Anda di halaman 1dari 13

Four 'P's Elements of the marketing mix are often referred to as the "Four 'P's", a phrase used since

the 1960's

Product - It is a tangible good or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry or codes-based products like cellphone load and credits. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object are themotor car and the disposable razor. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. Packaging also needs to be taken into consideration. Every product is subject to a life-cycle including a growth phase followed by an eventual period of decline as the product approaches market saturation. To retain its competitiveness in the market, product differentiation is required and is one of the strategies to differentiate a product from its competitors. Price The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product.

Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketeer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations (see Product above).

Place Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet.

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/marketing-mix#ixzz1YxvuVwWu

Share in customer expenditure The share-of-wallet a household gives to a store chain depends on its attraction to the household compared to the attraction of the competitors. In order to analyze the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet, we need to understand 1) what drives customers to10 become loyalty program members, and 2) how loyalty program membership affects shareofwallet

FIGURE 1 Conceptual Framework Loyalty Program Membership Store Characteristics: - Distribution Density - Price Level Share-ofWallet Household Characteristics: - Household Size - Household Income Instrumental variables: - Loyalty Program Enjoyment - Privacy Concerns Attraction Competitive Store Chains Share-of-Wallet initial http://www.crmlandmark.com/library/loyaltyprograms.pdf Loyalty is defined as a deeply held commitment to repurchase or repatronised a preferred product/service consistently over time, despite situational influences and marketing efforts that might have the potential to cause switching behaviour (Oliver 1999). To date two major approaches dominate the extant literature to conceptualise customer loyalty; namely behavioural in orientation which typically infers the loyalty status of a given consumer from an observation of his or her purchase record and, attitudinal measures, which reflects repurchase intentions. It better account for the cognitive and affective components of loyalty but often suffer from low predictive power (Mittal and Kamakura, 2001). In this sense, loyalty is determined on the basis of what people think and say but with a perhaps distant relation to what they do. In their study of brand loyalty, Jacoby and Chestnut (1978) conclude that measurement of loyalty should be composite, i.e. based upon both attitudinal and behavioural data. They suggest that behavioural and attitudinal data guarding against each other's deficiencies. Indeed, Anderson and Mittal (2000) assert that intention and behaviour should not be used interchangeably because of their different nature of non-linearity. Most of the approaches relating customer satisfaction with loyalty are based on an explicit or implicit linear assumption (Fornell 1992). The linear relationship between satisfaction and loyalty has been supported empirically by many authors (e.g. Fornell et al., 1996; Kassim, 2001; Musa, 2004). However, it was argued that the

relationship could not be that ANZMAC 2005 Conference: Relationship Marketing (Consumer) 45simple (see Jones and Sasser, 1995). Several authors have begun to question the linear view (Anderson and Mittal, 1997; Mittal, Ross and Baldasare, 1998) http://smib.vuw.ac.nz:8081/WWW/ANZMAC2005/cd-site/pdfs/6-Relationship-Mktg/6-Musa.pdf http://www.degree-essays.com/essays/marketingessays/loyalty-cards.php

Appendix - 1 Questionnaire For Laundry Detergent Customers This is a survey about the offerings of the various laundry detergent manufacturers. Your honest opinions will be highly valued and appreciated. There are no right or wrong answers. Participation in this survey is completely voluntary. All answers will be kept confidential. Please circle the number which closely matches your opinion:

The following questions are related to your opinion regarding the various sales promotion offers by the different brands of detergent 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Uncertain 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree 1. Promotional offers with detergents pleases me 2. Promotional offers interests me about the brands of detergent 3. Promotional offers with detergents influence me to buy the product 4. Promotional offers with detergents seem to be dishonest 5. Promotional offers makes me feel like I am being manipulated 6. A promotional offer gives a good image about a particular brand 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345

The following questions are related to your views on prices of brands of detergent on promotion 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Uncertain 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree 7. At sale price the detergents are usually good value for money 8. Usually the different brands of detergent appears to give a good deal 9. The offered sale price of different brands of detergent is usually quite fair 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 12345

10. The proposed offer for the different brand of detergent is usually extremely good 1 2 3 4 5

The following questions are related to your views on quality of brands of detergent on promotional offers 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Uncertain 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree 11. The brands of detergent on promotion is usually extremely good at cleaning clothes 12. The brands of detergent on promotion are usually highly reliable 13. The brands of detergent on promotion usually matches my expectations 14. The brands of detergent on promotion is usually of high quality 12345 1 2 3 4 5 12345 12345

The following questions are related to your loyalty towards detergents in general 15. I put in an effort while choosing a brand of detergent 16. I always thought of a particular brand of detergent over the other brand(s) when I consider buying detergent 17. I consider brand to be very important in choosing a detergent 18. Over the last few months/years, I have always bought thexpectations 19. I would be upset if I had to buy another brand of detergent if a particular brand is not available 20. I would continue to buy the same brand of detergent because I like the brand very much 21. I feel very attached to a particular brand of detergent over the others 22. Although another brand was on sale, I still bought one particular brand of detergent 23. Once I have decided on a particular brand of detergent over other 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 12345 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 12345 12345

brands, I will stick by it 24. If a particular brand of detergent was not available at the stores, I would rather not buy at all if I have to choose another brand Please tick () the appropriate answers Gender: Male Female 20 25 25 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 Age Group: 15 20 40 - 45 Above 45 Please provide the following information (optional) Name: _______________________________________

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Address:___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Phone # ____________________________

http://www.sb.iub.edu.bd/internship/autumn2005/0131001.pdf

I have loyalty cards which I don't use

Agree

Disagr ee

It takes too long to earn points to get anything worthwhile

Agree

Disagr ee

I would shop in any store that suits me regardless of whether they had a loyalty scheme

Agree

Disagr ee

I save a lot of money by using my loyalty vouchers

Agree

Disagr ee

I shop wherever gives me better discounts

Agree

Disagr ee

I usually get better discounts from in-store promotions than loyalty schemes

Agree

Disagr ee

I usually get better discounts with loyalty schemes than in-store promotions

Agree

Disagr

ee

I am nervous about how the organisation uses the personal information I give

Agree

Disagr ee

I buy products if there are extra points offered on them

Agree

Disagr ee

I don't think the organisations are truthful about what they do with the data I give

Agree

Disagr ee

I think a loyalty scheme is worthwhile and I am willing to give personal details about myself for this

Agree

Disagr ee

I spend less in stores where I dont have a card

Agree

Disagr ee

Other things are more important than discounts eg: quality, customer service

Agree

Disagr ee

I use my loyalty cards now but I never used to

Agree

Disagr ee

I think loyalty schemes are set up to increase company profits

Agree

Disagr ee

I am a member of a loyalty scheme but have no intention of using my card

Agree

Disagr ee

I wouldn't change where I shop for the sake of a loyalty scheme

Agree

Disagr ee

I have seen substantial savings in my bills due to the money off vouchers I get from a loyalty scheme

Agree

Disagr ee

I buy products I don't need due to the promotions surrounding them

Agree

Disagr ee

I used to use my loyalty cards but I don't anymore

Agree

Disagr ee

http://www.questionpro.com/a/showSurveyLibrary.do?surveyID=36501

http://www.ukessays.com/essay-examples/business-essay-examples/loyalty-card-schemes.php

http://www.ukessays.com/essays/marketing/customer-loyalty-clubs.php

http://www.scribd.com/doc/27600792/Impact-of-Loyalty-Programs-on-Consumer-Behaviour dear maganda to..=) ing nasa baba ang framework=) may questionnaire na din..

Loyalty Program Effectiveness

Customer Related Factor Purchase Segmentation Usage/patronage Level Perceive Effort Advantage Customer Traits Demographic Shopping Orientation Future Orientation Variety Seeking Price Sensitivity Sample Studies: Kim, Shi, Srinivasan(2001) Kopalle & Neslin (2003) Lal & Bell (2003) Leenheer et.al (2007) Lewis (2004) Liu (2007) Magi (2003) Zhang, Krishna & Dhar

Competitve Related Factor Competition: General Market Position (e.g. Market Share) Product Substitutability (within category) Category expandability (outside category) Market fragmentation CompetitionL Loyalty Programs Loyalty Program Saturation Loyalty Programs differentiation Loyalty Program order of Sample Studies: entry Kopalle & Neslin (2003) Magi (2003) Nako (1992)