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Mr. Field

Religion Study Guide

1. Define religion in not more than two sentences. A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities 2. What is the difference between atheist and agnostic? 3. Are all secularists non-religious? Explain! a process that is leading to increasingly large groups of people who claim no allegiance to any church. Some are atheists. Others simply do not practice. Still others call themselves spiritual, but not religious. 4. Identify the hearth and describe the spatial diffusion (i.e. where do we find adherents of each religion today, why did each religion diffuse diffuse) of these major world religions: a. Christianity -Based on Jesus Christ as a divine being; gave example to live by Began to spread during 1st and 2nd centuries Missionaries Roman Catholic Church: division into Eastern and Western churches Protestant Reformation Most practiced religion in Africa today!

b. Islam -SW ASIA

-The Archangel Gabriel appeared, Mohammed wrote down what he said Five pillars of Islam: Belief in one God Five daily prayers Generous giving of alms Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) Holy Places: Mecca and Medina; Jerusalem Diffusion through conquest and trading About 85% are Sunni who live throughout the world About 12% are Shiite who mainly live in Iran, Pakistan, and Iraq Islam is considered to be the fastest growing religion in the United States. c. Hinduism d. Buddhism -Arose in the sixth century B.C. in India A reaction to the less desirable features of Hinduism such as its strict social hierarchy that protected the privileged and kept millions mired in poverty Founder: Siddhartha Gautama Humans achieve the state of Nirvana when they can renounce all desire (the Four Noble Truths)

Majority of Buddhists are in China and SE Asia Theravada - the older, more severe form which requires the renouncing of all worldly goods and desires. Mahayana - focuses on Buddhas teachings and compassion.

e. Judaism -Jerusalem, Israel. SW Asia. f. Sikhism -punjab g. Shintoism -japan h. Daoism -china i. Confucianism -china 5. Many of the religions listed in number 4 are umbrella names (i.e. there are divisions within many of these religions). Identify the major divisions within the following religions, and identify where one finds adherents of each division: a. Christianity -Roman Catholic -Eastern Orthodox- Eastern Europe, former USSR b. Islam -Sunni-majority -Shiite 6. Where in the US would one find many Mormans? Baptists? Lutherans? Roman Catholics? Jews? Muslims?

7. What are the main differences between ethnic & universalizing religions? Provide three examples of both universalizing and ethnic religions. -Universalizing: conversion religions Ethnic: territorial/cultural affinity Universalizing Those faiths that claim applicability to all humans Open to anyone who chooses to make some sort of symbolic commitment Christianity, Islam and Buddhism are examples Individual Founder Relatively recent origin Holidays based on events in founders life Ethnic Strong territorial and cultural group identification More than simply a declaration of faith Adoption of a complex lifestyle

Mormons-In and around Utah Baptists-Deep South Lutheran-Northern Great Plains. Jews: Florida and New-York Muslims- Michigan/D.C./LA major city areas Catholics- North East.

Do not proselytize and live in closed communities that are spatially concentrated No known founder Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice Shinto, Hinduism, Daoism, Animism and Judaism are examples 8. What are some of the general spatial patterns of religion in North America? In other words, in what regions of the US would one find large numbers of Roman Catholics? Baptists? Jews? Etc. 9. What is an animistic religion? Where do we find adherents of animistic religions? -Retained tribal ethnic religion of people around the world 10% of Africans today Animists believe certain inanimate objects possess spirits or souls Spirits live in rocks, rivers, mountain peaks, and heavenly bodies A Shaman tribal religious figure usually serves as the intermediary between people and the spirits 10. Identify the Five Pillars of Islam

11. Is Hinduism monotheistic or polytheistic? Explain your answer! 12. How can one tell a Roman Catholic church from a Protestant church? How can one identify an Eastern Orthodox church? A Jewish synagogue? A mosque? -Catholic more ornate, Protestant more modest - eastern orthodox- synagogue-mosque13. What is syncretism? Why is the Taj Mahal an example of syncretism? Syncretism: the mixing of two or more religions that creates unique rituals, artwork, and beliefs. Confucianism + Taoism + Buddhism Japanese Shintoism + Buddhism Syncretism of Christianity and indigenous beliefs in the Americas, Africa, and Asia
The Taj Mahal is an example of syncretism because of the Minarets (Islam) and the writing/detailed design from Hinduism.

14. Why was there a rise in secularism around the world in the 20th
century? What regions of the world are more secular? Less secular? -Communist rule (China, former USSR) Failure of religion to adjust to modern society

Industrialization/Urbanization/Globalization More secular western Europe Less secular U.S.A 15. Religious fundamentalism. Is it confined to one religion or many? Fundamentalism - a process that is leading to increasingly large groups of people who claim there is only one way to interpret worship. Fundamentalists generally envision a return to a more perfect religion and ethics they imagine existed in the past. Common in the U.S. and in some Islamic nations. Religious extremism - fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. 16. How have recent immigration patterns affected the United States and Europe religiously? Describe reaction to this in Western Europe. 17. Identify at least four places in the world where there is religious conflict today. Provide an explanation of what the conflict is about, and how it has affected various groups of people living there. 18. Identify the following houses of worship: