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6th International R & D Conference on Sustainable Development of Water and Energy Resources Needs and Challenges - 13-16 February

y 2007, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER SHORT CIRCUIT TESTED AT KEMA

ABHILASH MISHRA AND RICHIK MANAS DAS


AREVA T&D India Limited, Allahabad, India

1.

INTRODUCTION

In the modern complex network of electrical grid system, the generator transformers are recognized as most critical, expensive and key element. Reliability and trouble free performance are considered as the most important requirement for generator transformer. Physically larger the unit size bigger will be the volume with high dielectric and magnetic stress. Hence many utilities for ensuring reliability of generator transformer specify Short Circuit Test, a special acceptance test to verify the Short Circuit withstand capability of transformer. KEMA Netherlands last one decade experience of Short Circuit Testing for Large Power Transformer is 30% initial failure rate. CPRI India experience with short circuit is around 20% failure. Short-circuit testing being onerous test & also the test facility for large transformer is not available within the country hence this test becomes critical not only technically but also commercially. Manufacturer perspective is to ensure the test pass in one go in order to minimise the Short Circuit Test cycle cost (SCTCC). SCTCC is a summary of purchase price + SC test cost (Including transportation time & cost) + Cost of repeat test (In the event of failure). Especially the cost due to repeat test can go abnormally high which may involve cost of repair + cost to repeat test (including Transportation) + Late delivery may also get applicable. To minimise the SCTCC cost the manufacturer of transformer must have a good base to stand on regarding the basic physical technology, Design concepts, manufacturing capability & Quality standards. 2. SHORT CIRCUIT TEST EXPERIENCE

The short circuit withstand test is the major test that validates the Design and the Construction of a power transformer. To submit a transformer to this test is a real Validation of the theoretical calculations and manufacturing processes. To pass the test successfully demonstrates a perfect Mastery of the dynamical stresses which occur during short circuit AREVA has performed large no of actual short circuit test on different Power transformers worldwide. The reference list contains hundreds of full short-circuits at different international labs, the maximum rating of single phase GT tested is 550MVA, 24/400kV.

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ABHILASH MISHRA ET AL.

Of course the very base for manufacturing of reliable transformer is a well proven design concept. To make reliable design for large & high voltage transformer there must be good theoretical understanding of transformer physics. The design concept employed by the Areva T & D Ltd is based on the technical knowledge from different parts of world i.e. fusion of best technologies of GEC, ALSTHOM, English Electric, and AEG. Based on the technical knowledge & experience gained on transformer testing along with decades of field performance, the transformer technology has been standardised with common rules & tools within the group. Based on manufacturing process across the AREVA units best practises has been adopted & standardised to ensure the most efficient & reliable way of manufacturing.

4.

BASIC TRANSFORMER TECHNOLOGY

Based on MVA size, kV class & Short-circuit forces the AREVA Transformers Technology is standardised and are classified in four different Ranges i.e. E, N, P & G ranges (Fig. 1). Each type of Transformer Range Technology is made suited to address the Design, Manufacturing & Operational requirements. Design Rules & Tools along with Manufacturing & Quality practices have been clearly laid & followed across all units. Since the technical base to satisfy the different type transformer is the design concept which can be adjusted and optimized to the specific needs with in the basic parameters like current density in the windings, magnetic flux in the core, no. of turns in each winding, cable dimension in the winding, core dimension etc. From optimization of design important technical performance viz, No load loss, noise level, short circuit forces, Load losses & winding temperature are calculated. A large part of the design concept is the engineering tools for the designers to verify the designs & verification of transformer stress due to short circuit forces based on the flux distribution & corresponding mechanical forces & thermal withstand capability. Based on above classification single phase 70 MVA, 400 kV GT transformer (210 MVA on 3-phase) is belonging to G-Range. Key & specific design criteria of G Range transformer with respect to short circuit strength are covered in the Design concept. Apart from technological background as a standard contract process, a detailed & stringent Risk analysis, Design Review & Various Gate Reviews tools are employed to asses the complexity of transformer requirement like short circuit test etc.

Fig. 1 (kV vs. 3-Phase MVA rating)

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

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5.

TRANSFORMER DESIGN CONCEPT : G Range Technology

The paper reviews some important aspects that needed to be considered while designing and manufacturing Large Power transformer for Short Circuit test. Special point of G range Technology is explained with reference to 70MVA 400kV GT which was designed, manufactured & successfully (Short Circuit test pass in one go) tested at KEMA. 5.1 Core Design

3-limb (2-frame) core design for single phase 70MVA GT adopted with centre limb wound & two auxiliary limbs as return path. The selection of core frame is based mainly to limit the transportation height & also its being proven design for such large rating transformer. This design is having advantage of simple core limb construction due to splitting of centre limb which makes all limb laminations identical & makes easier for cutting & stacking. Based on Core Diameter, the Core steps & core area are standard as per AREVA G-range Technology. Step lap core construction employed for ensuring low core Loss & Noise level. During finalisation of Core design the important aspect is to limit the internal core temperature due to losses & abnormal condition viz overloading / short-circuit. The core temperature calculation is carried out by considering the worst scenario i.e. over fluxing & as well as Overloading condition. To limit the Surface temperature (105C max) & internal core temperature (140C max) core duct are introduced to provide oil flow path. In our case two core ducts has been provided and also centre limb is divided in two parts with 6mm duct introduced between two subdivided core laminations which provides proper oil flow across the core laminations to keep the temperature well within limit. Also during design the calculation of voltage between the undivided core block to be calculated & location of Nomex paper between steps is decided (as shown in Fig. 2). This is important aspect for transformer with large core diameter with higher V/T (Volt per turn) to avoid partial discharges phenomenon through the edges of core lamination. During core cutting process special care has to be taken for handling of lamination & the burr level of 5 micron is to maintained.

Fig. 2

From mechanical strength / short circuit point of view, binding & core structure (support insulation for core) are very important. As per AREVA G range technology core are made of bolt less design. The binding of core with 25 x 1.5mm polyester band at regular interval using pressboard buckle tightening method, its unique and is used in all units of AREVA. Binding gives strength to sustain different kind of forces developed in transformer

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ABHILASH MISHRA ET AL.

during Operation like short circuit and also rough transportation & seismic conditions. Special Insulating varnish (Carlite and Lacquer) is used on core edges after core binding which enhances edge insulation and gives better adhesion to lamination reducing vibration. The core stack is provided with stainless steel flitch plate as shown in the Fig. 3. Stainless steel material is used to reduce the losses in the plate due to radial flux. To keep flitch temperature with in the limit, the plate is divided in order to break the circulating current & provide path for oil flow for cooling. The design of flitch plate (thickness & width) depends upon the core diameter & core weight which is fixed & standardised as per G-range. Complete assembled core is then placed inside the bottom tank (Fig. 3) & the bottom part of tank work as the bottom yoke clamp for the core. This kind of arrangement is the unique feature of G-range which makes core independent of coil assembly & giving a robust design of core assembly which is most suitable under short-circuit condition. During short circuit axial force developed inside the winding is suppressed by tie rod and directly transferred into tank.

Fig. 3

5.2

Coil Design

Basic design of winding starts with selection of required number of Turns & cross section area. Based on rated current of individual winding & cross-sectional area of conductor, (I2R) Resistive losses are determined; further the dimension of conductor (Width & thickness) governs the eddy losses within the conductor The windings are arranged concentrically to reduce the leakage flux & minimize the radial forces. The designers goal is to achieve the perfect ampere turn balance between the windings to have minimum forces. But due to constraints like transposition of conductors, grading of winding, tapping winding & manufacturing tolerances leads to uneven ampereturn which give rise to electromagnetic forces. Based on the calculated short circuit currents for different network conditions the electrodynamic forces are determined. The electrodynamic forces are proportional to the vector product of the current in conductor & magnetic induction (flux) at that location.

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

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C L A M P IN G D E V IC E

C O R E

V F LV V

LV1

V V

HV1 HV2

F HV

LV2

LV

HV

C L A M P IN G D E V IC E

A X IA L F O R C E S R A D IA L F O R C E S

Fig. 4

The flux in and between the coils of a winding is varying in the radial as well as in the axial direction of the windings, influencing in this way the radial & axial stresses. The electrodynamic forces appear in the radial direction (pushing the inner winding inward & outer winding outward) and in the axial direction (with a pulsating compression force). Related to the conducting material these forces can be translated into stresses; radial stresses & tangential stresses of a tensile or compressive nature. These stresses then can be compared with materials characteristics in order to judge the probability of overstressing the conductor & its supports. The design philosophy is to calculate the above forces accurately and counter measures are taken to either reduce these forces to minimum or to improve the withstand capability. The short circuit forces are determined based on the minimum impedance and the maximum possible asymmetry. AREVA is using ROTH method a Finite element based program with 2-D / 3-D flux plot for calculation of forces (Fig. 5). Especially for the short circuit withstand capability the designer has to take care of Hoop stress, Radial Bursting Force, Internal Axial Compression, Compressive Pressure in radial spacers, and Bending Stress on clamping ring. All Results should be validated against maximum allowable stresses. Due to compressive stress the inner winding has a tendency to fail under buckling. Hence work harden (stress proof) conductor for 70MVA GT is selected for windings (LV and HV) to increase the buckling strength. Conductor thickness and base cylinder (Cylinder placed after the core and before the LV coil) are also selected to withstand the radial forces. Design of Base cylinder should be sufficient to withstand the inner radial stress developed during short circuit. SRBP (Synthetic resin bonded paper) cylinder was used in this case. The HV winding arrangement as two coils in parallel (centre entry) results in reduction of the compression and end forces. Separate Tap winding has been selected to achieve uniform distribution of ampere turn balancing at all taps.

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Fig. 5

Based on the total end forces calculated, the stabilisation forces are applied to finished windings before nesting them. The aim of the stabilisation process is to control & stabilise the dimension of winding 5.3 Core-Coil Assembly

The individual processed & sized coils (LV HV & tap) are nested together & then assembled on core to form Core-coil assembly. From short circuit point of view much attention to be given for assembly of end insulation, intermediate insulation & clamping structure (Top & bottom PWD Ring). The design & selection of above aspects is mainly governed by the forces appearing due to the short circuit. 5.3.1 Clamping Force In order to avoid any movement during short circuit even in service, the windings must be maintained clamped axially. This is done by means of clamping frames, tie rods, tank under base support or flitch plate structures. The clamping force is linked with short circuit axial forces. The mechanical design of the clamping structure is outlined in the mechanical rules. For clamping of winding for G-range (70MVA GT) transformers, Flitch plate & Stainless steel tie rod which is coupled with transformer tank under base & the top Ring through the MS channel (Figs. 6a, & 6b). The 4 nos per phase non magnetic Tie rods is mainly used as core / coil supporting arrangement. Since Core is independent of Coil hence during short-

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

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circuit negligible force is transferred to the core. So for short circuit withstand capability full attention is generally drawn at winding.

Fig. 6(b) Fig. 6(a)

6.

MANUFACTURING & QUALITY ASPECT

To manufacturing a Transformer only a few number of machineries are needed as because the transformer is a highly customized product. Instead, there is a lot of Involvement of human activities in this process. As a result high level of precaution and human consciousness are required at every stages of manufacturing. 6.1 Winding

Due to high redial depth and proper tightness, HV - disc winding was made in vertical winding machine. 6.2 Assembly

Attention to be paid during coil lowering. Overbuilding of core diameter or reduced winding diameter are difficult situation during coil lowering at assembly stage. To maintain axial height and adequate pressure by pressure screw as per coil stack drawing sizing of coil is essential. As per AREVA practice more than 55% of total stabilizing force is applied in each coil assembly. LV coil leads, Tapping leads and all terminal gear leads are to be anchored and supported firmly. At tap winding double locked type keyed blocks were used to arrest the conductor movement.

7.

TANKING

The stiffener design of transformer tank is mainly governed by the total internal forces. AREVA has standardised base, Side & top design including the stiffeners. The basic criteria are total weight of core coil assembly along with oil weight, maximum limiting short circuit forces & clamping force.

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ABHILASH MISHRA ET AL.

The gasket arrangement was such that to eliminate any oil leakage during operation. Gasket (Rubber Band) is used for sealing bottom tank with cover. This is 25 x 14 mm gasket & it is very effective in preventing any oil leakage from tank flange joint. To avoid over compressing the gasket leading damage, the bottom tank flange was provided with stoppers/ribs.

8.

SPECIAL ACCESSORIES

The critical components which were fitted on 70MVA GT transformer are 8.1 Heat Exchanger

For water cooling the transformer Double wall tube Heat Exchanger along with inbuilt water leakage detector is used. Unlike single tube Heat Exchanger there is no severity to have oil pressure to be maintained higher than water pressure. 8.2 Bushing Termination

Transformer is designed for Bus Duct termination on LV side, hence suitable bus duct along with oil to air high current condenser bushing provided. On 400kV side oil filled cable box arrangement and oil to oil 400kV bushing is used (Shown in Fig. 7.) But for HV testing & Short circuit testing at KEMA Oil to Air bushing of 420 kV class used (Fig. 8) 8.3 Shock Recorder

Electronic shock recorder was fitted to monitor the shock recording during transportation.

9.

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

The short circuit test on transformer is a special test as described in IEC 60076 5. Prior to the short-circuit tests; the transformer shall be subjected to the routine tests which are specified in IEC 60076-1. The recommended number of tests for power transformers of category III as per IEC 60076-5 clause 4.2.5.5: 3 shots for single-phase transformer (One shot each at maximum, minimum and normal tap). The recommended duration of each shot is 0.25 sec. FRA-measurements (Frequency Response Analysis) is also performed before and after the S.C test. (Annexure 1) 9.1 Acceptable Criteria The maximum reactance variation of 1% evaluated before & after short circuit test. The results of the short-circuit tests and the measurements and checks performed during tests do not reveal any faulty condition. The successfully repeat of all routine tests after short circuit and the lightning impulse test, if specified, successfully performed. Variation in No Load current should not exceed 5% of original value.

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

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Physical inspection of Core & Winding assembly does not reveal any defects such as displacements, shift of laminations, deformation of windings, connections or supporting structures, so significant that they might endanger the safe operation of the transformer; No traces of internal electrical discharge are found; Basic Transformer Data : 70 MVA, (Three phase Bank 210MVA) : 400 / 3 / 13.8 kV : 12.5 % IEC Tolerance : OFWF : 5% @ 2.25% each step (Off circuit) : 550C / 600C : 630 kVrms / 1425kVp : 38 kVrms / N.A : 38 kVrms / 110kVp

9.2

Rating (MVA) Voltage (kV) Percentage Impedance Type of Cooling Tapping Range Oil / Winding Rise (C) Insulation Level : KVrms / KVp - HV winding - HV neutral - LV winding

9.3

Short Circuit Test Data : 12.89% (Measured) : III : 40000MVA

Percentage Impedance Category Apparent system Power

Calculation - Condition before short circuit test (As given by KEMA)

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Circuit diagram of Short Circuit (At Tap 3)

9.5

Short Circuit Test Data (At Tap 3)

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

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9.6

Short Circuit Test Wave shape (at Tap-3)

9.7

Measurement of Reactance Variation


Reactance in ohms (Before Short Circuit Test) 112.85 100.00 88.40 Reactance in ohms (After Short Circuit Test) 113.50 100.60 88.94 %Variation 0.57% 0.60% 0.61

Tap Position Tap Position 1 Tap Position 3 Tap Position 5

Maximum deviation of short circuit reactance as compared with the values measured before test: 0.61% (at Tap 5) against acceptable limit of 1%.

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Fig. 7 (GA of Transformer)

Fig. 8 (Photograph at KEMA, Netherland)

9.8

SFRA - Sweep Frequency Response

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis is a proven technique for making accurate and repeatable measurements. The SFRA analyses the ratio of a steady sinusoidal output from a test object subject to a steady sinusoidal input. The SFRA Technique Covers the full dynamic range and maintains the same energy level for each frequency, providing results that are consistent and accurate. High signal-to-noise ratio across the entire 20 Hz to 2 MHz frequency range ensures valid measurements. Hence SFRA is a very good & tool for monitoring any movement of core & winding under short circuit. For 70MVA GT test SFRA test was also carried out before & after Short circuit test to ensure the healthiness of core & winding. The test results as given bellow.

Test Comparison :Before and after short circuit HV Winding - Open circuited at Tap 1, 3 and 5

Test Comparison: Before and after short HV Circuit- LV Winding

SALIENT DESIGN FEATURES OF 70 MVA, 13.8 / 400 kV GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

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Comparison of above SFRA Test Result before & after Short Circuit indicates no significant Core & winding deformation.

10.

CONCLUSION

Since the Short Circuit test of large GT requires a lot of Time & Cost from design to manufacturing to testing. Thus the Design of large GT for Short circuit requires sound knowledge of transformer physics along with proven experience with well laid down design & manufacturing rules & tools. Manufacturing & Gate reviews become very important to monitor & control the quality throughout the manufacturing process. The paper has covered in good details the key issues related with design & manufacturing of 70MVA single phase GT to highlight the key areas related with short circuit force. The validation of Design & Manufacturing capability through live short circuit test is becoming more & more predominated in present scenario where the reliability of highly capital intensive equipment like Generator transformer is key concern for the user. Hence it is essential to have sufficient expertise and proven technology for large capacity Generator transformer.

REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. AREVA Transformer Technology Rules. AREVA UK Transformer Design Handbook AREVA T & D Ltd Naini Transformer Design Details AREVA T & D Short Circuit Reference list. J & P Transformer Handbook IEC 60076 Standard KEMA Short Circuit Test Report. KEMA Paper on Short Circuit at TRAFOTECH 2006. CPRI Bangalore Paper on Short Circuit at TRAFOTECH 2006.

BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS OF THE AUTHORS


Abhilash Mishra graduated in Electrical Engineering from Regional Engineering College (NIT) Kurukshetra in 1994. From 1994 to 1995 worked as Lecturer in BIT in Electrical Engineering department. Joined AREVA (erstwhile GEC ALSTHOM & ALSTOM) in 1995 as Testing engineer, where specialised in HV testing including PD measurements & impulse testing. From 1998 to 2007 till date, working as Manager Design in Power Transformer design, & also designated as Expert in AREVA Global Technical Expert Team. As a designer worked with various large rating transformers including GTs & HVDC transformers. Richik Manas Das graduated in Electrical Engineering from the University of North Bengal in 2002. From 2002 to 2004 he worked for IMP Power Limited, specialising in Testing of Power Transformers. In 2004 he joined AREVA T&D (Formerly known as ALSTOM Limited) as Asstt. Manager Design, where he has been working on various electrical design of transformer