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# Resolved Problems:

## 2.2.1 A steel bar with constant cross-section is loaded by two concentrated

forces P1  2  105 N , P2  5  105 N , as shown in Fig. 2.5. Determine the
necessary cross-sectional area for the bar, neglecting its own weight.
The cross-section is conceived in several variants: circular solid section,
rectangular section, circular hollow section, universal beam rolled shape, section
made of welded steel plates. The allowable strength in tension (  at ) or compression

## (  ac ) are equal to 1600 daN / cm 2 .

Solution:

P2  P1

C
P2 0,2l P2
B

0,8l

x
A
P1
P1 P1

Fig. 2.5

1
In order to determine the most loaded section, the axial force diagram must
be plotted.
At any section of the domain AB the axial force is:
N ( x)  P1  2  105 N  const
The axial force is also constant along the domain BC and equals:
N BC  P1  P2  (2  5)  105  3  10 5 N
Along the domain AB the bar is subjected to concentric tension, while
domain BC is subjected to concentric compression.
As the material has the same strength in tension and compression, the most
loaded section is that of maximum normal stress – in absolute value – that is, any
section along the portion BC.
By applying relation (2.14), we obtain:
N max 3  10 4
Anec    18,75cm 2
0 1600
For this necessary area we shall determine the cross-sectional dimensions
for each shape of the section.

## a) Circular solid section (Fig. 2.5.a)

d 2 4  Anec 4  18,75
Anec  d nec  d nec   4,88cm
4  

Fig. 2.5.a

2
b) Rectangular section (Fig. 2.5.b)
Anec 18,75
a  2b Anec  2b 2 bnec  bnec   3cm  a nec  6cm
2 2

Fig 2.5.b

## c) Circular hollow section (Fig 2.5.c)

D 2

d
D
 0,8 Anec 
4

 1 2 
4  Anec 4  18,75
Dnec    8,15cm
  (1   )2
3,14  (1  0,8 2 )
d nec  0,8Dnec  6,50cm

d D

Fig. 2.5.c

3
d) Universal beam rolled shape (Fig. 2.5.d)
From Appendix no. 13 we choose I 16 with the area A  22,8cm 2 .

h  16cm

Fig. 2.5.d
e) Section made of welded steel plates (Fig. 2.5.e)
The section area is:
A  2  20t 2  2  30t t 2  100t 2
Anec 18,75
Anec  100t 2 t nec    0,43cm
100 100
30t
t

t t 20t

Fig. 2.5e
Remark:
The material quantity does not depend on the cross-sectional shape because
the area is the same. The fibers are equally loaded because the normal stresses
are uniformly distributed over the section.

## 2.2.2. A member made of wood, with rectangular section, b=20cm and

h=2cm, is weakened by a circular hole, 20mm in diameter. The member is
loaded by two concentrated forces P1  3  10 4 N , P2  5,5  10 4 N (Fig. 2.6).

4
It is required to check the strength and stiffness conditions for the considered
bar, knowing that the strengths of the material are:
daN daN
- compression  oc  80 ; tension  ot  100 ,
cm 2 cm 2
l
the permissible elongation l a  and the length l=20m.
200

P2  P1
C
P2 0,2l P2

0,8l

A
P1
P1
P1 N
h
d
b
1 1
Fig. 2.6
Solution:
The member is subjected to concentric tension along the domain AB by a
constant axial force: N AB  P1  3 10 4 N

5
and to concentric compression along the domain BC, by a constant axial force:
N BC  P1  P2  (3  5,5)  10 4  2,5  10 4 N
As the material has different strengths in tension and compression, the strength
requirement must be checked up for each domain.
- along portion AB (the most loaded section is the weakened one, 1-1):
N AB 3  10 3 daN daN
x    83,3 2   ot ( 100 2 )
Anet 36 cm cm
Anet  Agross  Ahole  20  2  2  2  36cm 2

## - along portion BC, the sections are equally loaded:

N BC  2,5  10 3  daN 
x    62,5daN / cm 2   oc   80 2 
A 20  2  cm 
The displacement of the member free end is the algebraic sum of the length
changes of the two component portions:
N AB  l AB 3  10 4  0,8  200
l AB    12  10 2 cm
EA 10  20  2
6

## N BC  l BC 2,5  10 4  0,2  200

l BC    2,5  10 2 cm
EA 10  20  2
6

l 200
l  (12  2,5)  10 2 m  0,095cm  l a l a    1cm
200 200
Remark:
In the evaluation of deformations, the bar is considered to have a constant
cross-section because the hole has no important influence.
On the contrary, in case of member design according to the strength
requirement, the most loaded section along domain AB is the weakened one.

6
2.2.3 The element AB belonging to a façade scaffold is supported by using
two steel bars AC and BC (Fig. 2.7). Determine the necessary cross-sectional
dimensions for the load-bearing elements of the scaffold and of the rod through
which the weight G is suspended. Compute the pressure exerted by the element AB
on the vertical wall.

Numerical data:
daN
 ot   oc  1600 ,   30 0 , G  2,5  10 4 N (2,5tf )
cm 2

C
 A2

N AC
1 1 1 A3
A 
N AB
Free body diagram
B 1 G
A1
G
G

Fig. 2.7

Solution:
The axial forces in the bars of the system are determined by isolating node
A.

7
G 2,5
N AC    10 4  2,9  10 4 N (2,9tf )
cos  3
2
2,5  10 4
N AB  G  tg   1,44  10 4 N (1,44tf )
3
The selection of the necessary cross-sectional area of the rod used for weight
G suspension (stretched member):
G 2500
A1 nec    1,56cm 2
 ot 1600

4 A1 4  1,56
d1 nec    1,41cm
 3,14
The selection of the necessary cross-sectional area of the stretched bar AC:
N AC 2900
A2 nec    1,81cm 2
 ot 1600

4  A2 4  1,81
d 2 nec    1,52cm
 3,14
The selection of the necessary cross-sectional area of the compressed bar AB
(considering that its bucking is not possible):
N AB 1440
A3 nec    0,9cm 2
 oc 1600
Two equal legs angle shapes 2L 50x50x5 are adopted, their area being
2x4,8=9,6 cm 2 .
The pressure exerted on the wall is:
N AB 1,44  10 3 daN
p   150 2
AAB 9,6 cm

8
2.2.4 A rigid bar AB is supported by the vertical rods, AC made of steel
and BD made of copper. The bar is acted by a concentrated force P  8  10 4 N (Fig.
2.8). Knowing the allowable strength and the longitudinal modulus of elasticity for
steel  o ST  1600daN / cm 2 ; EST  2,1  10 6 daN / cm 2  and for copper

 o CO  1000daN / cm 2 ; 
ECO  1,7  10 6 daN / cm 2 , as well as the original
length of the rods l=2m, it is required to determine:
a) the cross-sectional areas for the rods AC and BD, so that the rigid bar to
remain in the horizontal position under the action of load P
b) the displacement of the point where force P applies
c) the work done by force P
d) the strain energy stored by the vertical rods.

C D

A P B

06a 04a

P
N AC N BD

Fig.2.8

9
Solution:
The axial forces in the rods are obtained from the moment equilibrium
equations:

M A  0  P  0,6a  N BD  a  0 N BD  0,6 P
M B  0  P  0,4a  N AC  a  0 N AC  0,4 P

The values of the two axial forces check up the equilibrium equation of
projection along the vertical direction:

-0,4P+P-0,6P=0
In the design of the rods, three requirements are involved: two strength
requirements and the requirement of elongations equality. The procedure that
should be followed is:
- the cross-sectional area of the rod BD is determined from its strength
requirement :
N BD 0,6  8  10 3
ABD    4,8cm 2
 o CO 10 3

- the second rod, AC, area is determined by imposing the equality of rods
elongations:
l AC  l BD
N AC  l N BD  l N E
  AAC  AC  ABD  CO
E ST  AAC ECO  ABD N BD E ST
0,4 1,7
AAC    4,8  2,6cm 2
0,6 2,1
- the strength requirement for rod AC is checked up:
N Ac 0,4  8  10 4 N daN
 x ef ST    1,23  10 4 2
 1230 2   0 ST
AAC 2,6 cm cm

10
When this requirement is satisfied, the design of the rods is finished,
otherwise, the design should be started from the second rod, AC..
The displacement of load P point of application equals the elongation of the
rods:
N AC  l 0,4  8  10 4  200
l AC  l BD    0,0117cm
E ST  AAC 2,1  10 7  2,6
The work done by force P is:
P   8  10 4
Lext    1,17  10 4  4,68 Nm( jouli )
2 2
The strain energy stored in the rods is:
1 N AC2
l 2
1 N BD l
U 
2 E ST  AST 2 ECO  ACO
1
U  200 
 3,2  10 4 2 

4,8  10 4 
2
  4,68 Nm( jouli )
2  2,1  10 7  2,6 1,7  10 7  4,8 
 

2.2.5 The truss structure from the roof of an industrial building is made of
equal legs angle shapes. Its free body diagram is shown in Fig. 2.9a.
Determine the necessary cross-sectional areas for the bars 1-2 and 5-5’, considering
that their connection at the nodes is conceived in two variants:
- riveted connection with rivets having the diameter d = 20mm.
- welded connection;

Numerical data:
daN
P  2  10 5 N a  1,2m  o  1600
cm 2

11
a) 2P
c)
3 3
P P P s
0,75a
2
0,5P 2' 0,5P 2
0,5P
0,5a N 55'
1 4 5 2 5' 4' 1
1' 4 s
a a a a V  2,5P
b)
0,5a 0,5a
N12

N14
Fig. 2.9
  260 40'

Solution:
a) Internal forces evaluation
Node 1 (Fig. 2.9b) is isolated and from the equilibrium equation of
projection along the vertical direction, the axial force in the bar 1-2 is
obtained:
N12  sin   0,5P  0
0,5P 0,5  P
N12    1,11P
sin  sin 26 0 40'
The axial force in the bar 5-5’ can be easily obtained by performing section
s-s.
From the moment equilibrium equation expressed with respect to node 3
(Fig. 2.9c), it results:
0,5P  2,5a  (2,5P  P)  1,5a  N 55'  1,25a  0
N 55'  P

12
b) Selection of the necessary cross-sectional areas for the considered bars in
case of riveted connections
The areas will be determined by considering a coefficient K w  1,1 , which

takes into account that the sections are weakened by holes. After that, the strength
requirements will be checked by using the net cross-sectional areas.
N 53
N 25

N 45 N 55'

5
Fig. 2.9.a

- bar 1-2:
N12 1,11  2  10 4
A12 nec  K w  1,1  15,2cm 2
0 1600
There are adopted 2L: 70x70x6 with the area:
Agross  2  8,15  16,3cm 2

## The net area of the bar is:

Anet  Agross  Ahole  16,3  2  2  0,6  13,9cm 2

## Bar strength requirement checking up:

13
N12 1,11  2  10 4 daN
 x ef    1600 2   0
Anet 13,9 cm

- bar 5-5’:
N 55' 2  10 4
A55'  K w  1,1  13,75cm 2  2 L60 x60 x6
0 1600

## Agross  2  6,91  13,82cm 2

Anet  13,82  2  2  0,6  11,42cm 2

## Bar strength requirement checking up:

N 55' 2  10 4 daN
 x ef    1750 2   0
Anet 11,42 cm
This condition is not satisfied and therefore the bar cross-sectional area must
be increased. There are chosen 2L 70x70x6. The stresses in the bar are now :
N 55' 2  10 4 daN
 x ef    1440 2   0
Anet 13,9 cm
The area is overestimated, but in this case there are no better possibilities.

## c) Selection of the necessary cross-sectional areas for the considered bars in

case of welded connections
In this case the design of the bars can be directly performed:
N 12 1,11  2  10 4
A12 nec    13,875cm 2  2 L60 x60 x6 ( A  13,82cm 2 )
0 1600
N 55' 2  10 4
A55' nec    12,5cm 2  2 L50 x50 x7 ( A  13,12cm 2 )
0 1600

14
Remarks:
1. The riveted connections lead to greater cross-sectional areas that imply
greater material quantities.
2. When the section of the bar is a rolled shape, its area cannot be the exactly
needed one, so that it is generally overestimated.

## 2.2.6 A column made of cast iron is supported on a concrete foundation by

using a steel plate. The column is loaded by a concentric compressive force
P  5  10 5 N (Fig. 2.10). Determine the necessary cross-sectional areas for the
column, steel plate and foundation, knowing:

N N N
 a cast iron  10 4 ;  a concrete  4  10 2 ;  a soil  20
cm 2 cm 2 cm 2
d N N
h  1m, h f  0,80m;   0,8;  c  1,8  10 4 ;  ci  7,2  10 4
D mc mc

Solution:

## a) The column cross-sectional area is:

P 5  10 5 5  10 5
Anec   4 
 aci   ci  h 10  7,2  10 4  10 6  10 2 10 4  7,2

The product  ci  h can be neglected in comparison with  aci , so that the own

weight influence can be ignored in case of structural elements with small length and
high strength.

15
P

aa

a a

d
h
D

hf

bp

bf

Fig. 2.10
So:
5  10 5
Anec  4
 50cm 2
10

Anec  D 2 (1   2 )
4
4 Anec 4  50
Dnec    13,3cm
 (1   )2
3,14(1  0,8 2 )
d nec  0,8  13,3  10,7cm

16
b) The steel plate area results from the condition that the pressures on the
foundation block mustn’t exceed the concrete allowable strength. The own weight
of the column and of the steel plate are ignored.
P 5  10 5
Ap nec    1250cm 2
 ac 4  10 2

## If the plate has a square shape, its side is:

b p  1250  35,4cm

## c) The dimensions of the foundation block cross-section result from the

condition that the pressures on the foundation foot mustn’t exceed the soil
allowable strength.
P 5  10 5 5  10 5
A f nec     27000cm 2
 as   c  hf 6
20  1,8  10  10  0,8  10
4 2
20  1,44
b f  27000  164cm

## 2.2.7 The structural element shown in Fig. 2.11 is subjected to tension by

an axial force N  50  10 4 N .
Compute the stresses on a section inclined at an angle of 30 0 with respect to
the element longitudinal axis and plot the trajectories of first and second kind.
Discuss the element failure, that depends on the material nature.

17
b  20cm
N N

t  2cm

S1

S2
Fig. 2.11

x
 45 2  0  45 
2

x
2 1 
2

1 1   x

x
2  
1 2

 45
 45
2  0

Fig. 2.12

18
Solution:
On the element cross-section the stresses are:
N 50000 daN
x    1250 2
A 2  20 cm
y 0
 xy  0

## On a section inclined at 30 0 , the normal stress is obtained by using relation

(2.2):
x x 1250  1  daN
 30   cos 2  30 0  1    935 2
2 2 2  2 cm
and the shear stress with relation (2.3):
x 1250 3 daN
 30   sin 2  30 0     540 2
2 2 2 cm
As there are no shear stresses on the bar cross-section, the normal stresses
are quite the principal stresses:
1   x and 2  0
The trajectories of first kind are lines parallel to the element longitudinal
axis, while the trajectories of second kind are lines perpendicular to the longitudinal
axis.
On the planes inclined at 45 0 with respect to the bar longitudinal axis (the
bisectors of the principal planes) the extreme shear stresses occur:
x daN
 1, 2    625 (a)
2 cm 2
and the normal stresses are:
x daN
 45   625 (b)
2 cm 2

19
Let us analyze the strength requirement on two sections :
- on the cross-section, where only normal stresses exist:
 x   a that is 1250   a (c)

- on the sections inclined at 45 0 , where both normal and shear stresses exist:
 45   a (d)

 1, 2   a (e)

 ech   42
2
 3 12   a (f)

## By taking into account relations (a) and (b), it results:

x
a (d’)
2
x
  a   x  2 a (e’)
2

   
2 2

 ech   x   3 x    x   x   a (f’)
 2   2 
From the four strength requirements (c,d,e,f), the important ones are (c) and
(e), so that:
a
- for the materials characterized by  a  , the most dangerous section is
2
the inclined one at 45 0 with respect to the longitudinal axis and the failure occurs
along this direction (wood case);
a
- for the materials characterized by  a  , the most dangerous section is
2
the cross-section of the bar and the failure occurs in this section (steel case).

20
2.2.8 A brick wall is subjected to loads P1  11 10 4 N and P2  15  10 4 N
transmitted by two floor slabs (Fig. 2.13).
Select the necessary width of the wall in three different variants:
a) constant cross-section over the whole height;
b) constant cross-section over the height of each storey;
c) element of constant strength.
Select the necessary width of the foundation for each case.
Numerical data:
daN
 0b  15 h1  2m h2  2,5m
cm 2
daN N N
h f  1m  0 soil  3  b  1,8  10 4  c  2,2  10 4
cm 2 mc mc

a) 1m b) c)
P1 P1
ee

a1 x
P2 P2 h1 A1 ( x)
a
ee x A2 ( x)
a2
h2

hf
b  1m
a af a af b af c

Fig. 2.13

21
Solution:
The loads and the section being constant along the wall, the desigh is
performed for the unit length (1m) – see Fig. 2.13.
a) Wall of constant cross-section over the whole height (Fig. 2.13a)
The most loaded section is the lower section of the wall. The necessary area
is:
N max 2( P1  P2 ) 2(11  15)10 3
Anec     3680cm 2
 ob   b  h  ob   b  h 15  1,8  10  10  4,5  10
3 6 2

36810
a nec   37cm
100
b) Stepped wall (Fig. 2.13b)
The most loaded section of each portion is the lower one:
N1 2 P1 2  11  10 3
A1     1500cm 2
 ob   b  h1  ob   b  h1 15  1,8  10  10  10  2
3 6 2

1500
a1 nec 
 15cm
100
N2 2 P  2 P2  G1 2(11  15)  10 3  1500  200  10 6  1,8  10 3
A2   1  
 ob   b  h2  ob   b  h2 15  1,8  10 4  10 6  2,5  10 2
3600
 3600cm 2 a 2 nec   36cm
100
c) Wall of constant strength (Fig. 2.13c)
For the upper portion, by applying relation (2.25), it results:
b 1,8103 106
2 P1  ob
x
2  11  10 3 x 5
A1 ( x)  e  e 15
 1470e1210 x cm 2
 ob 15
The concentrated force at the free end of the lower portion is
2P1  2P2  G1 , so that:

22
b
2( P1  P2 )  G1b x
A2 ( x)  e  ob
 ob
The own weight of the upper portion is:
h1 h1
1 h1
G1b   A1 ( x) b dx   1470  e12 x10  b dx  1470 b 
5 5

5
e12x10
0 0 12  10 0

5
G1  220  10 3  (e1220010  1)  5340 N
By coming back to the relation for the area selection:
b 1,8103 106
2(11  15)  10 3  534  ab x 5
A2 ( x)  e  3500  e 15
 3500  e1210 x cm 2
15
The foundations:
- for variant a) – wall with constant cross-sectional area:
N max  Gb 2(11  15)  10 3  3680  450  10 6  1,8  10 3
Anec f    19777cm 2
 0ts   c  h f 6
3  2,2  10  10  100
3

19777
af a   198cm
100
- for variant b) – stepped wall:
N max  G1b  G2b 2(11  15)10 3  540  1620
Anec f    19480cm 2
 os   c  h f 6
3  2,2  10  10  100
3

## G1b  1500  200  10 6  1,8  10 3  540daN

G2b  3600  250  10 6  1,8  10 3  1620daN
19480
af b   195cm
100
- for variant c) – wall of constant strength:
N max  G1b  G2b 2(11  15)  10 3  534  1600
Anec f    19470cm 2
 os   c  h f 6
3  2,2  10  10  100
3

23
G1b  534daN , previously determined
h2 h2
3500
G2b   A2 ( x)   b  dx   3500e1210
5 5
x
 1,8  10 3 dx  5
 1,8  10 3 (e1210 250  1) 
0 0 12  10

##  525  10 2  (1,0305  1)  1600daN

19470
af c   195cm
100
Remarks:
1. By comparing the widths of the wall in the three analyzed variants, the
greatest width has been obtained for the wall with constant cross-section,
while the smallest one has been obtained for the wall of constant strength.
2. The same order has been obtain for the quantity of material used to carry out
the foundations.
3. There are small differences between variants b) and c) ,which means that the
stepped wall (variant b)) practically coincides to the ideal shape (variant c).

2.2.8 A stepped bar made of steel is fixed at end A and simply supported
at end B (Fig. 2.14). Compute the stresses in the bar and the pressure
exerted on the two walls, when the temperature increasing is
t 0  50 0 C .
Numerical data:
A1  40cm 2 A2  25cm 2 l 2  2,5m l1  2m
daN
 t  1,2  10 5 0 C 1 E  2,1  10 6   0,1cm
cm 2

24
A1 A2

N A B N

l1 l2 

Fig. 2.14

Solution:
The elongation of the stepped bar produced by the axial N, is:
Nl1 Nl 2
l  
EA1 EA2
and the elongation produced by the temperature change:
lt   t  l  t 0

## By equating them, it results :

 t  l  t 0  E
N (a)
l1 l
 2
A1 A2
For a bar with n portions, the axial force relation becomes:
 t  l  t 0  E
N n
li
A
i 1 i

In our case, the global free elongation caused by the temperature change is:

25
lt   t  l  t 0  1,2  10 5  450  50  0,27cm

In the bar axial forces occur only when its elongation exceed   0,1cm , that
is, corresponding to a temperature change:
lt   0,17
t10  t 0   50   31,5 0
l1 0,27
By applying relation (a), the pressure exerted on the wall is:
1  2  10 5  450  31,5  2,1  10 6
N  2,38  10 4 daN
200 250

40 25
and the stresses in the two component portions are:
N 2,38  10 4
 x1    595daN / cm 2
A1 40
N 2,38  10 4
 x2    950daN / cm 2
A2 25
2.2.9 A column made of reinforced concrete is acted by a concentric
compressive load P (Fig. 2.15). Select the necessary dimensions for
the column cross-section by using the Allowable Strength Method
and the Failure Method. Compare the obtained results.
Numerical data:
Ar Er daN
P  4  10 4 daN   1% n  15  ac  40
Ac Ec cm 2
daN daN daN
 a r  1600 Rc  70 c s  1,8  y  2500
cm 2 cm 2 cm 2
d
   0,8
D
Solution:
1. The Allowable Strength Method

26
P 4  10 4
Ac nec    870cm 2
 ac (1  n ) 40(1  15  0,01)
P

Fig. 2.15

D 2 4 Ac nec 4  870
Ac nec  (1   2 ) Dnec    55,5cm
4  (1   ) 2
3,14  (1  0,8 2 )

## Ar nec    Ab  0,01  870  8,70cm 2

27
The reinforcement consists of four circular solid bars. The diameter d 1 of
these bars is:
Ar 8,70 4  A1r 4  2,18
A1r    2,18cm 2 d1 nec    1,66cm
4 4  3,14
The strength requirement checking up for the reinforcement bars is not
 ar  ac
necessary because 
Er Ec
2. The Failure Method
It is considered that at the failure moment the stresses in the concrete are
uniformly distributed over the cross-section and equal to Rc while the stress in the

reinforcement bars reaches the yield stress. The equilibrium equation expressed for
the element section is:
cs  P  Ac  Rc  Ar   y  Ac Rc  Ac   y

cs  P 1,8  4  10 4
Ac nec    760cm 2
Rc   y 70  0,01  2500

4  760
Dnec   52cm d nec  0,8  52  41,5cm
3,14(1  0,8 2 )

7,6
Ar nec  0,01  760  7,6cm 2 Ar 1   1,9cm 2 d1 nec  1,56cm
4
The Failure Method leads to smaller sections for concrete and
reinforcement, which means that the material carrying capacity is better used.

.2.11. The chord of a roof truss made of wood is subjected to concentric tension by
a load P  70  10 4 N . Knowing that it is made of wood, stiffened by two channel
rolled shapes U12, symmetrically disposed and their connection is done by using

28
bolts Ø16 , compute the stresses in wood and steel.

20cm 12cm

P
15cm
Fig. 2.16
Solution:
Numerical data:
- area of wood section Aw  20  15  300cm 2

## - Young’s modulus for steel Es  2,1  10 6 daN / cm 2

Aw 300
- coefficient    10,6
As 28,4

Ew 1
- coefficient n    0,0477
E s 21

P 70  10 4
The axial force in steel is: N s    46,5  10 4 N
1  n 1  10,6  0,0477

29
P  n   70  10 4  10,6  0,0477
and in wood: Nw    23,5  10 4 N
1  n 1  10,6  0,0477
The equilibrium equation is satisfied N  N OL  N l .
The stresses in the two component materials are:
Ns 46,5  10 3
 xs    1777daN / cm 2
As net 28,4  2  1,6  0,7

Nw 23,5  10 3
 xw    85daN / cm 2
Aw net 300  15  1,6

2.2.12 Four steel bars 12mm in diameter are stretched by using a hydraulic
machine. The tensile axial force is N 0  45  10 4 N . These pre-stressed bars are

used to carry out an element made of reinforced concrete with the cross-section
20x20cm. Knowing that this element is finally subjected to a tensile axial force
N  50  10 4 N , compute the stresses in concrete and reinforcement bars
corresponding to the transfer and final stages.

2Ø12
N0 N0
2Ø12
bars pre - stressing

20cm
stresses transfer 20cm

20cm
N N
final stage 20cm
Fig. 2.17

30
Solution:
We shall compute the stresses corresponding to each stage:
1. Reinforcement bars pre-stressing
- in the reinforcement bars:
N 0 45  10 4 4   d 2
 r ,0    10 5 N / cm 2 Ar   3,14  1,2 2  4,5cm 2
Ar 4,5 4

- in concrete:  c,0  0
2. Stresses transfer (the released reinforcement bars compress the concrete)
- in the reinforcement bars:
 N 0  n 45  10 4  15  1,12  10 2
 r ,T    14350 N / cm 2
Ar (1  n ) 4,5  (1  15  1,12  10 2 )

Er Ar 4,5
n  15    0,01  12
Ec Ac 400
- in concrete:
N0 45  10 4
 c ,T     962 N / cm 2
Ac (1  n ) 2
400  (1  15  1,12  10 )

- in the reinforcement bars:
N  n 50  10 4  15  1,12  10 2
 r,N    15900 N / cm 2
Ar (1  n ) 4,5  (1  15  1,12  10 )2

- in concrete:
N 50  10 4
 c, N    1070 N / cm 2
Ac  (1  n ) 400  (1  15  1,12  10 )
2

4. Final stage

31
The final stresses are determined by superposing the stresses corresponding
to the three previously mentioned stages:
- in the reinforcement bars:
 r  100000  14350  15900  101550 N / cm 2
- in concrete:
 c  0  962  1070  108N / cm 2

Remarks:
1. Before applying the load N, the stresses in the reinforcement bars and
concrete, respectively, are:
 r  100000  14350  85650 N / cm 2
 c  962 N / cm 2
The global axial force in the reinforcement bars is:
N r   r  Ar  85650  4,5  384000 N
and in the concrete:
N c   c  Ac  962400  384000 N
The axial forces in the reinforcement bars and concrete have the same
magnitude but with opposite sign, before applying the load (they are self-
balanced).
2. The initial stresses are useful for concrete but they increase the tensile
stresses in the reinforcement bars. This remark leads to the idea of using
high strength steel.

32
3. In case of an usual element made of reinforced concrete, the stresses in the
concrete would be  c, N  108daN / cm 2   ac , that is , the element could

2.2.13 In the system shown in Fig. 2.18 the central bar has a clearance
l0 ,03cm . A load P  3 10 4 N applies upon the rigid bar AC when the system

daN
has been assembled. There are known: A1  2,25cm 2  A2 E1  2,1  10 6
cm 2
a  3m

2 1 2
15a

l0
A C

P
a a

Fig. 2.18

Solution:
In order to resolve the problem, the superposition principle is applied, taking
into account that first off all the central bar has been stretched, then, connected to
the rigid bar and finally loaded by force P.

33
1. Axial forces and stresses corresponding to the system assembling
The tensile load, which must be applied on bar 1 in order to obtain a final
length equal to that of bar 2, is determined by using the relation:
l 0  E  A2 0,3  2,1  10 6  2,25
N0    3150daN
1 15  300
In this stage, the stress in the bar is:
N 0 3150 daN
 x0    1400 2   a
A1 2,25 cm
At this moment, the bar tends to return to its original length, which is
equivalent to the action of a compressive load N 0 , equally distributed to the three

## deformable bars due to the system symmetry.

 N0 3150
N1    1050daN
3 3
The axial forces in the bars that correspond to the assembling stage are
presented in Fig. 2.18a.

##  1050  1050  1000

 2100  1000  50  50  1100
 3100  2050
 1000  2050

P
P  3000daN P  3000

## 2. Axial forces and stresses corresponding to load P action

34
Load P will be equally resisted by the three bars (Fig. 2.18b).
P
N2   10 3 daN
3
3. The final axial forces are obtained by superposing the effects from the
previous mentioned stages (Fig. 2.18.c).
The stresses in the bars are:
- in the central bar:
3100 daN
 x1   1380 2
2,25 cm
- in the lateral bars:
 50 daN
 x2   22 2
2,25 cm
Remarks:

1. When the central bar is longer than the lateral ones, the calculus is similar,
but the axial forces and stresses have opposite sign in the assembling stage.
In Fig. 2.18d there are given the final axial forces for the same numerical data.
The axial forces in the deformable bars of such systems depend on the magnitude
and direction of these clearances. More than that, their magnitude could be chosen
so that, in certain bars, the stresses to reach an initially imposed magnitude. These
clearances become a possibility of controlling the stresses in the bars of the system.
As an example, in case of the present problem, when l0  0,285cm , in the lateral

bars, in the assembling stage, the axial force would be -1000daN and in the final
stage, 0.

35
2.2.14 A concentrated force P  12  10 4 N applies on a rigid element AC
(Fig. 2.19) suspended through the deformable bars AA1 , BB1 , made of steel and

## Knowing the sections of the three bars A1  3cm 2 , A2  5cm 2 , A3  7cm 2 ,

ECO
the length l=2m, the ratio of longitudinal moduli of elasticity  0,7 , as well as
E ST
daN daN
and the materials strengths  0 ST  1600 2
,  0 CO  1000 2 , it is required to
cm cm
check up the strength of this system of bars.

Solution:
In the bars there are only axial forces because they are pin connected bars.
These axial forces may be rendered evident by using the sections method. The
equilibrium of the rigid element AC is expressed by only two equations (the third
one – projections along the horizontal direction - leading to 0  0 )

M A  0  N 2  a  P  2a  N 3  3a  0
M C  0  N1  3a  N 2  2a  P  a  0

## By simplifying both equations, it is obtained:

N 2  3N 3  2 P (a)

3 N1  2 N 2  P (b)

36
A1 B1 C1

N1 N2
l P
N3

A B C

1 2
B' ' C'' 3
A'
B'
a a a
C'

Fig. 2.19
It is a system of two equation with three unknowns ( N1 , N 2 , N 3 ) , which
shows that the system is statically indeterminate to the first degree. The redundant
equation, which is called compatibility equation, expresses the relation between the
elongations of the deformable bars and it results from the study of the deformed
shape of the system. Fig. 2.19 shows that:
B' B' ' A' B' '

C ' C ' ' A' C ' '
or, by considering the vertical displacements (equal to the deformable bars
elongations) 1 ,  2 ,  3 :

 2  1 a

 3  1 3a
Finally, the following equation is obtained:

37
21  3 2   3  0
The elongations of the bars may be expressed by using relation (2.9):
N1  l N l N l
2 3 2  3 0
E ST A1 E ST A2 ECO A3

By multiplying the equation with the product E ST A1 and taking into account that:

A2 5 A3 7 ECO
  1,67 ,   2,34 ,  0,7 , we obtain:
A1 3 A1 3 E ST

## 2 N1  1,8N 2  0,61N 3  0 (c)

that represents the compatibility equation. Equations (a), (b) and (c) form an
algebraic system of equations with three unknowns whose solutions are the axial
forces in the deformable bars:
N1  0,12P , N 2  0,32P , N 3  0,56P
These values check the equilibrium equation of projection along the vertical
direction:

## Y  0  0,12P  0,32P  0,56P  P  0

The strength requirement for each bar is checked up by using relations (2.13)
Bar AA1 :

## N1 0,12 P 0,12  12  10 3 daN  daN 

 x1     480 2   a ST   1600 2 
A1 A1 3 cm  cm 

Bar BB1 :

## N 2 0,32 P 0,32  12  10 3 daN

 x2     765 2   a ST
A2 A2 5 cm

Bar CC1 :

38
N 3 0,56 P 0,56  12  10 3 daN  daN 
 x3     960 2   a CO   1000 2 
A3 A3 7 cm  cm 
These requirements are all satisfied.

2.2.15 A rigid bar AB, supported as presented in Fig. 2.20, is loaded by two
uniformly distributed forces p and g, respectively, in intensity. . Select the
dimensions for the cross-sections of the bars AA1 , BB1 and CC1 , that are made of
steel and have a circular solid section, by using the Limit State Method. Compute
the displacement of end B.

Numerical data:
p n  10 3 daN / m
g n  5  10 2 daN / m
 fp  1,2  fg  1,1 a  3m l  2,2m m  0,9

A2 A2 daN
 0,8  1,2 R  2100
A1 A3 cm 2

Solution:

## The same procedure as at the previous problem, (2.2.14) is followed. The

axial forces in the three deformable bars and the two reactive forces (vertical and
horizontal) at support D represent the five unknowns of the problem and only three
equilibrium equations can be written. The system is statically indeterminate to the
second degree.

39
C1 B1

2 3
pn l

gn

A D C B

1
1,2l

A1
a a 1,5a

Fig. 2.20
By removing two constraints, as example the bars 2 and 3, the system
becomes a statically determinate one (Fig. 2.21), loaded by forces p, g, N 2 and

N3 .

N3
N2
A'
D C B
A
HD
C'
N1 VD
1,5a B'
a a

Fig. 2.21

40
The condition of static equilibrium is expressed by the following equations:

X  0 M D 0 M A 0

Obviously, the first equation leads to H D  0 , because all forces are vertical
ones. The third equation contains the reactive force V D , that is not the object of our
interest., so that we might renounce to it. Finally, the condition of static equilibrium
is reduced to a single equation:
a
M D  0  N1a  N 2 a  N 3  2,5a  p c  a 
2
 g c  1,5a  1,75a  0

## But 0,5 p c a  2,62 g c a  (0,5  1,2  103  2,62  1,1  5  10 2 )3  2530

And the preceding equation becomes:
N1  N 2  2,5N 3  2530 (a)

## The two redundant equations, which express the displacements

compatibility, are obtained by noticing the geometrical dependence of
displacements on the deformed shape of the system. From Fig. 2.21 it results:
CC ' a CC ' a
 and 
BB '
2,5a AA ' a
But, AA' , CC ' and BB ' are the elongations of bars 1,2 and 3, which are denoted by
1 ,  2 ,  3 . By using these notations, from the previous relations we obtain:

 3  2,5 2 and 1   2
or
N 3c  l N c l N1c  1,2l N 2c l
 2,5 2 and 
A3 A2 A1 A2

41
By multiplying both relations with A2 , it results:

## 1,2  N 3c  2,5  N 2c and 0,96  N1c  N 2c (b) (c)

Solving the equations (a), (b), (c), the axial forces are obtained:
N 1c  363daN
N 2c  349daN
N 3c  727daN
The selection of bars cross-sections:
N 3c 727 4  0,385
A3 nec    0,385cm 2  d 3   0,7cm
mR 0,9  2100 
A2  1,2  A3  1,2  0,385  0,462cm 2  d 2  0,76cm
A2 0,462
A1    0,5775cm 2  d 3  0,85cm
0,8 0,8
The areas of bars 1 and 2 are obtained from the initially imposed ratios, that
is why their strength requirements must be checked up.
N 1c 363
 x1    698daN / cm 2  R
m  A1 ef 0,9  0,5775
N 2c 349
 x2    839daN / cm 2  R
m  A2 ef 0,9  0,462

The selection has been correctly performed as these conditions are satisfied.
When these requirements are not satisfied, the design must be started from the
strength requirement of the bar with underestimated area.
The displacement of end B, being equal to the elongation of bar BB1 , is:

N 3c  l 727  220
B    0,198cm
E  A3 2,1  10 6  0,385

42
2.2.16 a) Select the necessary cross-sectional areas A1 and A2 and the
corresponding cross-sectional dimensions for the two portions of the member
shown in Fig. 2.22.
b) Determine the global length change of the member and the length change
for each component portion.

1
2
p P2 P1

1 2
l1 l2

1 1 22

Di D
De

Fig. 2.22
Numerical data:
l1  1m, l 2  1,2m, P1  10KN , P2  15KN , p  4KN / m ,  o  160 N / mm2 ,

Di
E  2,1  105 N / mm2 ,    0.75
De
Solution:
a) The selection of the necessary cross-sectional areas is performed by
expressing the strength requirement for each portion of the member at limit.

43
For this reason the axial force diagram must be plotted, to find the most

EA1
EA2
p P1  10KN
P2  15KN
l1 l2

N ( KN ) 25
10
21

Fig. 2.23
Along domain AB, the axial force has a linear variation according to
relations (1.1).
N A   p  l1  P1  P2  4  1  10  15  21KN
N bleft  P1  P2  10  15  25KN

## Along domain BC, the axial force diagram is a constant one:

N BC  P1  10KN
The strength requirement expressed for the domain AB:
AB
N max
 XABmax  0
A1
AB
N max 25 10 3
For  XABmax   0  A1nec    156,25mm2
0 160

## De 2 4  A1nec 4  156,25

A1nec  (1   2 )  Denec    21,32mm  De  22mm
4 
 1 2
 
 1  0,75 2 
The strength requirement expressed for the domain BC:

44
N BC
x BC
 0
A2

N BC 104
For  x   0  A2 nec    62,5mm2
BC

0 160

D 2 4 A2 nec 4  62,5
A2 nec   Dnec    8,92mm  D  9mm
4  
b) Along a domain “i” of constant cross-sectional area, the length change is:
 iN
li 
Ei Ai

Where i is the area of the axial force diagram afferent to the considered
N

## portion and Ei Ai is the corresponding axial rigidity.

In our case:

N  N Bleft 
l1
2  21  25 10 10  0,66mm
A 3 3
l1 
EA1 2  2,1 105 166,31
De   222
A1 
4
1    
4
2
1  0,75   166,31mm
2 2

## N l2 10 10 1,2 103

BC 3
l2    0,9mm
EA2 2,1 105  63,6
D 2  92
A2    63,6mm2
4 4
The global length change of the bar is: l  l1  l 2  1,56mm .

2.2.17. The stepped bar shown in (Fig. 2.24) is acted by a concentrated force P and
a temperature change t  0 .

45
t  0
EA2
EA1 P

l1  1,5m l 2  1m

Fig. 2.24
a) Plot the axial force diagram;
b) Check the strength requirement for the considered bar.

Numerical data:

o

Solution:

## a) The bar is a hyperstatic one, to the first degree, because:

di (ns )  u  e  2  1  1

u- number of unknowns;

## e- number of equilibrium equations.

In our case there are two unknowns, the reactive forces R A and R B and only one
equilibrium equation (of projection along the longitudinal axis of the member).

46
t  0
RA RB
a) C
A P B
l1 l2

t  0
X ( RB )
b)
P

c ) N ( KN ) 15,18
4,82

Fig. 2.25

## 1) The equilibrium equations:

F i,x  o   R A  P  RB  0

## An additional equation is needed and this equation is named compatibility

equation.
2) The compatibility equation
A statically determined bar is adopted by removing a number of constraints
that equals the degree of indeterminacy and substituting them with the
corresponding reactive forces, which are called static redundants.
We shall remove the fixed connection from end B.
The statically determinate bar (Fig. 2.25.b) is called primary structure.
This bar must have the same deformations as the original, double fixed one:
l  0 - the compatibility equation

47
By applying the superposition principle: l  l P  l t  l X  0

P
a)

N P

X ( RB )
b)

N X

Fig. 2.26
The length change produced by load P (Fig. 2.26.a) is:
Pl1 20 10 3  1,5  10 3
l P    0,714mm
EA1 2,1  10 5  200
The length change (contraction) produced by the temperature change is:
l t    l (l1  l 2 )  12,5  10 6  10  2,5  103  0,3125mm
The length change (contraction) produced by the unknown force X is:

## Xl1 Xl2 Xl l  X  1,5 103 103 

l X       1  2    
5 
   8,33 105 X
EA1 EA2 E  A1 A2  2,110  200 100 

## l  0,714  0,3125  8,33  10 5 X  0  X  4820 N  4,82KN

The axial force diagram is pictured in Fig. 2.25.c.

## b) the strength requirement for portion 1:

48
N1 15180
 x1    75,9 N / mm 2   0  160 N / mm 2
A1 200
The strength requirement for portion 2:
N 2 4820
 x2    48,2 / mm 2   0  160 N / mm 2
A2 100

2.2.18. Determine the carrying capacity of the following system consisting in a rigid
bar supported by two rods, made of the same material.

p a

N1 a
N2

1,5a
1 2 A
 RH
A

A
RV
Fig. 2.27
Numerical data: a  0,5m ; A1  40mm2 ; A2  1,5 A1 ; E  1,1  105 N / mm2 ;

 0  100 N / mm2 ;   30 0

Solution:
The system is a statically indeterminate one to the first degree.

49
A A
There are four unknowns: N1 , N 2 , RV , RH and three equilibrium
equations:
di (ns )  4  3  1
1) The equilibrium equations:

F  0  p  a  RH  N1 cos   N 2 cos   0
A
i, x 1

F i, y  0  RV  N1 sin   N 2 sin   0
A
2

## As we are interested only in N 1 and N 2 , the last equation, 3 is the single

useful one.
2. The compatibility equation
In Fig. 2.28, the deformed shape of the system is pictured.

1

l1
2
l 2

 

Fig. 2.28
 2 1,5a

1 2,5a

50
l1 l 2
But 1  and 2 
cos  cos 
l 2
Finally  0,6 ; or l 2  0,6l1 - the compatibility equation.
l1
According to the constitutive law of the material:
N 1l1 N 2l2
l1  ; l 2 
EA1 EA2
N 2l2 Nl
 0,6 1 1
A2 A1
2,5a 1,5a
l1  , l2 
sin  sin 
N 2  1,5a N  2,5a
 0,6  1
A2 A1
N 1 A2
N2   1,5 N 1
A1
By substituting the N 2 in equation 3:
3 pa 2  N1 cos   2,5a  1,5 N1 cos   1,5a  0
3 pa 3 p  500
N1    364,64 p
4,75  cos  4,75  cos 30 0
N 2  546,96 p
The strength requirement expressed for the rods:
N
 x1   x 2  1   0
A1
For:  x1   x 2   0  N1  A1 0
but: N1  364,64 p
A1 0 40  100 N
So that: pcap    11
364,64 364,64 mm

51
2.2.19. Check up the strength requirements for the bars of the system shown in
Fig.2.29.

P  800
A 
N1
N2

1 2 2
h

## 11 22 2U10

1

I 28

10cm
Fig.2.29

Numerical data:
daN daN
h  2m ;   250 ;   60 0 ;  0 steel  1600 2
;  0 wood  80 2 ;
cm cm
daN daN
E steel  2,1  10 6 2
; E wood  10 5 .
cm cm 2

Solution:
The checking up of strength requirements presumes to determine firstly the
axial forces in the rods.

52
At node A, two equilibrium equations of projection along two orthogonal
axes are expressed.

F i ,x  0  P cos   N1 sin   0

F i, y  0 P sin   N1 cos   N 2  0

##  P cos  80000 cos 600

 N1    94648daN
 sin  sin 250

 N 2  P sin   N1 cos   80000 sin 60  94648 cos 25  16498daN
0

The sign of axial forces show that the rod 1 is indeed subjected to
compression (as shown in Fig. 2.29) but the rod 2 is subjected to tension (the
opposite direction then shown in Fig. 2.29).
The strength requirement for the rod 1, which has a homogeneous section is:
N1 94648 daN
 x1    1549,07 2   0 steel
A1 61,1 cm
The road 2 has a non-homogeneous section, made of two materials that
work together.
1). The equilibrium equation
N S  NW  N 2
N S - the axial force in steel, N W - the axial force in wood

## 2). The compatibility equation:

l s  l w
According to the constitutive laws for the involved materials:
Nsh
l s 
E s As
N wh
lW 
E w Aw

53
So:
Ns Nw Ns  Nw N2
  
Es As Ew Aw Es As  Ew Aw Es AS  Ew Aw
The axial forces in the two materials result:

N 2 E s As N 2 E w Aw
Ns  ; Nw 
E s As  E w Aw E s As  E w Aw
The strength requirements are:
Ns N 2 Es 16498  2,1106 daN
 xs     519,4 2   os
As Es As  Ew Aw 2,110  2 13,5  10 100
6 5
cm

Nw N 2 Ew 16498  10 5
 xw     24,73daN / cm 2   0 w
Aw E s As  E w Aw 2,1  10 6  2  13,5  10 5  100

54