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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

VENUE: NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION, KANIHA (ORISSA) PERIOD: 19TH MAY-20TH JULY 2011

SUBMITTED BY: BIRAM BABURAY BASKEY FINAL YEAR B.TECH ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGG. ROLL NO. 108EC017

ABOUT THE COMPANY


CORPORATE VISION : A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with increasing global presence. CORE VALUES :
B- Business ethics C-Customer focus O-Organizational & professional pride M-Mutual respect & trust I-Innovation & speed T-Total quality for excellence NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India, a public sector company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

POWER PLANT BASICS


The basic principle of a power plant is to rotate a turbine which converts kinetic energy into electrical energy and produces electricity. There are different types of power plant which use different modes of energy and convert it to electricity. i) Hydel Power Plant : Converts hydro energy to electrical energy ii) Nuclear Power Plant : Converts nuclear energy to electrical energy iii) Thermal Power Plant : Converts thermal energy to electrical energy

coal

Superheated steam Thermal Energy

turbine

Electricity

Chemical Energy

Kinetic Energy

Electrical Energy

National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) is a thermal power plant under Government of India and it uses thermal energy from burning of coal to convert water to superheated steam. The high pressure of a superheated steam is used to rotate the turbine which generates electricity.

THERMAL POWER PLANT CONCEPT (RANKINE CYCLE):


The thermodynamic concept behind generation of electricity from the power plant can by described by a cycle called Rankine cycle. As shown in the figure 2, water is feed to the boiler by BOILER FEED PUMP (BFP) and in the boiler water is heated to superheated steam by burning coal. The steam pressure from the boiler is used to rotate the rotor of the turbine to generate electricity. The steam from the turbine is then condensate in the CONDENSER from where water is extracted to the BFP through CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP (CEP). The T-S curve for the water-steam cycle is shown in figure 3.

The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is

= (WTURBINE - WPUMP)/QIN
Generally WTURBINE = 90% and WPUMP = 80% and so the efficiency of Rankine cycle is 30-40%.

MAIN UNITS OF THE POWER PLANT:


Boiler Turbine Condenser Pump Generator

AUXILLIARY UNITS:
Circulating Water Pump Ash Handling Plant Coal Handling Plant Compressor House Efficient Treatment Plant Demineralise Plant Fuel Oil Pump House Raw Water Pump House

COAL TO ELECTRICITY:
Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. Coal is transported to Bowl Mills by Coal feeders. The coal is pulverized in the Bowl Mill, where it is ground to a powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. This table is rotated with the help of a motor. There are three large steel rollers which are spaced 120" apart. When there is no coal, these rollers does not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between roller and the table and this forces the rollers to rotate. Coal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and rotating table. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P.A. Fan. Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Due to heat and- the density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. "Water is partly converted to steam 'as it rises up in the furnace. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to super heaters for superheating. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540"C) and finally it goes to turbine

STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER:


From the boiler, a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to. shut off steam in an emergency) and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc which rotates the blades and its passage of some heat energy is changed into mechanical energy.

The turbine shaft usually rotates at 3,000 revolutions per minute. This speed is determined by the frequency of the electrical system used in this country and is the speed at which a 2pole generator must be driven to generate alternating current at a frequency of 50 cycles per second.

WATER-STEAM CIRCUIT

Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) pumps water stored in Feed Water Storage Tank (FWST) to the boiler. Before the water reaches the boiler it is heated through High Pressure Heater 1 (HPH1) and HPH2. The outlet water temperature from HPH2 is 256 oC which is feed to the Economiser (ECON) inside the boiler. The function of Economiser is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduced into the Steam Drum by recovering some of the heat of flue gas leaving the boiler. In the Steam Drum the water is heated to steam and the saturated steam (water-steam mixture) is poured to a drum where steam is separated from water and the remaining water is again fed to the Steam Drum. Hot steam from the drum is sent to the Superheater where the steam temperature reaches 540 oC. The super heated steam blown to the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) at a pressure of 170 kg/cm2 controlled by four combined main stop and control valves by a simple throttle governing system. The outlet steam pressure from the HPT is 44 kg/cm2 and temperature of 340 oC which is sent to the reheater where the temperature is again raised to 540 oC and then blown to Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) and then from IPT (steam pressure is 6 kg/cm2) to Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). HPT is a single flow, impulse turbine whereas rest IPT and LPT are double flow, reaction turbines. The rotor frequency of the turbine is 3000 rpm which is required for a generation of 50 Hz electricity. The steam from the LPT is then collected in the Condenser where the steam is condensed and sent to the Cooling Towers (CT) to cool the water. Cool water from CT is again sent to the Condenser with some additional water from the source to compensate the amount of water lost due to evaporation.

The condensate water in the Condenser is extracted by Condensate Extraction Pumps (CEP) to the Gland Steam Condenser (GSC), where the temperature is raised to 50 oC and then sent to Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU). In CPU the cations and anions in the water is removed or we can say the normal pH is maintained. After CPU the condensate water undergoes a series of heating process in Drain Cooler and three Low Pressure Heaters after which the outlet temperature is 138 oC. The water is deaerated (removal of any gas) in the Deaerator from which the water is stored in FWST and then the whole cycle is repeated.

INSTRUMENTATION IN THERMAL POWER STATION


The instrumentation is that: i) Instruments should be independent for their working. ii) The total instrumentation should be independent to each other in assessing the process conditions. iii) Instrumentations should be sufficient to provide adequate information to the operators for: a) Cold start of the unit b) Warm/hot start of the unit c) Shut down both planned and emergency shutdown.

SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS
Instrumentation engineers are required to work in close association with the system design as well as the equipment design engineers in selecting instruments and sensing system. After deciding the capacity of Thermal Power Station the designs of Boiler turbine and auxiliary equipments such as mills, pumps, fans, deaerator, feed heaters etc. are taken up. Based on the design of the main and the auxiliary equipments, the parameter values for efficient and economic operation determined load are specified. The instrument and system design engineers decide the location for the measurement of various parameters such as level, pressure, flow, differential pressure, temperature and other parameters based on the system design and layout conditions. Then the instrument engineers select the appropriate instruments influenced by following factors: i) Required accuracy of measurement ii) Range of Measurement iii) The form of final data display required iv) Process media v) Cost vi) Calibration and repair facilities required/ available vii) Layout restriction viii) Maintenance requirement/ availability

TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS
This discussion is only on the process instrumentations measuring the physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, level flow etc. The other types of instruments are the electrical instruments measuring electrical quantities such as current, voltage etc. The different types of instruments normally in use are given below:

Indicators are of two categories local and remote. Local indicators are self contained and self operative and are mounted on the site. The remote indicators are used for telemeter purposes and mounted in the centralized control room or control panel. The indicators both local and remote are sometimes provided with signalling contacts where ever required. The remote indicators depend on electricity, electronics, pneumatic or hydraulic system for their operation and accordingly they are named. The indicators can be classified as analogue or digital on the basis of final display of the reading. Recorders are necessary wherever the operating history is required for analyzing the trends and for any future case studies or efficiency purposes. Recorders can be of single point measuring a single parameter or multipoint measuring a number of parameters by single instrument. Multipoint recorders are again categorized as multipoint continuous or multipoint dot recorders. The multipoint dot recorders select the point one after the other in sequence where as the continuous recorders measure simultaneously all the points.

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Accurate measurement of temperature is required to assess the material fatigue, heat balance, heat transfer etc. The measurement ranges from ambient temperature where air inlet to F.D. fan is measured to 1300 oC to 1400 oC inside the furnace zone. Temperature measurement is to made in many medias such as water/stream, oil (fuel oil and lubricating oil), air fuel gases, hydrogen gas, metal temperatures of bearing babbits, turbine top and bottom, generator winding and cores, S.H. tube metal etc. Filled system thermometry such as mercury in glass, mercury in steel, vapour filled or gas filled are used for local indication. The selection of thermometer depends upon the range of the temperatures to be measured. These instruments are available with electrical contacts for setting up annunciation and protection system wherever required.

Resistance thermometer or thermocouples are used as primary sensors in remote measurement of temperatures depending upon the range. Resistance thermometers are of platinum and copper resistance type. Platinum resistance thermometers are calibrated to have 46 ohms or 100 ohms at 0 oC. The secondary instruments used in conjunction are cross coil indicators or electronic bridges. These instruments indicate temperature by measuring the nature of resistance which changes with the change in temperature. Resistance thermometers are generally used up to 300 oC

Above 300 oC, thermocouples are used as primary sensor. The common types of thermocouples used in thermal power station are chromel-alumel or chromel-copel depending upon the temperature. Iron constantan is another thermocouple in use. The secondary instruments for thermocouple sensor are pyrometriv millivolt meters or electronic potentiometers. Null balance method is used for the very accurate measurement of millivolts generated by thermocouples sensing the process temperatures. The electronic bridges and potentiometers can be either indicators, or indicator cum recorders with alarm/protection contracts and with remote transmission facilities.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
The pressure measurement in thermal power station ranges from 1 Kg/cm2 (nearly) at condenser to hydraulic test pressure of boiler. Here again many medias exist such as steam/water, lubricating oil, fuel oil, air, fuel gases, hydrogen etc.

For local indication of pressure and differential pressure, bourdon tube, type and diaphragm type gauges or liquid monometers either electronic or pneumatic coupled with a secondary instrument indicator/recorder. Many varieties of transmitters are in use. In these transmitters the mechanical movement of sensing elements such as bourdon, bellows, diaphragm etc. due to the pressure causes an electrical property change such as current,

voltage, resistance, capacitance, reluctance, inductance etc. which is utilized as a measure of pressure in the secondary instruments. The secondary instruments are either indicators or recorders, which may incorporate signalling contacts.

LEVEL MEASUREMENT
Level measurement is generally carried out as differential pressure measurements. In power stations, level measurement in open tanks such as DM storage Tank and Fuel Oil and Lubricating Oil tanks and in closed tanks such as de-aerator, condenser hot well, boiler drum and L.P. & H.P. heaters are to be made. Gauge glasses and floats are used for local indication of levels and the transmitters used for measuring the differential pressure are used along with the secondary instruments for remote level measurements. The measurement of the boiler drum poses many problems because of varying pressure and temperature and many computations and corrections are to be made in order to get correct levels. A recent development in this area is the Hydra step. Though it is very costly it improves the accuracy and the reliability of this measurement. Other problem area is the solid level measurement where the coal bunker levels and dust collector hopper level are required. In both these cases continuous level measurement is not possible. However fairly reliable and accurate provisions are available to indicate the extreme level on either directions (low or high). The nucleonic level gauges or the capacitance and resistance type sensors serve in these areas very well.

Use of level measurement in power plant: o Drum level indicators and indicators cum recorders (total 3 Nos from different tapping) in UCR with alarm and protection facilities. Normally 3 types of measurement are adopted: Local gauge glass Remote gauge glass and Remote indirect measurement o Drip level in H.P. and L.P heaters-indicators in UCR with alarm and protection facilities. o Condensate level-indicator in condenser-indicator in UCR with alarm and protection facilities. o Deaerator level-indicator in UCR with signalling contacts for alarm. o The various storage tank levels such as D.M. water, fuel oil, lubricating oil etc. Are measured by the local direct gauge glasses.

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Flow measurement of solids, liquids and gases are required in Thermal Power Stations. Though the liquid flow measurements are made very accurately, the gas flow measurement cannot be so, water flow measurements are done fairly easily and accurately whereas steam flow measurement requires density correction under varying pressures. The air and flue gas flow measurements suffer accuracy and reliability due to variation in pressure, temperature, duct leakage, dust accumulation etc. The solid flow measurement is very difficult and only on a rough area is arrived at about the P.F. flow through inferential means.

In Power stations flow measurement are based on inferential principles. Differential pressures are created by placing suitable throttling devices in the flow path of the fluids in the pipes/ducts. The throttling devices are suitably selected depending upon the media, flow quantity etc. From among office, venture, flow nozzle dall tube etc. the differential pressure developed across such sensing devices is proportional to the square of the flow quantity. The differential pressure is measured by the devices with additional square root extraction facilities. Flow measurement is needed to control the flow of water/steam, air and oil in boiler. Also the measurement is needed for condensate water flow measurement in deaerator.

ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS
Apart from the above there are few quality measurements necessary in thermal power generation plants of high capacities. These include feed water quality measuring instruments such as conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and sodium instruments, steam quality measuring instruments, such as conductivity, silica and pH analyzers. The combustion quality is accessed by the measurements of the percentage of oxygen, carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide in the fuel gases. The purity of the oxygen inside the generator housing is measured by utilizing the thermal conducting capacity of the hydrogen gas. The water and steam purity is measured as the electrolytic conductivity by electronic bridge method in which one arm form the electrodes of conductivity cell dipped into the medium. The volume percentage of oxygen in combustion gases is made utilizing the paramagnetic properties of oxygen. The carbon monoxide percentage is measured by the Absorption of Electromagnetic radiation principle. Both these gas analyzers require elaborate sampling and sample conditioning system resulting in poor reliability and availability of these measurements. Recent developments in these fields have brought out on line in-situ instruments for these two parameters where the problem of sampling is dispensed with. The Analytical Instruments as the above instruments had been the neglected lot so far in the power stations. But now the authorities seem to think their importance for the process.

TURBOVISORY INSTRUMENTS
The turbovisory instruments have become very important in modern day turbines where the materials have been stressed nearer to the yield points and the internal clearance have become the minimum. Shaft eccentricity, vibration (both shaft and bearing pedestal) differential expansion of shaft and cylinders, overall some of the turbovisory measurements. These all measurements are interrelated and interdependent.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL
Whenever the balance gets disturbed due to the deviation of process elements behaviour they are to be brought back to the balance condition. Since lot of process elements are involved and disturbances are very frequent, the correction can be carried out efficiently and quickly on by introducing automatic system for elimination any possible human error. Thus automatic control was established to maintain the system balance. For example when an operator has to fire the boiler by regulating the fuel to the burners and at the same time to adjust the position of dampers or the speed of the fans for the control of air supply, how well he does this depends of the type of fuel and his own ability. His mistakes in assessing the things in a correct proportion will aggravate the disturbance. But an automatic combustion control does this job, more quickly, efficiently and smoothly. Automatic control system detects the changes signal and directs the regulator accordingly to correct the deviation. Advantages Of Automatic Control System Are:

a) The values of the process elements such as steam pressure, temperature flow are kept close to the desired value. b) Combustion efficiency is improved resulting in: i) Fuel Economics ii) Reduction in boiler fouling iii) Less atmospheric pollution iv) Less carbon in ash and grit c) Metal fatigue is reduced by maintaining stable metal temperatures. d) The operator is relieved of continuous tedious operations. e) Increased safety both to men and equipment since human error is eliminated. f) Operator has more time to spend in regular operation and routine inspection. Disadvantages a) The equipment has to be much reliable. b) The standard setting should have to be watched and adjusted to suit the varying characteristics of fuel etc. c) Sometimes control action goes on the reverse direction due to the time lag in the measurement. d) Control equipments are very expensive and require periodic maintenance.

SEQUENCE CONTROL AND INTERLOCKING SYSTEM


A power station is a combination of many individual equipments and systems and for better performance it relies upon the performance of these individual equipments. These equipments are interdependent and interrelated with each other, and therefore they are to operate in coordination with each other. Electrical interlock systems connect these individual equipments and operate then with required sequences. For example Boiler is a system comprising milling plant, ID fans, FD fans, PA fans etc. these equipments are interlocked in such a way that they are started / shut down in specific sequences in order to avoid damage to equipments and men. For example in a milling system the coal feeder is interlock such a way that it will not start unless its succeeding system to crush and discharge the coal into the furnace such as exhauster / P.A fan and mill are in operation. These schemes may very little with different manufacturers but generally all P.F and oil fired boilers have common sequences. Also equipment is so interlocked that in case the failure of the running equipment to deliver the good, automatically the reserve one is put in to service. For example in case a feeds pump which is running fails to meet the demand of the boiler, the interlock system will put the reserve pump into service to meet the demand. As the unit size increases the number of interdependency of operations increases. A system of automatic sequence control simplifying the operators duty has come into existence.

DATA ACQUISITION AND DATA LOGGING


The conventional central control room is rather a cumbersome system. Large number of instruments must be observed to know what is happening inside the plant. The data acquisition simplifies this job by collecting all the measurements transmitted from the process, converting them into digital term and storing in the memory bank. The periodic loggings of parameter by the operators are dispensed with after the introduction of data acquisition system, which prints out the periodic conditions on predetermined time intervals. All the important measurements at one time are printed along a row. Data loggers thus reduce the use of graphical recorders. Here is a DAQ representation of FD fan scheme of NTPC
talcher

Since data logging gives too many measurements at a time, it cannot be easily digested by the control staff. Now data reduction systems are finding their use where only the process quantity deviated from normal value is shown.

VISUAL DISPLAY UNIT (V.D.U)


Visual display units go along with the data acquisition system. In V.D.U pre selected schemes, flow paths with parameters, running alarm conditions etc. can be brought on colour television tubes on demand. This gives the life picture of the happening inside the plant making the operation easy and effective.

REMOTE OPERATION OF EQUIPMENTS and TELEMETERING


Power station comprises many types of equipment, it become necessary to operate them from a centralised control room. Moreover as the capacity of plant increases its operating electrical supply potential also increases which is very dangerous on safety point of view. As a result the indirect way of remote operations came into practice. A very low voltage level such as 110 V or 240 V AC/DC is used to close a breaker of the electrical motor of 3.3 or

6.6 KV voltage level. The low voltage switches are usually provided on the operating desks in the control room. Where D.C is used for station batteries are provided as standby. Circuit breakers are provided with protection relays. For the centralized instrumentation remote indication facility is required and consequently telemetering was introduced. The method of placing the instruments at a distance from the measuring point is called telemetering. This type of metering is very common in power stations as nearly all the instruments for measuring and controlling the power flow are centrally mounted on a panel. Electrical instruments are now widely used for this purpose because they are convenient to install, reliable and reasonably accurate. Also it is cheaper to transmit an electrical signal by a cable than a pipe lines in case of pneumatic. Transmission lag is very negligible. However if the telemetering is required for a short distance, pneumatic system is used.

DISTRIBUTED DIGITAL CONTROL MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM


The DDCMIS provides all functions required for the automation of a power plant like :

Acquisition and processing of data. open loop and closed loop control . calculation and optimization of plant process. Monitoring, signaling and visualization of the process in interactive mode on a monitor or via a conventional push button /indicators. The different subsystems of DDCMIS are follows Measurement system(MS) for CLCS and OLCS and IS. Control system (CLCS and OLCS). Information system. System bus. Human Machine Interface Sequence of events recording system. Master and Slave clock system.

i) ii) iii) iv)

FURNACE SAFEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM


FSSS is also called as Burner Management System (BMS). It is a microprocessor based programmable logic controller of proven design incorporating all protection facilities required for such system. Main objective of FSSS is to ensure safety of the boiler. The 95 MW boilers are indirect type boilers. Fire takes place in front and in rear side. Thats why its called front and rear type boiler. The 210 MW boilers are direct type boilers (which means that HSD is in direct contact with coal) firing takes place from the corner. Thus it is also known as corner type boiler. IGNITER SYSTEM Igniter system is an automatic system, it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is brought in front of the oil guns, which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal combustion. There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting, this is to evacuate or burn the HSD. This method is known as PURGING.

PRESSURE SWITCH Pressure switches are the devices that make or break a circuit. When pressure is applied , the switch under the switch gets pressed which is attached to a relay that makes or break the circuit. Time delay can also be included in sensing the pressure with the help of pressure valves. Examples of pressure valves: 1. Manual valves (tap) 2. Motorized valves (actuator) works on motor action 3. Pneumatic valve (actuator) _ works due to pressure of compressed air 4. Hydraulic valve

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