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BIOETHICS

(Updates on Abortion)
Submitted To: Mrs. Ruth R. Abayon Instructor

Submitted By: Margeline E. Pepino, BSN-II

Legal basis for Philippine abortion ban Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution says, in part, "Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The act is criminalized by the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, which was enacted in 1930 and remains in effect today. Articles 256, 258 and 259 of the Code mandate imprisonment for the woman who undergoes the abortion, as well as for any person who assists in the procedure, even if they be the woman's parents, a physician or midwife. Article 258 further imposes a higher prison term on the woman or her parents if the abortion is undertaken "in order to conceal [the woman's] dishonor". There is no law in the Philippines that expressly authorizes abortions in order to save the woman's life; and the general provisions which do penalize abortion make no qualifications if the woman's life is endangered. It may be argued that an abortion to save the mother's life could be classified as a justifying circumstance (duress as opposed to self-defense) that would bar criminal prosecution under the Revised Penal Code. However, this has yet to be adjudicated by the Philippine Supreme Court. Proposals to liberalize Philippine abortion laws have been opposed by the Catholic Church, and its opposition has considerable influence in the predominantly Catholic country. However, the constitutionality of abortion restrictions has yet to be challenged before the Philippine Supreme Court. The present Constitution of the Philippines, enacted in 1987, pronounces as among the policies of the State that "[The State] shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception." (sec. 12, Art. II) The provision was crafted by the Constitutional Commission which drafted the charter with the intention of providing for constitutional protection of the abortion ban, although the enactment of a more definitive provision sanctioning the ban was not successful. It is also notable that the provision is enumerated as among several state policies, which are generally regarded in law as unenforceable in the absence of implementing legislation. The 1987 RP Constitution also contains several other provisions enumerating various state policies including, e.g., the affirmation of labor "as a primary social economic force" (Section 14, Article II); the equal protection of "the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception" (Section 12, Article II); the "Filipino family as the foundation of the nation" (Article XV, Section 1); the recognition of Filipino as "the national language of the Philippines" (Section 6, Article XVI, and even a requirement that "all educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors."

(Section 19.1, Article XIV) Whether these provisions may, by themselves, be the source of enforceable rights without implementing legislation has been the subject of considerable debate in the legal sphere and within the Supreme Court. The Court, for example, has ruled that a provision requiring that the State "guarantee equal access to opportunities to public service" could not be enforced without implementing legislation, and thus could not bar the disallowance of so-called "nuisance candidates" in presidential elections.[a] However, in another case the Court held that a provision requiring that the State "protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology" did not require implementing legislation to become the source of operative rights.[b] Any legal challenge to abortion restrictions in the Philippines would necessarily have to evaluate the legal force given to Section 12, Article II of the Constitution. [edit]Abortion practices in the Philippines One study estimated that, despite legal restrictions, in 1994 there were 400,000 abortions performed illegally in the Philippines and 80,000 hospitalizations of women for abortion-related complications. 12% of all maternal deaths in 1994 were due to unsafe abortion according to theDepartment of Health of the Philippines. Two-thirds of Filipino women who have abortions attempt to self-induce or seek solutions from those who practice folk medicine. [2] The Department of Health has created a program to address the complications of unsafe abortion, Prevention and Management of Abortion and its Complications. This program had been tested in 17 government-run hospitals by 2003.[3] [edit] MANILA Built in the late 1500s by the Spaniards, Quiapo Church is one of the most prominent symbols of Roman Catholicism in the Philippines. Located in the center of Manila, right along a busy boulevard with side streets teeming with bootlegged DVDs, Filipinos who pray for miracles flock to this church. Inside is a supposedly miraculous life-size statue of Jesus carrying the cross. To hundreds of Filipino women every year, Quiapo Church provides a solution - some say another kind of miracle - to a specific predicament: unwanted pregnancy. Every day, pregnant women go to this church not only to pray but to buy abortion drugs from the dozens of stalls that surround it. "You could say we provide instant miracles to women," said a 58-year-old vendor, who agreed to talk on the condition of anonymity. For years now, the woman said, she has been selling herbs and certain abortifacients right outside the church's main entrance, barely 20 paces from the Monument for Children, a

representation of a fetus outside the womb, cherubs, Christ's wounded hands and a sobbing mother. Today, Quiapo Church has become almost synonymous with abortion. It is a testament not only to a people's abiding faith but also to one of the more tragic facts in Philippine society, where abortion is illegal and the Roman Catholic Church condemns any woman who has one. But more and more women are undergoing abortions, and more and more of them are dying because abortions are largely clandestine and unsafe. Precisely because of the enormous power of Roman Catholicism - more than 80 percent of Filipinos are Catholics - the government does not have a clear policy on abortion. Filipino politicians never mention it in their public pronouncements except to condemn it. Meanwhile, reports of women dying or hospitalized because of induced abortion, or of fetuses found in garbage dumps, are becoming more common. In some instances, fetuses are dumped in and around Catholic churches in the mother's belief that it would save the child's soul. Reproductive-rights groups believe, however, that it is done to spite a church that condemns women who abort their pregnancies. Some hospitals refuse to treat women for abortion-related illnesses like profuse bleeding because, as one health official put it, "they look at these women as sinners." In a few instances, according to women's groups, doctors have performed postabortion dilation and curettage without anesthesia as a punishment for these women. Official estimates put annual abortions at 400,000 to 500,000, and rising. The World Health Organization estimate puts the figure at nearly 800,000, one of the highest rates of unsafe abortions in Asia. Seventy percent of unwanted pregnancies in the Philippines end in abortion said Jean-Marc Oliv, the country representative of the World Health Organization. One of four pregnancies in the Philippines end in abortion, according to Pro-Life Philippines, an anti-abortion group. According to the Department of Health, nearly 100,000 women who have unsafe abortions every year end up in the hospital. The Philippines, with its high population growth rate (2.6 percent) and low rate of contraceptive use (an estimated 35 percent) also has an increasing number of teenage pregnancies. As many as 17 percent of all unsafe abortions are done on teenage or young mothers, according to the Department of Health. Compounding the problem is the fact that 36 percent of Filipino women become pregnant before marriage and 45 percent of all pregnancies are either unwanted or ill-timed, according to the World Health Organization.

There are "a lot of unmet needs regarding family planning or planning and spacing pregnancies in the Philippines," said Oliv of the WHO. "Families, it seems, would like at least one child less than what they have." About 4 in 5 abortions in the Philippines are for economic reasons, according to a survey by the University of the Philippines. In many cases, said Jocelyn Pacete, a spokeswoman for Likhaan, a women's health group based in Manila, "the mother can't afford another child, so ends up choosing her five living children over the fetus in her womb." Doctors who perform abortions clandestinely in clinics typically charge 2,000 to 5,000 pesos, or $37 to $93, according to one report. Many Filipinos cannot afford such fees, so they turn to Quiapo Church or to one of several other churches around the country near which abortifacients are sold. In Quiapo, the best-selling abortifacient is Cytotec, a drug for ulcers. Before it was banned largely through the lobbying efforts of Pro-Life Philippines, Cytotec could be bought over the counter for 20 pesos. Today, it sells on the black marketfor 50 to 120 pesos per tablet. Most of the Cytotec now circulating is smuggled in from South Korea and Bangkok, according to Pilar Versoza, a nun who runs Pro-Life Philippines. The vendors around Quiapo also sell concoctions extracted from herbs and roots they claim will induce menstruation, a euphemism for abortion. Usually a vendor eyes a woman passing by, trying to gauge whether she is interested in the vendor's wares. If the woman so much as glances at the leaves and bottles on display, the vendor calls out with a knowing, even conspiratorial, look on her face. "Problem with menstruation?" the vendor asks. Versoza said some of the vendors also arrange for abortion procedures to take place. Versoza's group has been battling with these vendors for years. "We would assign volunteers to chase after women who had just bought from the vendors and tell them about their options," Versoza said. One time, Pro-Life Philippines put up a sign near the church telling women that they had options other than abortion. A few days later, the sign was torn down. Versoza believes that a syndicate organizes the vendors, which may explain why, even with the raids and arrests ordered by Manila's mayor, who is an officer in Pro-Life Philippines, the selling of abortifacients continues. "Unsafe abortion is a very serious public health issue, a silent scourge," said Dr. Diego Danila, who oversees the monitoring of abortion cases and maternal deaths for the Department of Health. Danila said attempts to address unsafe abortion through initiatives like more vigorous family planning is almost always opposed by the church and anti-abortion groups. "Our hands are tied," Danila said. "Our mandate is to follow what Malacaang orders us to do," he added, referring to the presidential palace.

Although the Health Department has been putting into effect a family-planning program that the church criticizes, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a devout Roman Catholic, has repeatedly said abortion is immoral. Abortion opponents believe that a reproductive-health bill pending in Congress practically legalizes abortion. The bill's intention, according to its authors, is to empower women to make more informed choices about their body. Versoza of Pro-Life Philippines said she believed that abortion had become a convenient option for a number of Filipino women because they are made to believe that that is how they should exercise their rights over their body. "But there are options," she said. "Education is one, but the way sex education is being taught in school and in the media does not help. What is being imparted to our children is information, not values formation." Oliv, of the World Health Organization, said the rise in the number of unsafe abortions could be traced to a lack of information. Sometimes, societys morality itself pushes women to have induced abortions. Even the Penal code organizers this in the way it states the penalties for abortion: Any woman who shall commit this offense (abortion) to conceal her dishonor, shall suffer the penalty of prison correctional in its minimum and medium periods. Society stigmatizes single mothers, sometimes even punishing them severely. Pregnant unmarried students face not just of ridicule from classmates, but expulsion by school authorities (Tan 2008). Addressing the Problem Action on many fronts is needed to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in the Philippines. In 2000, more than 473,000 Filipino women underwent induced abortions, one in every seven pregnancies was terminated and 27 in every 1,000 women aged15 44 had an abortion. These figures expose the reality that a substantial proportion of women in the Philippines rely on abortion to control their fertilitydespite laws that prohibit it, social mores that stigmatize it and health risks that make abortion complications a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women. Women often have to go to great lengths to end their pregnancies, many suffer extensive physical harm and some die. The Philippine government and society have not effectively addressed these problems (Singh et al. 2006). Abortion is common in the Philippines because unintended pregnancy is common. Increased use of effective contraceptives would help women achieve their desired family size, and thus prevent unintended pregnancies, which, in turn, would reduce the need for abortion and the grave health consequences and costs of unsafe abortion. This will require increasing knowledge about, access to and government funding for modern methods, especially among poor and rural women. The U.S. Agency for International Development is phasing out donations of modern contraceptives for distribution through the Philippine government and will completely end donations by 2008. In addition, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has vowed that

her administration will support only natural family planning methods, and opposes the proposed Responsible Parenting and Population Management Act of 2005, which would encourage smaller families and ensure access to a full range of legal, medically safe and effective family planning methods. Increased resources should be directed at improving the quality of post abortion care for women with complications by expanding services such as those offered under the PMAC (Prevention and Management of Abortion and its Complications) program. (PMAC) program was established in 2000 by EngenderHealth, an international nongovernmental organization, and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH). PMAC aims to strengthen the capability of the countrys health care system in the prevention and management of abortion and its complications, and to improve the accessibility of quality post abortion care services to all women of reproductive age in the country.

To ensure that all women receive the care they need, medical professionals should be trained to carry out the full range of reproductive health servicesincluding legal abortions, post abortion care and contraceptive counselingin a client-centered, compassionate manner. Righting a wrong with another wrong isn't the answer. Adoption agencies are loaded with applicants for adoption, meaning that there are many who want the children if the mothers are unable to raise them up for one reason or another. What is needed is immediate medical care and counseling. Rape victims need our help to overcome their emotional problems, even if they do not become pregnant. The few who do become pregnant need additional help (i.e. financial, medical, and moral support). Education and discipline in sexual responsibilities should be emphasized. Our country should begin to put up Rape Treatment Centers for emergency assistance to rape victims. A non-judgmental and compassionate staff must be trained to run these centers (Pro-Life Philippines 2005). Young people, as well as adults, need complete and accurate information on reproductive health and contraception, the risks of unsafe abortion, and the health and societal benefits of family planning. Abortion has increasingly become a quick-fix solution to escape the burdens of raising a childdespite the medical risk it poses (Quito 2007). As many as 17 percent of all unsafe abortions are done on teenage or young mothers, according to the Department of Health. Compounding the problem is the fact that 36 percent of Filipino women become pregnant before marriage and 45 percent of all pregnancies are either unwanted or ill-timed, according to the World Health Organization (Conde 2005). Policymakers must clarify the legal and medical grounds on which abortion may be allowed and ensure that women are able to access safe, humane abortion services to the extent they are permitted.

To measure progress toward improving public healthsuch as reduced levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion among Filipino womenpolicymakers must have access to reliable information on the publics health needs and the services being provided. In the Philippines, complications following unsafe abortions (an indicator of levels of these procedure generally) are a leading cause of hospitalization, yet reports that would permit documentation of these cases (as well as the full range of the causes for hospitalization) are not compiled, processed or tabulated at the national level. In addition to retrieving official reports submitted to the national Department of Health, researchers collecting data for this study had to visit many regional department of health offices to obtain reports for the more than 2,000 hospitals in the countrya process that took several months. Improving government data collection and analysis would enable decision makers to develop better-informed public policies, monitor the implementation of policies and programs, and evaluate progress. Such results are critical to efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals and ensure a healthier society. Ratification of the 1986 Constitution (within which is enshrined the protection for the unborn) will not be sufficient to stop abortion. Congress will have to pass supportive laws that will effectively deter criminal abortion and establish support systems for the protection of both mother and unborn child. Legalized abortion does not reduce the number of illegal abortions. Drs. Hilgers and Shearin of the Mayo Clinic discovered that when permissive abortion laws were passed in eight European countries, the number of illegal abortions stayed about the same (ProLife Philippines 2005). In Davao City An absence of comprehensive local health ordinance in the city manifests the increase of numbers of unwanted pregnancies and alcoholism that resulted to abortion and early marriages among youth. In fact, this year, there are abrupt increases of case of abortion in the city Local legislative body are still deaf and blind in solving it that evidently shows that it is not their top priority to solve, despite the Non-Government Organizations initiatives to augment solutions to the issue of reproductive health of the city. Dr. Roberto Alcantara, national president of Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP), alleged that they initiated lobbying effort to the councilors for the passage of Reproductive Health Bill to holistically solve the Reproductive Health issue in Davao City however until now, there are no local resolutions made to give way for inclusion to their legislative agenda (Macla 2007). City Councilor Angela Angging Librado-Trinidad has underscored the need in Davao City for an institution and a piece of legislation that will address reproductive health care for women due to the series of discoveries of aborted fetuses dumped in the citys trash bins. Such practice only describes the present culture and mindset of most women today who are not well-equipped or fully aware that they have other alternatives, and who are deprived of much needed services by the state, the councilor, who has a young daughter, said in a statement. There are also provisions to provide women with pre- and post-natal care to address the poor delivery of health services especially among women, as well as provide reproductive health and

rights education. The Reproductive Health Care Act providing for the establishment of a Reproductive Health Clinic will also design and implement sustained reproductive health education program for women and men (DavaoToday 2007). "We don't want this to be viewed as merely a police criminal report. It is not just to pursue who these women are and punish them," she said. She said abortion is related to other women's issues that have to be addressed. For Trinidad, women are victims in this case, not the perpetrators. Trinidad said the fetus dumping cases made it more urgent to put up the clinic so that there will be a venue to discuss abortion and other reproductive health issues with the public thoroughly (MindaNews 2007). Recommendations In the Philippines, womens willingness to seek abortions from untrained providers and in unhygienic places, using techniques such as painful massages and ingestion of bitter herbs, and to try again and again when a method fails, makes it clear that legal barriers are not preventing abortions from taking place. What will reduce abortion is helping women and couples get better information about sexuality, reproductive health and contraception, and better access to modern contraceptives, so they can prevent unintended pregnancies. For national, regional and local policymakers, and government agencies at all levels, this means taking the necessary steps to address this problem.

REACTION: I am a teenage mother, and having reviewed the surveys online about abortion that has become almost epidemic in the society, I cant understand why others dont want to pursue their pregnancy. I only think of four reasons: a. Emotional b. Physical c. Environmental d. Financial Women nowadays wont want to become pregnant because 1) they think theyre not capable of being a good mother, 2) its a big shame for them to be pregnant because of their age, 3) having a baby might affect their social status and 4) they dont think its the right time. So I think to myself, why do they engage themselves in premarital sex if they have a lot of things to consider first before getting pregnant? If they doubt their capabilities, why do they have sex with their partners? Is it only all out of lust? If they were ashamed of getting pregnant at a young age, then why do they do it? If its about their social status change, then why cant they just give it up for the sake of their unborn? And if its not the right time, then when do they think it is? Its in Gods will; He knows when the right time will come for a woman to get pregnant. A babys a blessing, why cant they accept it? Other women get very excited about their pregnancy. They do all things just to have the baby safe and healthy. But, too much of everything is bad, right? Some lead to miscarriages

because of unexpected accidents. Some women are not capable of going on a pregnancy because their body isnt fit for such, so a miscarriage again. Some cant be pregnant because they or their partners are sterile. Many factors should be thought of and considered first before planning for a family. There are many environmental factors that could affect a womans perception about pregnancy. Those who live in squatters might get influenced by bad vices that could affect the unborn. If a woman smokes or is into drugs, her baby will be very much affected, thus leading to a miscarriage. If the mother is a drug addict, she may not want to have the baby, so she might get it aborted. The last but not the least reason why women dont want to pursue their pregnancies is because of financial problems. The poor may have more kids than the rich ones but at some point of their lives, they wouldnt want the baby because theyre financially burdened. Most cases of abortion roots from a family that cannot support and provide for their children. As a student nurse, I have the knowledge about the pros and cons of having sex at an early age but as a mother I appreciate the little things my child does for me, like combing my hair until I fall asleep or kissing me on the cheeks to awaken me. Having a child is not a burden; it is a gift, meant for every family to have. Because if its not, why was the egg fertilized in the first place? Of the women who are successful in inducing their own abortions, many go to great and often grotesque lengths to achieve their goal. Most of them take some form of anti-clotting or aspirin-related drugs, to induce bleeding. Some drink incredible quantities of alcohol. When all else fails, they throw themselves down flights of stairs or beat on their stomachs, with the help of a local midwife others self-catheter their vaginas. All of these violent practices greatly endanger the mother as well; its shocking that a woman would harm herself like that for an abortion. The Philippines has been slammed by a US based rights group. Wow, the Center for Reproductive Rights (CFRR) may know what it is asking for and just not care. I tend to think, they dont have a clue about the Philippine culture. The Philippines is locked in heated debate over sex education for its people, not just in the schools but for adults. The AP article I read mentions that there has been no response to their call for legal abortion in the Philippines. If there is a response, its likely to be something along the lines of this is an internal matter and we dont want nor appreciate outsiders trying to tell us what is right for our country. Anyone that knows my views about government and human behavior in general, knows that Im all about the individual. I am not a supporter of the collective good. Im for individual rights. Okay, let the majority rule but not to the extent they trample the individual. When the US Government tries to meddle in my personal life, it makes my blood boil. Some get angry over taxes, I get angry over someone telling me what is right or wrong. So, I am pro-choice. The Philippines is not and in no way do I presume to try to tell the people or the government of the Philippines what their policy should be. However, I also do not wish to indicate that I support the anti-abortionist in the USA. This article could lead someone to that conclusion and they would be incorrect. There are some troubling statistics regarding this issue that I think are important The issue ialso gives insight into the culture of the Philippines and thats why Im writing about it.

It is reported that about 500,000 women seek abortions in the Philippines each year. Since abortion is illegal, some of the methods used are dangerous and painful. To perform abortions, midwives implement abdominal massage or insert catheters into the uterus. It is estimated that about 90,000 women then develop complications from the procedures and that 1000 die each year. There is even controversy over the totality of abortions being banned in the Philippines. The UN said in a report issued earlier this decade that it was legal only when the life of the woman was in danger It appears though, as often is the case with Philippine law, there are other laws that basically negate that exception. With the exceptions unclear, the law is a total ban for practical purposes. The World Health Organizations policy on abortion seems to agree with the The Center of Reproductive Rights. One WHO journal states: Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women. The Center of Reproductive Rights is harsh, stating that, Again, I dont think the Philippines is going to pay much attention to these non-governmental organizations, if they respond at all, I think it will be something like, who do you think you are by trying to tell us how to run our government. I tend to agree. Who do they think they are? To me, the CFRR is showing their ignorance of the Philippines and its people. I think very few Filipino would want easier access to abortion. Is it really a fundamental human right? Maybe but a lot of people consider it murder and I dont think their concerns are without merit. They may be right. I dont know what to believe regarding that issue. It seems godlike to me for anyone to suggest that it is a fundamental human right. If it is murder, then are they saying murder is a fundamental human right? I doubt it; instead I think they feel as if they know when life begins or when a human is human. Sorry folks, but you dont know when a human become human. You dont know regardless of which side of the fence youre on! Im okay with the idea that people should be able to make up their own minds but Im unwilling to say that I know its a fundamental human right. Im certainly not okay with the idea of outsiders telling the Philippines The Philippine government has created a dire human rights crisis in the country. Thats the claim being made by the CFRR. The Catholic Church plays a major role in the lives of the Filipino. The Catholic Church even condemns the use of contraceptives. Thats a concept thats pretty hard for me to embrace but for those that wish to, who am I to tell them how to live. Abortion in the Philippines? It is out of the question. Does this group tell Iran and Saudi Arabia the same thing? Why did they pick out the Philippines? Maybe they are getting around to everyone. The CFRR is, of course, free to do what they want and to say what they want but they are also free to show their ignorance if they choose to do that. People in the West, most of them, just dont have any idea how good they have it nor do they understand that the rest of the world is vastly different.

As part of my project, I have included these surveys, which were done to know the view of the people of the questions asked. "Which of these comes closest to your view? Abortion should be generally available to those who want it. OR, Abortion should be available, but under stricter limits than it is now. OR, Abortion should not be permitted." Date Generally available Available under stricter limits % 39 38 40 35 41 42 39 43 39 34 37 41 39 39 38 37 40 35 44 42 38 Not permitted Unsure

8/20-24/10 4/5-12/10 11/13-16/09 10/5-8/09 6/12-16/09 9/12-16/08 8/15-20/08 12/5-9/07 9/4-9/07 7/9-17/07 5/18-23/07 3/7-11/07 1/20-25/06 12/2-6/05 4/13-16/05 3/21-22/05 2/24-28/05 1/14-18/05 11/04 7/04 1/03

% 36 36 34 41 36 37 34 36 34 41 39 34 38 38 36 35 35 36 34 34 39

% 23 23 23 20 21 19 24 18 25 22 21 23 21 20 24 25 23 26 21 22 22

% 2 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 1

"Which of these comes closest to your views about abortion? A woman should be able to get an abortion if she decides she wants one no matter what the reason. Abortion should only be legal in certain circumstances, such as when a woman's health is endangered or when the pregnancy results from rape or incest. OR, Abortion should be illegal in all circumstances." Available no matter what the reason % 37 37 34 Only legal Illegal in all in certain circumstances circumstances % 44 43 45 % 15 15 17 Unsure/ Refused

5/12-18/10 11/24 - 12/7/08 11/26 - 12/9/07

% 5 5 4

"Next, I'm going to read you a list of issues. Regardless of whether or not you think it should be legal, for each one, please tell me whether you personally believe that in general it is morally acceptable or morally wrong. How about abortion?" Morally acceptable % 38 36 40 40 43 40 40 37 38 42 Morally wrong % 50 56 48 51 44 51 50 53 53 45 Depends on situation (vol.) % 9 6 10 7 11 8 8 9 8 11 Unsure

5/3-6/10 5/7-10/09 5/8-11/08 5/10-13/07 5/8-11/06 5/2-5/05 5/2-4/04 5/5-7/03 5/6-9/02 5/10-14/01

% 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2

"Looking back over the past 50 years, do you think the birth control pill has been one of the country's most significant medical developments, or not?" Has been % 52 50 54 Has not been % 40 44 36 Unsure/ No answer % 8 6 10

ALL Men Women

"How much impact do you think the development of the birth control pill has had on American society overall: a great deal, some, not much, or no impact?" A great deal % 41 38 43 Some % 40 40 40 Not much % 14 16 11 No impact % 3 3 2 Unsure/ No answer % 2 3 4

ALL Men Women

"How much impact do you think the development of the birth control pill has had on women's lives in particular: a great deal, some, not much, or no impact?" A great deal % 54 54 53 Some % 30 28 31 Not much % 12 13 11 No impact % 2 2 2 Unsure/ No answer % 2 3 3

ALL Men Women

"Has the development of the birth control pill been a change for the better for American family life, a change for the worse, or hasn't that made much difference?" Better % 50 Worse % 11 Not much difference % 34 Unsure/ No answer % 5

ALL

Men Women

46 53

13 9

36 31

5 7

"Has the development of the birth control pill been a change for the better for the lives of American women, a change for the worse, or hasn't that made much difference?" Better % 56 59 54 Worse % 9 9 8 Not much difference % 28 25 31 Unsure/ No answer % 7 7 7

ALL Men Women

"Do you think the development of the birth control pill has made it easier for women to have jobs and careers outside the home, has made it harder, or did the development of the birth control pill have no effect on women having jobs and careers outside the home?" Easier % 57 58 56 Harder % 1 1 1 No effect % 38 37 40 Unsure/ No answer % 4 4 3

ALL Men Women

"How much impact do you think the development of the birth control pill has had on American attitudes toward sex: a great deal, some, not much, or no impact?" A great deal % 51 52 49 Some % 32 34 30 Not much % 6 5 8 No impact % 8 7 8 Unsure/ No answer % 3 2 5

ALL Men Women

"Do you think most men would be willing to use birth control pills if they were available to men?" Yes % 49 66 35 No % 40 24 54 Unsure % 11 10 11

ALL Men Women

"Have you ever used birth control pills?" Yes % 75 No % 19 Unsure/ No answer % 6

Women