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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

Session 1. Globalization, Regionalization, Identity of Asia 1-1. Clash of Universalisms: Reflections on Modernity, Asia, Exclusion Presented by Joel S. Kahn, (School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University) A group of scholars who have been discontent with the culture relativism and the political bankruptcy of postmodern/multiculturism after 1990s are returning to universalism. The universalism that appeared in 1990s is not like the West-centered one of the past. Even many regions outside the West have always been pursuing universal values. The universalism emerged in 1990s is multiple(plural) universalism. Universalisms (universal values) originated from different regions clash each other and rival for a universal status. The case in point: Islamism (movement) in Malaysia. In general, the Malaysian Islam is known as representing religious, racial and national particularism of Malaysians. However, there is an eager desire for universal values in the religious concept of Islam. Panel 1): Oh, Myung-suk (Professor, AnthropologDepartment, Seoul National University) I agree with professor Kahn's opinion that although Islam was used as an ideology defining Malaysian identity, it has a tradition pursuing universal values. I would like to know what professor Kahn thinks the conditions for particularism to compete for a universalistic status. What relationship does multiple universalisms have with multiple modernities? Panel 2): Kang, Myung-ku (Professor of Media Studies, Seoul National University) Is there something considered as Asian identity? Do Asians think themselves as Asians? Is there no problem in taking Malaysian Islamic movements as pursuit of universal values not pariticularism? I don't think it necessary to emphasize the dichotomy of particularism and universalism. In some aspects, Islam has functioned as negative and oppressive forces in Malaysia. Is

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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

there no problem in regarding Malaysian Islam as universalism? What are the universal values in detail presented by Malaysian Islamism? Answer: Universalism is not necessarily related with modernity. There are two aspects in the tradition of Malaysian Islam: One is to stress the particularity of Malaysians and the other is the tradition of reformist Islam pursuing universal values. 1-2. Transnational Migration and Gender Implications in Southeast Asia Lecturer: Brenda Yeoh (Professor, Department of Geography, Singapore National University) The workforce in developed nations in Southeast Asia are moving into less developed nations. It is noteworthy that women migrant workers are rapidly increasing, most of whom have certain limited jobs. The phenomenon of feminization of migration (the sharp increase in women migrant workers) in Southeast Asia can be viewed as a strategy taken by the migrating women's family to tackle their poverty problem. The reason women are migrating is to solve financial difficulties of their family. Women's work are, in many cases, not equally recognized as men's work. There are many legal and institutional systems barring woman from becoming a citizen of the importing country. The case in point: Singapore. Churches, female groups and civic groups are not much interested in the problems related with women migrant workers. Panel 1): Kim, Hyun-mi (Professor, Sociology, Yonsei University) It is not appropriate to focus only on disadvantages women migrant workers are suffering. Migration may serve as an opportunity for female workers to free themselves from limited resources or patriarchical systems of certain region. The fact that Korean-Chinese women are preferred to Philippine women show that there is cultural (racial) exclusion in the field of domestic labor. In order to solve problems related with women migrant workers, it is not enough to prepare legal and institutional framework to protect them. Woman who migrated through marital arrangement is not only a domestic worker but also a member of the family. They should not be treated as workers only. Therefore, it is necessary to seek ways to publicly intervene with this problem of private field. Panel 2): Nanako Inava (Professor, Humanities Department, Ibaraki University)
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

It is necessary to discuss whether transnational migrant work empowers women or makes women servants of globalization. I agree with the latter. What are the actors driving women to decide to migrate? There are three possible answers: unbalanced national development and social structure, the strategy of family seeking survival through female migration and personal decision to migrate. There are various types and conditions of migration. Some contacts to the migration community already established in the destination country, some migrate through the agreement between nations and some migrate through commercialized brokerage. It is true that female migrant workers mostly work in the reproductive field. However, it is also necessary to discuss about the process that the demand for female workforce is being newly created in the fields of domestic services and sex services. 1-3. Post-colonialism and Identity of Asia: A Case of Okinawa Lecturers: Dileep Chandralal (Professor, Liguistics Department, Okinawa University) TOHBARU KAZUHIKO (Professor, Culture Department, Okinawa University) Okinawa of Japan and Mindanao of the Philippines can be said as a kind of islands exploited and marginalized from the mainstream society in the process of modernization or globalization. Let's discuss what identities those islands have formed through their historical experiences and memories and how they recognized and responded to their identity. Since the two papers have closely related subjects, it is deemed appropriate to review them together. The two papers well described from the perspective of Okinawa people how Okinawa which remained as an 'island (meaning a region disadvantaged and marginalized)' was incorporated into Japan, how it was oppressed, marginalized and assimilated until the Second World War, what kind of sacrifice it had to make in the 1945 Okinawa battle and what unfair treatments it had to receive from the Japanese government, how it suffered under the US military rule, what happened after it returned to Japan in 1972 and what is taking place in the process of recent project promoting Okinawa as a tourist attraction. The papers explained that the situation in Okinawa has not much changed after its return to the mainland in 1972, people from the mainland advanced into Okinawa taking
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

advantage of the tourism promotion to distort, symbolize and consume the image of Okinawa and Japanese from the mainland dominated the market while the natives were forced out into poor living conditions with low employment rate, lowest income and record high rate of discontinued business. In conclusion, it can be said that the identity of Okinawa was repeatedly produced and reproduced not only by Okinawa people but by the imaginary vision of people from outside with the influence of the historical memory of colonization, the practical role and historical experience by Japanese government and the US military and the project of promoting Okinawa image led by the Japanese government. TOHBARU KAZUHIKO, "Post colonialism and Exploitation, Symbolization, Consumption of Okinawa" KAZUHIKO‘s paper is more critical than Chandralal's. KAZUHIKO confirmed once again through the accident of the crash of a big helicopter that Okinawa people are still being ignored and exploited by the US military and the mainland of Japan. Okinawa was publicly liberated from the US colonial rule but even after its return to Japan, Okinawa is virtually in a state of colony. After the 1897 Ryukyu abolishment, an assimilation policy was implemented under the unfair relationship and power relationship between Japan and Okinawa. The policy was based on the conception of Okinawa's culture and traditional social customs as 'poor' and 'inferior'. In this situation, Okinawa people themselves made efforts to give up their own culture and to erase the trauma of colonial rule. Destruction of Okinawa culture and assimilation policy were equivalent to 'spiritual colonization'. In the middle of Okinawa battle in 1945, some natives who did not cooperate or spoke in their native language were killed by Japanese soldiers under suspicion of espionage. This well demonstrates how Okinawa people were treated and perceived by Japan. What happened in 1952 was very much like the second Ryukyu Abolishment. Okinawa was put under the trusteeship of the US as Japan handed it over to the US as a stronghold in East Asia. It was like the US disarmed Japan and colonized Okinawa militarily. Then Okinawa came to be armed with nuclear and biochemical weapons and served as a base for military operation during the Korean War and Vietnam War. It was
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

even called as "devil's island' when it played an important role in the war against Iraq. Therefore, it can be said that Okinawa has not changed much after "return to Japan" in 1972. Within Okinawa, there is a growing gap of wealth between people who have land for military use around bases and people who don't have. There is a rising gap of opinion among them. The Japanese government came to have economic domination through heavy public investments. However, Okinawa is still a region of high unemployment, lowest average income and one of the highest business discontinuance rate in the nation. The most distinct feature of Okinawa after its return to Japan is the symbolic colonization as well as political and economic colonization, which means spiritual colonization of the island. This is the reality of postcolonialism of Okinawa. Unfinished colonialism: the physical colonial rule is now a history but still there is colonial practice in the politics, economics, ideology and culture of the colonialsim era. 1-4. Globalizaion and Indigenous Peoples Lecturer: Albert E. Alejo (Professor, Ateneo de Davao University, Philippines)

Globalization = development: Expansion of production based on fair exchange promotes prosperity and peace. Development projects were proposed as a response to and solution for the pains that many people are suffering. This solution is planned development based on science knowledge and use of technology. The reality of development = "Rapid economic advance" at the expense of the poor and their traditional culture. The life of people who could not keep the pace with development was still more destroyed. The influence of development projects on the indigenous people is negative. The loss and confusion caused by globalization is more paradoxical than expected. Measure: allied fight by indigenous people Creation of strategic identity of indigenous people

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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

The case of Lumads among Mindanao indigenous people: Identity problem Identity is made and generated, which is the sum of shared characteristics. Creation of identity along with the type of fight and creation of alliance. The independent movement of the Lumads reflects the experience in dealing with their supporters, especially the supporters in churches and ideology groups. Alliance: Frustration and desperation is expressed in the act of resistance and compassionate external factors provide sources, organization and knowledge of external system. Negative view of the role of nation: Colonialization by nation, a role of agent of control and normalization Critical points on the paper: The position of indigenous people is not clear. The Philippine history related with indigenous people and the sacrifice and frustration of indigenous people in development process should be further described. More detail explanation on the forces that may ally with indigenous people needs to be given. What is the fight for? What is the ultimate purpose of the fight? What is the difference between indigenous people and others? What is the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act about? In what process and power relatioans was the Act made? What is the Act doing for improvement of the right of indigenous people and for their development? What is the nation's response to the Act? Is the Act being implemented as planned?

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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

Session 1. Globalization, Regionalization, Identity of Asia 1-1. Clash of Universalisms: Reflections on Modernity, Asia, Exclusion Lecturer: Joel S. Kahn, School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University A group of scholars who have been discontent with the culture relativism and the political bankruptcy of postmodern/multiculturism after 1990s are returning to universalism. The universalism that appeared in 1990s is not like the West-centered one of the past. Even many regions outside the West have always been pursuing universal values. The universalism emerged in 1990s is multiple(plural) universalism. Universalisms (universal values) originated from different regions clash each other and rival for a universal status. The case in point: Islamism (movement) in Malaysia. In general, the Malaysian Islam is known as representing religious, racial and national particularism of Malaysians. However, there is an eager desire for universal values in the religious concept of Islam. Panel 1): Oh, Myung-suk (Professor, AnthropologDepartment, Seoul National University) I agree with professor Kahn's opinion that although Islam was used as an ideology defining Malaysian identity, it has a tradition pursuing universal values. I would like to know what professor Kahn thinks the conditions for particularism to compete for a universalistic status. What relationship does multiple universalisms have with multiple modernities? Panel 2): Kang, Myung-ku (Professor of Media Studies, Seoul National University) Is there something considered as Asian identity? Do Asians think themselves as Asians? Is there no problem in taking Malaysian Islamic movements as pursuit of universal values not pariticularism? I don't think it necessary to emphasize the dichotomy of particularism and universalism. In some aspects, Islam has functioned as negative and oppressive forces in Malaysia. Is
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

there no problem in regarding Malaysian Islam as universalism? What are the universal values in detail presented by Malaysian Islamism? Answer: Universalism is not necessarily related with modernity. There are two aspects in the tradition of Malaysian Islam: One is to stress the particularity of Malaysians and the other is the tradition of reformist Islam pursuing universal values. 1-2. Transnational Migration and Gender Implications in Southeast Asia Lecturer: Brenda Yeoh (Professor, Department of Geography, Singapore National University) The workforce in developed nations in Southeast Asia are moving into less developed nations. It is noteworthy that women migrant workers are rapidly increasing, most of whom have certain limited jobs. The phenomenon of feminization of migration (the sharp increase in women migrant workers) in Southeast Asia can be viewed as a strategy taken by the migrating women's family to tackle their poverty problem. The reason women are migrating is to solve financial difficulties of their family. Women's work are, in many cases, not equally recognized as men's work. There are many legal and institutional systems barring woman from becoming a citizen of the importing country. The case in point: Singapore. Churches, female groups and civic groups are not much interested in the problems related with women migrant workers. Panel 1): Kim, Hyun-mi (Professor, Sociology, Yonsei University) It is not appropriate to focus only on disadvantages women migrant workers are suffering. Migration may serve as an opportunity for female workers to free themselves from limited resources or patriarchical systems of certain region. The fact that Korean-Chinese women are preferred to Philippine women show that there is cultural (racial) exclusion in the field of domestic labor. In order to solve problems related with women migrant workers, it is not enough to prepare legal and institutional framework to protect them. Woman who migrated through marital arrangement is not only a domestic worker but also a member of the family. They should not be treated as workers only. Therefore, it is necessary to seek ways to publicly intervene with this problem of private field. Panel 2): Nanako Inava (Professor, Humanities Department, Ibaraki University)
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

It is necessary to discuss whether transnational migrant work empowers women or makes women servants of globalization. I agree with the latter. What are the actors driving women to decide to migrate? There are three possible answers: unbalanced national development and social structure, the strategy of family seeking survival through female migration and personal decision to migrate. There are various types and conditions of migration. Some contacts to the migration community already established in the destination country, some migrate through the agreement between nations and some migrate through commercialized brokerage. It is true that female migrant workers mostly work in the reproductive field. However, it is also necessary to discuss about the process that the demand for female workforce is being newly created in the fields of domestic services and sex services. 1-3. Post-colonialism and Identity of Asia: A Case of Okinawa Lecturers: Dileep Chandralal (Professor, Liguistics Department, Okinawa University) TOHBARU KAZUHIKO (Professor, Culture Department, Okinawa University) Okinawa of Japan and Mindanao of the Philippines can be said as a kind of islands exploited and marginalized from the mainstream society in the process of modernization or globalization. Let's discuss what identities those islands have formed through their historical experiences and memories and how they recognized and responded to their identity. Since the two papers have closely related subjects, it is deemed appropriate to review them together. The two papers well described from the perspective of Okinawa people how Okinawa which remained as an 'island (meaning a region disadvantaged and marginalized)' was incorporated into Japan, how it was oppressed, marginalized and assimilated until the Second World War, what kind of sacrifice it had to make in the 1945 Okinawa battle and what unfair treatments it had to receive from the Japanese government, how it suffered under the US military rule, what happened after it returned to Japan in 1972 and what is taking place in the process of recent project promoting Okinawa as a tourist attraction. The papers explained that the situation in Okinawa has not much changed after its return to the mainland in 1972, people from the mainland advanced into Okinawa taking
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

advantage of the tourism promotion to distort, symbolize and consume the image of Okinawa and Japanese from the mainland dominated the market while the natives were forced out into poor living conditions with low employment rate, lowest income and record high rate of discontinued business. In conclusion, it can be said that the identity of Okinawa was repeatedly produced and reproduced not only by Okinawa people but by the imaginary vision of people from outside with the influence of the historical memory of colonization, the practical role and historical experience by Japanese government and the US military and the project of promoting Okinawa image led by the Japanese government. TOHBARU KAZUHIKO, "Post colonialism and Exploitation, Symbolization, Consumption of Okinawa" KAZUHIKO‘s paper is more critical than Chandralal's. KAZUHIKO confirmed once again through the accident of the crash of a big helicopter that Okinawa people are still being ignored and exploited by the US military and the mainland of Japan. Okinawa was publicly liberated from the US colonial rule but even after its return to Japan, Okinawa is virtually in a state of colony. After the 1897 Ryukyu abolishment, an assimilation policy was implemented under the unfair relationship and power relationship between Japan and Okinawa. The policy was based on the conception of Okinawa's culture and traditional social customs as 'poor' and 'inferior'. In this situation, Okinawa people themselves made efforts to give up their own culture and to erase the trauma of colonial rule. Destruction of Okinawa culture and assimilation policy were equivalent to 'spiritual colonization'. In the middle of Okinawa battle in 1945, some natives who did not cooperate or spoke in their native language were killed by Japanese soldiers under suspicion of espionage. This well demonstrates how Okinawa people were treated and perceived by Japan. What happened in 1952 was very much like the second Ryukyu Abolishment. Okinawa was put under the trusteeship of the US as Japan handed it over to the US as a stronghold in East Asia. It was like the US disarmed Japan and colonized Okinawa militarily. Then Okinawa came to be armed with nuclear and biochemical weapons and served as a base for military operation during the Korean War and Vietnam War. It was
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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

even called as "devil's island' when it played an important role in the war against Iraq. Therefore, it can be said that Okinawa has not changed much after "return to Japan" in 1972. Within Okinawa, there is a growing gap of wealth between people who have land for military use around bases and people who don't have. There is a rising gap of opinion among them. The Japanese government came to have economic domination through heavy public investments. However, Okinawa is still a region of high unemployment, lowest average income and one of the highest business discontinuance rate in the nation. The most distinct feature of Okinawa after its return to Japan is the symbolic colonization as well as political and economic colonization, which means spiritual colonization of the island. This is the reality of postcolonialism of Okinawa. Unfinished colonialism: the physical colonial rule is now a history but still there is colonial practice in the politics, economics, ideology and culture of the colonialsim era. 1-4. Globalizaion and Indigenous Peoples Lecturer: Albert E. Alejo (Professor, Ateneo de Davao University, Philippines)

Globalization = development: Expansion of production based on fair exchange promotes prosperity and peace. Development projects were proposed as a response to and solution for the pains that many people are suffering. This solution is planned development based on science knowledge and use of technology. The reality of development = "Rapid economic advance" at the expense of the poor and their traditional culture. The life of people who could not keep the pace with development was still more destroyed. The influence of development projects on the indigenous people is negative. The loss and confusion caused by globalization is more paradoxical than expected. Measure: allied fight by indigenous people Creation of strategic identity of indigenous people

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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

The case of Lumads among Mindanao indigenous people: Identity problem Identity is made and generated, which is the sum of shared characteristics. Creation of identity along with the type of fight and creation of alliance. The independent movement of the Lumads reflects the experience in dealing with their supporters, especially the supporters in churches and ideology groups. Alliance: Frustration and desperation is expressed in the act of resistance and compassionate external factors provide sources, organization and knowledge of external system. Negative view of the role of nation: Colonialization by nation, a role of agent of control and normalization Critical points on the paper: The position of indigenous people is not clear. The Philippine history related with indigenous people and the sacrifice and frustration of indigenous people in development process should be further described. More detail explanation on the forces that may ally with indigenous people needs to be given. What is the fight for? What is the ultimate purpose of the fight? What is the difference between indigenous people and others? What is the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act about? In what process and power relatioans was the Act made? What is the Act doing for improvement of the right of indigenous people and for their development? What is the nation's response to the Act? Is the Act being implemented as planned?

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Asian Culture Symposium 2005

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