the amount of data is sufficient.

ANALISIS PENGELASAN TAPAK BAGI

TUJUAN PENILAIAN TANAH KUALA LUMPUR

ABSTRAK

Data 889 lubang gerek daripada 144 lokasi di sekitar Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala

Lumpur telah dikumpulkan dan satu pengkalan data telah dibangunkan.

Kebanyakkan rekod lubang-lubang gerek diperolehi daripada lapuran penyelidikan

tapak di Jabatan Arkitek dan Projek Khas, Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur

manakala 12 rekod bagi Mukim Cheras diperolehi daripada Kumpulan IKRAM Sdn.

Bhd., Malaysia. Dari penyelidikan ini, empat ciri tapak telah direkodkan dari setiap

lubang gerek. Ciri-ciri tersebut adalah perkara asas dan memainkan peranan yang

penting bagi menentukan kualiti sub-stratum tanah disetiap tapak. Ciri pertama ialah

kedalaman apabila nilai Ujian Penusukan Piawai (SPT), N mencapai 50. Ciri kedua

ialah jumlah ketebalan tanah liat di dalam setiap lubang gerek. Ketiga ialah jumlah

ketebalan tanah liat lembut di dalam lubang gerek apabila Nombor SPT, N kurang

atau sama dengan 4. Akhir sekali ciri keempat, jumlah ketebalan tanah lembut dan

longgar, selain dari tanah liat lembut, di dalam lubang gerek apabila Nombor SPT,

N kurang atau sama dengan 4. Empat ciri tersebut telah dianalisa bagi melaksanakan

kajian perbandingan sub-stratum tanah di dalam tujuh mukim di Kuala Lumpur.

Tapak-tapak dibahagikan kepada kumpulan berdasarkan ciri-ciri tersebut bagi

menerangkan kualiti tanah dan keberubahan substratum tanah dari satu tempat ke

xxii

tempat yang lain juga dikaji. Berdasarkan kedalaman apabila Nombor SPT, N

mencapai 50, empat kelas tapak telah ditentukan. Berdasarkan jumlah ketebalan

tanah liat di dalam setiap lubang gerek, lima kelas tapak telah dinamakan.

Berdasarkan jumlah ketebalan tanah liat lembut di dalam lubang gerek, lima kelas

telah juga ditentukan. Berdasarkan jumlah ketebalan tanah lembut dan tanah longgar

di dalam lubang gerek, lima kelas tapak yang lain telah ditentukan. Data terkumpul

telah dianalisa di dalam tiga peringkat dengan menggunakan kaedah statistik.

Pertama, statistik perihalan dilaksanakan keatas data. Kedua, data ketebalan tanah

liat diuji sama ada sesuai dengan bentuk taburan normal menggunakan ujian

kebagusan penyuaian khi-kuasa dua. Ketiga, teknik penganggaran krige biasa telah

diguna untuk meramal ketebalan tanah liat di lokasi tidak dilawati. Peringkat kedua

dan ketiga dilaksanakan secara kajian kes melibatkan data ketebalan tanah liat di

Bandar Kuala Lumpur. Mukim Batu mempunyai peratus ketebalan tanah liat yang

tertinggi sementara peratus terendah ialah di Mukim Petaling. Berdasarkan

keputusan analisa ciri-ciri keadaan tanah, secara relatifnya didapati Mukim Batu

mengandungi amaun tertinggi tanah liat, tanah lembut dan tanah longgar. Oleh itu

perlaksanaan kerja-kerja di kawasan ini boleh dikatakan sukar. Di dalam pemerhatian

yang sama tiga kawasan terbaik dari segi perlaksanaan kerja geoteknik ialah Bandar

Kuala Lumpur, Mukim Petaling dan Mukim Ampang. Kajian kes keatas 283 sampel

ketebalan tanah liat di Kuala Lumpur mendapati bahawa data sesuai diterangkan

dalam bentuk taburan log-normal. Tetapi setelah mengeluarkan data tiada tanah liat

dan data terpinggir iaitu yang mempunyai lebih daripada 22.0 m tanah liat bagi setiap

lubang gerek, data baki 152 sampel sesuai diterangkan dalam bentuk taburan normal.

Keberangkalian wujudnya tanah liat setebal 2.0 m bagi sesuatu lokasi di Bandar

xxiii

xxiv

Kuala Lumpur ialah 0.26. Kajian kes terakhir melibatkan analisis statistik

menggunakan krige biasa untuk menganggar ketebalan tanah liat dilima lokasi di

Bandar Kuala Lumpur. Keputusan menunjukkan empat daripada lima ramalan telah

menepati ketebalan tanah liat yang sebenarnya. Keseluruhan kajian ini telah

menghasilkan satu produk di dalam bentuk kaedah menganalisa data S.I.bagi sesuatu

kawasan dengan menggunakan data yang mencukupi.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 DEVELOPMENT IN KUALA LUMPUR

The Federal territory of Kuala Lumpur is 243 km in area and is subdivided

geographically into seven sub-districts namely Bandar Kuala Lumpur, Mukim Kuala

Lumpur, Mukim Setapak, Mukim Batu, Mukim Ampang, Mukim Petaling and

Mukim Cheras. From here onwards, Federal Territory Kuala Lumpur will always be

referred to as Kuala Lumpur only. Figure 1.1 is a map of Kuala Lumpur that shows

the seven sub-districts. The research is focused towards Kuala Lumpur because of its

social and economic importance. The development in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur is

very rapid and diversified. The construction activities in Kuala Lumpur range from

the modest to mega projects. Examples of buildings built are multipurpose halls in

Kepong, public housing in Pantai Dalam and the magnificent Twin Towers of Kuala

Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) in Ampang. There are two main Light Rail Transit

(LRT); the STAR is running two lines, from Ampang to Sentul Utara and Ampang to

Sri Petaling and the PUTRA line, runs from Gombak to Subang. There is also the

Express Rail Links (ERL) spanning from KL-Sentral at Jalan Brickfield to the Kuala

Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in Sepang. The elevated highways in Ampang

and Cheras, the tunnels under Jalan Ampang and Jalan Tun Razak and the conceptual

Linear City, which is put on hold its implementation for the time being, are the recent

engineering constructions and proposal in Kuala Lumpur.

2

1

..

l

:

_

..l

.

.

:

.

.

:

l

.

.l

.

.:

._

.

.

._

.

:

l

l

.._

.

.:

..

...

:

.l

._

:

.

:.

.

..

.

.

..

_

:l

..

ll

l

.

._

:

l

l.

:_

__

_

..

._

::

:

.:

..

_

.

.

.l

_

_

:

_

l

_

.

_:

_

l

_l

_.

.

.

._ .

..

.

.

.:

.

l

.

.l

_

l

_

l:

l

l_

.

.

Figure 1.1 : Map of Kuala Lumpur showing the seven sub-districts

2

The e-knowledge and e-economy drives the engineering development in Kuala

Lumpur to be parallel with the progress of Information and Communication

Technology (ICT) age. The practice of handling soil information as hard copies is

laborious, needs a lot of storage space and not readily retrieved. Database of soil

information should be neat, presentable and can be retrieved faster. At present,

Kumpulan IKRAM Sdn. Bhd. is known as the largest site investigation contractor in

Malaysia (Mahmud et al., 2002), has generated tremendous amount of information

and data on soil and rock profile from the states of Malaysia. They are actively

developing a system to provide soil and rock profile database for boreholes

information and geotechnical site investigation works. The system, upon completion,

will be a major source of preliminary geotechnical design parameter for any specific

location in Malaysia. Thus, this research is conceptually similar in nature to

Kumpulan IKRAM Sdn. Bhd. and it is going to be a contribution towards developing

database for the Kuala Lumpur City Hall and in future for the Klang Valley.

1.1 SITE INVESTIGATION

Soils are unique engineering material and form the basic elements of the earth

besides water and voids. Researches and studies are carried out to know about the

soils early formation, their physical properties (i.e., texture, grain size), mechanical

properties (i.e., shear strength), their behaviors and capabilities to withstand

structures built upon and with them. The findings are collated, accumulated and

served as materials of reference to planning and designing engineers, academicians,

developers and contractors. By definitions, soil, in an engineering sense, is the

3

relatively loose agglomerate of mineral and organic materials and sediments found

above the bedrock. On the other hand, soils, to a geologist are just decomposed and

disintegrated rocks generally found in the very thin upper part of the crust. Whatever

are the definitions for the soils, the ultimate aim is to have the right information that

can be applied for safe and economical plan, design and construction.

Quite often, a new project insists on prescribing a fresh site investigation even when

the area is already occupied by developments. Usually, it will be quite cumbersome

for the new developer to gain access to soil investigation documents due to poor data

management and lack of geotechnical engineering assessment for the whole locality.

Moreover, the common practice is to assume the foundation for that particular site as

different to those surrounding it and therefore a fresh soil investigation is warranted.

Quite frequently, however, soil investigation records are held by the same

organization such as the city council or a large consultant firm, (Mansor et al., 2001).

Usually a site investigation carries out drilling of boreholes to obtain soil samples

and to note the blow counts of the hammer when it drops onto each layer of soils.

From the borehole logs the soil characteristics such as hard strata depths, thickness of

clay and thickness of other soft soils are taken as raw data for the purpose of this

research. There are no new boreholes required on the sites since the number of data

collected is 889 altogether and is sufficient to carry out the analysis.

It is noticed that all the locations of the boreholes were not stated in terms of

coordinates on the plan when soil investigation works were carried out on the sites.

4

Usually the locations of boreholes were determined by measuring distances on the

plan and then transferred it to the ground by referring to certain landmarks.

1.2 SITE CLASSIFICATION

A soil classification system represents, a language of communication between

engineers. It provides a systematic method of categorizing soils according to their

probable engineering behaviors, and allows engineers access to the accumulated

experience of other engineers. A classification system does not eliminate the need for

detailed soils investigations or for testing the engineering properties. Thus, by

knowing the soil classification, the engineer has a good general idea of the way the

soil will behave in engineering situation, during construction and under structural

loads. Today, the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and the American

Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) system are

commonly used in civil engineering practice (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981). In this thesis,

as sites are the one classified and are not really the soils, the title of this section could

not be more aptly named as site classification instead of soils classification.

However, the sites are classified based on the presence of some particular types of

soils; the determination of these types of soils can only be performed using the

established soil classification system.

For a start, four basic soils characteristics are selected for this work. They are as

shown in Table 1.1 below.

5

Table 1.1 : Four soil characteristics chosen

Soil characteristics

Criteria

1 Depths when the value of SPT Number, N is 50

2 Total thickness of clay in each borehole

3 Soft clay thickness when SPT Number, N 4

4 Soft and loose soil when SPT Number, N 4

(This is other than soft clay)

These soils characteristics are the important criteria when making estimation for

depths of shallow foundations, depths of driven piles and also whether a site needs to

use ground improvement techniques to rehabilitate its soils.

It is to be noted here, that the clay is taken in this context as a broad category. Soils

are generalized as clay when they are termed as sandy clay or silty clay. However,

soils, whereby clay is minor such as clayey sand and clayey silt, they are not

categorized as clay but sand and silt respectively.

Firstly, the data of the four soils characteristics in the seven sub-districts were

analysed as descriptive statistics. Towards the middle part of the work, the analyses

involving advanced probability and prediction used only clay data in the sub-district,

Bandar Kuala Lumpur.

1.3 SITE ASSESSMENT

The geotechnical input for development generally can be categorized into four

important stages. The stages are planning, analysis, construction and maintenance.

Site assessment is at the planning development stage which has four major sections;

6

desk study, site reconnaissance, subsurface investigation and planning layout. The

desk study includes reviewing geological maps, memoirs, topographic maps and

aerial photographs of the site and the adjacent areas so that engineers are aware of

the geology of the site, geomorphology features, previous and present land use,

current development, construction activities and problem areas like slope failure. The

desk study is usually followed by site reconnaissance. This is required to confirm the

information acquired, and also to obtain additional information from the site. Signs

such as the type of vegetation and the stability of the buildings on the particular site,

contribute in making inference about the soil types. In carrying out site assessment,

subsurface investigation for a development usually is carried out on two or more

stages. Preliminary subsurface investigation consists of boreholes and geophysical

survey. The field tests are carried out with the intention to obtain the overall

subsurface condition like general depth of soft soil, hard stratum, thickness of clay

and the SPT Number, N values. The general information on the subsurface profile

and properties will be useful when planning the cut and fill and formation of the

platform because the depths of the hard stratum and bedrock will have major

influence on the cost and construction time for earthworks (Gue and Tan, 2002). The

detailed subsurface investigation should be carried out during the process of detailed

geotechnical designs. The ground information obtained during construction is also

essential for the maintenance of the structures and construction of nearby buildings.

The findings of this work are very useful especially at the preliminary planning stage

when desk studies, preliminary designs, estimation of cost and duration of

construction are being worked out.

7

1.4 GEOTECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT IN KUALA LUMPUR

Before building plan is approved and construction takes place on site, Kuala Lumpur

City Hall, under its Planning and Building Control Department imposed that the

development requires an independent geotechnical audit to be undertaken. The

imposition is especially for some of these types of development:

i) The buildings within the development are greater than five storey

ii) The slopes surrounding the buildings are more than 21 degrees to horizontal

direction, and

iii) The height of the slopes is more than 3.0 meters.

Besides the requirements by the local authority, problematic lands such as ex-mining

areas, dumping sites and wetland areas need careful studies before building on them.

1.5 THE PRACTICE IN KUALA LUMPUR CITY HALL

The Kuala Lumpur City Hall is one of the local authorities in Malaysia but at the

same time a developer cum implementer of projects. The projects are developed to

give the best facilities and services to the people. Examples of infrastructure projects

are laying efficient drainage system to mitigate the flash floods and excess water

runoff, construction of roads, bridges, elevated highways and pedestrian walkways

and creating gardens inclusive of recreation centers. The superstructure projects are

public housing, multi purpose halls, markets, sports complexes, mosques and

schools. For each of these projects, there is a soils report submitted by appointed

contractors upon completion of investigation works at the sites. The time taken to

8

produce a soil report for a contract of work to carry out more than three boreholes

was two months. The soil information forms a section in the projects proposal

report, which was tabled to the top management for approval. Reliable geotechnical

database with classification system will be a great help to speed the planning stage

and thus complete a project as scheduled.

1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The objectives of this research are the following:

1. The main objective of this research is to establish a geotechnical database for

Kuala Lumpur City Hall as had been set up in the Institute of Lowland Technology,

Saga University, Saga Plain, Japan (Li and Hayashi, 1999), Geo-Database for Kansai

area, Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto, Japan (Mimura et al., 2002), and Comprehensive

Ground Information System, Hong Kong (Lam, 2002). This work is also aimed

towards setting up Kuala Lumpur geotechnical database.

2. To compile the basic and simple information on soils characteristics in Kuala

Lumpur areas, to classify and to analyze them for inferences.

3. To explore the underlying subsoil strata of Kuala Lumpur for the quantity of

existence of each of these soil characteristics, that is, hard soil substrata when SPT

Number, N is 50, total thickness of clayey soils, total thickness of soft clay when

SPT Number, N is less than or equals to 4 and finally other soft and loose soils

thickness when SPT Number, N is less than or equals to 4. Presently, there is no

9

documented information in this format on these four characteristics for Kuala

Lumpur.

4. To make a generalization about the sites classification in Kuala Lumpur based

on the chosen soils characteristics. Thus the profiles of the sub-strata in various

locations can be outlined.

5. To obtain the form of distribution for data samples of clay thickness in Bandar

Kuala Lumpur. The probability of clay occurrence could be calculated using the

mean and standard deviation of the normally distributed data.

6. To predict the thickness of clay at unvisited locations by interpolation technique

called ordinary kriging.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

The data are collected and collated. Analyses are carried out in three main stages as

below:

1. The first stage is to analyze statistically the data from every sub-district and for

all soils characteristics. The computer softwares such as Microsoft Excel and SPSS

assisted in the tabulation of data and analyzing them.

10

2. To find out the forms of distribution that fit the clay thickness data using the chi-

square goodness-of-fit test and then to calculate the probability of clay thickness

occurrence.

3. To use ordinary kriging technique to predict the thickness of clay at unvisited

locations. A model variogram that fitted samples data has to be produced in order to

get the necessary parameters, which are useful to calculate the semivariance and

covariance values. The parameters are the range, sill and nugget. Then the values of

weights for the estimator are applied to predict a sample at unvisited location.

Computer softwares are used to assist in the calculations.

The second and third stages of the research are carried out as case studies and the

data used is clay thickness from Bandar Kuala Lumpur.

1.8 APPROACH OF THE RESEARCH

The work in this research are analytical and not field intensive exercise. Statistical

methods are applied to the soil characteristics data as to obtain the descriptions of the

soils geometric properties. Altogether there are 889 borehole logs from 144 sites in

Kuala Lumpur and collection of extra, new data are not necessary to be carried out.

All of these S.I. reports are reorganized and sorted into the existing sub-districts in

the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. The sub-districts are in accordance to the

11

geographical classification of Kuala Lumpur as used by the Department of Planning,

Kuala Lumpur City Hall.

1.9 THE SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTERS IN THE THESIS

Chapter 1, as an introduction, described the development in the metropolitan Kuala

Lumpur. It also described the roles of the Kuala Lumpur City Hall in controlling

constructions on slopes and problem grounds. The general idea about the objectives,

scope and the approach of the thesis are highlighted too.

Chapter 2 discussed the literature review. Three journals were used as the main

references. They are on the urban geology, geostatistical and spatial data, kriging

technique and its application. There are also journals of equal importance that

discussed similar interests and topics, which were utilized as references.

Chapter 3 is about the collection of data and how the data were organized. The

source from where the data comes from was also mentioned. The process started by

grouping the data into the respective seven sub-districts, choosing four basic soils

characteristics and categorizing them into classes.

Chapter 4 is on the analysis of data by statistical methods on the soil characteristics.

Computer software, SPSS was used extensively to calculate the descriptive statistics

and to plot histograms. Results of findings in every sub-district were discussed in

detail.

12

13

Chapter 5 concentrated on the Geostatistical method of interpolation using semi-

variograms, covariograms and interpolation by ordinary kriging to predict the clay

thickness at unvisited locations. As a case study, data of clay thickness in Bandar

Kuala Lumpur were chosen.

Chapter 6 summarized and discussed the results of the work that had been carried

out. Lastly, conclusions on the research were made. For future work and references,

some recommendations and comments were noted down.

The next chapter will be the literature reviews of three main journals that generate

initial ideas for this research to be made possible. The discussion concentrates more

on the topics that are related and to be applied to this work.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Three main topics are the main reference to develop this thesis. First, is the City of

Kuala Lumpur as the focus because of its nature as the business hub and center of

developments in Malaysia. The wealth of soil information available is to be

managed, analyzed and the information kept for future references. Second, the

importance of site exploration and the site investigation reports. Third, is to analyze

the data and to document the results, which in turn will form part of the geotechnical

database for Kuala Lumpur. The use of statistical methods and geostatistical

techniques for interpreting results of soil exploration, give confidence to engineers

and others to apply the data in the future works.

Kuala Lumpur is the area of interest because it has been developing rapidly since the

last decade. It is the socio-economic and cultural centers of Malaysia. Thus, here is

the place where most of the first happenings evolve. The area in Kuala Lumpur is

divided into the good and the poor grounds. From the early days, usually the

good grounds attract the establishment of settlement. Similarly, Kuala Lumpur

developed on the good grounds and the poor grounds were left untouched. This

notion has to be pushed aside because there are increasing economic development

over soft ground areas (Ting et al., 1988). The poor grounds have to be ventured and

14

encroached. Development on poor ground is a challenge since there are more

problems to solve and thus there are always new technologies that will be learnt and

applied. The learning process starts when there are problems and accumulated

knowledge plus valuable experiences are compiled, shared and improved.

Site investigation is the basic need to any project. Failure to carry out site

investigation will incur big losses during construction. Carrying out the proper and

appropriately accurate site investigation is important because the results govern the

assumptions in producing reliable and safe designs.

As observed when collecting and recording the boreholes from the S.I. reports, Kuala

Lumpur City Hall has been carrying out site investigation since 1970s onwards. The

records are kept in hard copies and are not easily retrieved especially those reports of

more than ten years old. The advancement in computerization will enable the

database of soil information to be set up.

When setting up the geotechnical database system, the soils information must be

managed and organized properly. The data kept as soft copies must be safely stored

for easy retrievals. The database has to be updated consistently so that the soils

information is always developed and expanded. Statistical methods and geostatistical

techniques are the tools for analyzing the soils characteristics that add to the existing

database.

15

2.1 URBAN GEOLOGY

Tan and Komoo (1990) described urban geology as the study that concerns the

application of geology to urban centers, urban development and planning. They

discussed in detail about this subject and focused on Kuala Lumpur as the location of

case study. Kuala Lumpur provides an ideal case study of urban geology in view of

its rapid development within the past two decades. There are many construction

projects such as high-rise buildings; housing development schemes and highways

that also provide many case histories of engineering geological problems that are

encountered. The various engineering geological problems are studied and published

so that the experiences and such information are useful to the construction engineers

who can use it for the planning of construction works.

2.1.1 Geologic maps

The General geology of Kuala Lumpur area has been well documented by Gobbett

(1964) and Yin (1976). It shows the bedrock geologic map of Kuala Lumpur areas,

which indicated that the heart of Kuala Lumpur is formed of Kenny Hill formation.

The areas bounded by Salak South, Pudu, Jinjang, Batu Caves, Ulu Klang and

Ampang are made of Kuala Lumpur limestone, the Sentul and Setapak areas together

with Cheras areas showed granite formation and the Hawthornden Schist formed in

the Ulu Klang areas. However this map has its limitations because it does not show

the surficial or the soil deposits such as alluvial deposits, mine tailings and residual

soils.

16

An engineering geological map, which shows the characteristics of earth materials

(soils and rocks) in the Kuala Lumpur area listed nine different material types as

follows:

Table 2.1: The types and characteristics of earth materials in the Kuala Lumpur area

TYPES CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH MATERIALS

1 moderately weathered to fresh quartz veins

2 the moderately to highly weathered metasediments

3 the moderately to slightly weathered schist

4 the moderately weathered to fresh limestone

5 the sand and clay (river alluvium)

6 the clayey or silty sand

7 the sandy clay

8 the clay to silty clay

9 the sandy silty clay

There is a relative slope stability map of Kuala Lumpur that categorizes four-slope

stability. Firstly, the unstable, secondly, the stable, the third is the generally stable

and fourth is marginally stable to unstable. The maps can guide the planner and

engineer to plan on favorable and stable sites. If they are forced to carry out projects

on unfavorable sites, they are already forewarned of possible problems to be

anticipated.

2.1.2 Problematic soils

Soil deposits in Kuala Lumpur area consist of alluvial deposits, mine tailings, man-

made fills, organic mud and peat, and residual soils of the various rock formations.

The main concerns are the soft soils such as mining slimes, municipal wastes and the

very weak collapsed zone above the limestone bedrock.

17

2.1.3 Foundations associated with problematic soils

Studies had been carried out to use suitable types of foundations for the different

types of soils. For instance, foundations in limestone have been of greatest concern.

The problems of foundations in limestone are namely the highly pinnacled roofs over

cavities, boulders embedded in soils, overhangs and cliffs, sinkholes and weak

collapsed zone above the limestone bedrock.

The Kenny Hill formation occurs as outcropping low-lying hills as well as bedrock

and also often encountered in foundation works. The Hawthornden and Dinding

schists occur as isolated hills north of Kuala Lumpur and are related to slope and

hillside development works through shallow foundations such as along Jalan Ulu

Kelang. Granite occurs in Cheras area, Damansara Utama, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail

and Kepong. It is mainly concerned with hillside development and slope problems.

In Setapak granite occurs as a stock extending to greater depths below ground level

and plays important role in deep foundation works.

2.2 GEOTECHNICAL DATABASE FOR MODELLING SPATIAL

VARIABILITY OF SOIL PROPERTIES

2.2.1 Introduction

Site exploration gives important information about the ground profile and important

soil properties. The accuracy of such information, however, depends upon the

18

number of sample, the quality of test data and the location of sample. If the

information from such exploration is limited and there is a need to estimate the

ground information or the soil properties at unsampled location, one may ask how

reliable is the estimate to meet the safety requirement in the design. By carrying out

additional exploration or increasing the number of samples, it can reduce uncertainty

due to spatial variability of soil properties. Sometimes, the information collected is

redundant and become wasteful. Thus, it is important to choose an optimum

exploration spacing that gives the best estimate of the ground profile and the soil

properties considering overall aspects of safety and economy.

Although the ground thickness or engineering soil properties at unsampled location

on the ground can be directly estimated from neighboring boreholes either by

interpolation or geotechnical judgments, the estimation errors cannot be determined

in such deterministic procedures. The predictive geostatistical procedures, such as

ordinary and universal kriging based on the theory of regionalized variables

(Matheron, 1971) are best suited for this purpose; not only that they give better

interpolation than deterministic methods but also evaluate estimation errors for such

interpolations. Kriging is a collection of generalized linear regression techniques for

minimizing an estimation error obtained from a priori model for a covariance

(Journel and Huijbregts, 1978; and Deutsch and Journel, 1998). Although kriging

was initially introduced to provide estimates for unsampled values (Krige, 1951; and

Matheron, 1971), it is being used increasingly to build probabilistic models of

uncertainty about these unknown values (Journel, 1989).

19

Based on the kriging principle mentioned above, Li and Hayashi (1999) presented a

simple probabilistic model that evaluated unknown value and estimation error of soil

properties at unsampled location in the ground. This model was capable to evaluate

the borehole spacing. However, the model required statistical parameters, namely, a

correlation distance and variance of soil properties as important data input. The

geotechnical database system for Saga Plain, Japan provided the parameters needed.

Finally, the exploration spacing for different values of estimation error was

suggested for site investigation.

2.2.2 Probabilistic estimation model

Predictive geostatistics characterize any unsampled value of soil property as a

random variable W and its probability distribution (mean and standard deviation) is

usually location-dependent (Webster and Burgess, 1983): hence this variable is

denoted as W ( u ) where is a location coordinates vector.

w

u

Figure 2.1 shows the ground space as a random field of W ( ). is a

random variable of soil property. and are soil data at boreholes,

locations 1 and 2 and the soil properties are known. The interpolated data and

its estimation error are required at the unsampled location 0.

u ) (

i

u W

) (

0

u w

) (

1

u w ) (

2

u w

20

)

02

(

2

u w

) (

0

u w h

2

y

0

12 h ) (

1

u w

1

01

h

x

Legend:

1,2 Sampled locations

0 Unsampled location

) (u

) (

i

u W

) ,

j i

y

) (

i

u w

i

) (

1

u w ) (

1

u w

Ground space as a random field of W

Soil property as a random variable

(

i

x u Location coordinates vector

Soil property at location u

An estimator of

Figure 2.1 : Concept of the Parabolic Estimation Model (Li and Hayashi, 1999)

Let ) (

0

u w

)

to be an estimate of , which can be modeled as a linear combination

of and as follows (Krige, 1951; and Matheron, 1971):

) (

0

u w

) (

1

u w ) (

2

u w

) (

0

u w

)

= ) ( ) (

2 2 1 1

u w u w + (2.1)

where

1

and

2

are the weights to be determined.

21

From Equation (2.1), the expectation E ( )) (

0

u w

)

of ) (

0

u w

)

, can be derived as follows:

E( ) (

0

u w

)

) =

0 2 2 1 1

m m m = + (2.2)

Where, , and are the means of , and , respectively.

0

m

1

m

2

m ) (

0

u w ) (

1

u w ) (

2

u w

Let us separate the random variable ( =0,1,2) into a random part of

zero mean and a trend part , and by virtue of Equation (2.2), the square error

of the estimator

) (

i

u w i ) (

i

u R

) (

i

u m

2

E

) (

0

u w

)

can be obtained as follows:

From Equation (2.2),

E ( )) (

0

u w

)

=

0 2 2 1 1

m m m = +

2

E

= E{[ - ) ) (

0

u w (

0

u w

)

] } (2.3)

2

= E{[ (2.4) } )] (

) (

2

0 0

u R u R

= E[ ] (2.5) ) (

[ )] (

) ( [ 2 )] (

0

2

0 0 0

2

u R E u R u R E u R +

= (2.6)

2

2

2 12 2 1 1

2

1 02 2 01 1 0

2 2 2 Var C Var C C Var + + +

where is covariance of and ( i

ij

C ) (

i

u R ) (

j

u R , j = i 0,1,2; = j 0,1,2).

i

Var is variance of ( ) (

i

u R = i 0,1,2 ).

From Equation (2.2) and Equations (2.3-2.6), a new function F is obtained using

Lagrange parameter , as follows:

F = -

2

E

(

0 2 2 1 1

m m m + ) (2.7)

The parameter

1

,

2

, , and

0

m may be obtained by minimizing in

2

E

22

0 2 2 2

1 01 12 2 1 1

1

= + =

m C C Var

F

(2.8)

0 2 2 2

2 02 2 2 12 1

2

= + =

m C Var C

F

(2.9)

0 /

0

= = m F (2.10)

0 /

0 2 2 1 1

= + = m m m F (2.11)

Thus, from Equations (2.8 - 2.11), the authors derived the values of

1

and

2

represented by the variance and auto correlation function as follows:

1

= ) /( ) (

2

12 2 1 12 02 2 01

C Var Var C C Var C

= )] 1 /( ) )[( (

2

12 12 02 01 1 0

Var Var (2.12)

2

= )] 1 /( ) [( ) / ( ) /( ) (

2

12 12 1 0 2 0 2 0

2

12 2 1 12 1 0 1 02

= Var Var C Var Var C C Var C

(2.13)

where

ij

is the auto correlation function between points i and j

(

ij

= )) ( /

j i ij

Var Var C

Substituting back

1

and

2

into Equation (2.6), the minimized square error is

obtained, as follows:

)} /( ) 2 {(

2

12 2 1 12 02 01 2

2

01 1

2

02 0

2

C Var Var C C C Var C Var C Var

E

+ = (2.14)

Which may be written as:

)]} 1 /( ) 2 [( 1 {

2

12 12 02 01

2

02

2

01 0

2

+ = Var

E

(2.15)

The term stationarity is often used to describe assumptions under which inference is

performed. Most of the techniques such as kriging used for estimating spatial

correlation require the data to be stationary. This requires that the mean of the

23

variable not to change over the region of interest. Also, there is stationarity of

variance; that is, the variance of the function is constant over the region of interest.

Since no assumption has been made, so far, on stationarity for auto correlation

function while deriving the above equations, it follows that Equations (2.14) and

(2.15) can be applied to non-stationary space such as, for example in case where the

correlation function are location-dependent.

Previous studies (Alonso and Krizek, 1975; Matsuo and Asaoka, 1977; Vanmarcke,

1977; Tang, 1979; and Bergado, 1994) have shown that empirical autocorrelation

function of soil properties usually can be idealized by using an exponential decay

function of the form given below:

m

a h h ) / ( exp[ ) ( = ] (2.16)

where, ) ( h is a stationary autocorrelation function of soil properties,

) ( h is a distance vector between any two points, and m and a are decay

parameters.

Taking advantage of the stationary form of ) ( h in Equation (2.16), and

substituting it into Equation (2.15), another form of the minimized square error

is obtained as follows:

2

E

0

2

A n A n nA A Var

E

+ + + =

(m=1) (2.17)

24

- UG Geotech Design ProceduresDiunggah olehaling
- Literature ReviewDiunggah olehShinishAjmeera
- SAPAZ - Lateral vs Vertical Swell Pressures in Expansive SoilsDiunggah olehshrabalar
- (Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration &_ Production) Leonardo Azevedo, AmÃlcar Soares (auth.) - Geostatistical Methods for Reservoir Geophysics-Springer International Publishing (2017).pdfDiunggah olehFrza
- BUET Msc Admission Test SuggestionDiunggah olehতাহমিদুর রহমান
- Btech I Year SyllabusDiunggah olehSanjan Ghimire
- A Comparative Study of Interpolation Methods for Mapping Soil PropertiesDiunggah olehEnrique Lopez Severiano
- Handout-1 - Site InvestigationsDiunggah olehmm
- Underground storages in unlined mined caverns comparison with civil underground excavationsDiunggah olehPratik Rao
- ekologi eksperimental 1Diunggah olehSyarif Prasetyo Adyuta
- Direct Sequential Indicator SimulationDiunggah olehMohand76
- dcp testDiunggah olehTyumuu Feweu
- Retaining Walls and Geotechnical Design to Eurocode 7 SummaryDiunggah olehGirish Sreeneebus
- 161336_(1)Diunggah olehKaranjit Sigot
- Soil Improvement, Prefabricated Vertical Drain EchniquesDiunggah olehMade Twinta Widayana
- Conditional SimulationDiunggah olehRCB
- OIIMDiunggah olehBlack Hart Souther
- 1-17BogcfsDiunggah olehMoe Ko Ko
- Soil Nailing for Stabilization of Steep Slopes NeaDiunggah olehnidhisasidharan
- SAMSUN ANADOLU TARIMDiunggah olehavb22
- Merwade - 2009 - Effect of Spatial Trends on Interpolation of River Bathymetry-AnnotatedDiunggah olehDaniel Garcés
- DLL Grade 7 Q4 Week 9Diunggah olehGen-GenAlcantaraBaldado
- drenajeDiunggah olehipercy9821
- oil foundation reference docDiunggah olehPrakash Guragain
- GeoPrediction 2019 Final (1)Diunggah olehFederico Montesverdes
- 238164848-04_2Diunggah olehDaniyal Ahmad
- dhaliwal2016Diunggah olehEdiSukarmanto
- Mte 11 EnglishDiunggah olehANAM DEEP
- mathmethods-formula-w.pdfDiunggah olehSusant Dotel
- KK 112554533 Mecascrew Brochure EnDiunggah olehKarbonKale

- N. Goldman et al- Non-Abelian Optical Lattices: Anomalous Quantum Hall Effect and Dirac FermionsDiunggah olehGreamxx
- A Introduction of Seascape Shipping Logisitics Pvt Ltd 24.06Diunggah olehMilan Kothari
- 201412081136-NABL-122-14-doc.pdfDiunggah olehmahesh
- Standard Costing and Variance Analysis !!!Diunggah olehKaya Duman
- CHAPTER 17 Aircraft Airworthiness InspectionDiunggah olehখালিদহাসান
- The Physiology of Mechanical VentilationDiunggah olehMB
- Lab 4Diunggah olehWaqas Bin Khalid
- Your Breath is Your Brain’s Remote Control - MindfulDiunggah olehshybumi
- Axc Modelz 11-06Diunggah olehAndre Villegas Romero
- Extract of Amaila Falls Hydrology Review Draft Report 23June2011Diunggah olehKrish Doodnauth
- Building Economics, Quantity Surveying, And Cost Estimation - 2017Diunggah olehHamza Nayef
- Manual of the Practical Universal Language Reform-Neutral (W. Rosenberger 1912)Diunggah olehJhonathan de França
- CVS 1000L Electro Pneumatic PositionerDiunggah olehmhidayat108
- Customer Satisfaction Program 17B32Diunggah olehDavid T
- Fins 3616 Chapter 4Diunggah olehIris Lau
- Antioxidant Activity of Sparkling Wines Produced by Champenoise and Charmat MethodsDiunggah olehLoc Votuong
- CIV2225-2011 Unit_Guide1Diunggah olehMatt Munasingha
- SE8863_ 1 Acti 9 IsobarDiunggah olehHemant Sharma
- SS7HD-PMDiunggah olehbaraharb
- Basic_Research_Needs_for_Electrical_Energy_Storage.pdfDiunggah olehlgmartell
- Industry Statistics Review Presented by AAMA 2009Diunggah olehssn2001
- Identification, Estimation & Learning, Spring 2006, MITDiunggah olehkogsci
- Urushibara Style AmphetamineDiunggah olehUmakanthan Kanagaratnam
- Master Class Notes from a Financial Decision CourseDiunggah olehAnderson Silva
- Marsham Village News (24th Edition)Diunggah olehMarsham Village News
- HW7 AnswerDiunggah olehAriel Wang
- Exercises 2 - Production PlanningDiunggah olehShahid Naseem
- Determinate cantiliver Truss.docxDiunggah olehCarlsten Karlz
- Consumer Acceptance towards Aquaponic ProductsDiunggah olehIOSRjournal
- Pig Digestive System-Digestive System of the PigDiunggah olehlsvcsb