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Optimal solutions of power quality problems for industries

Jitendra singh jhala (M.E. Student, CTAE, Udaipur)

Abstract
This paper describe various solutions of power quality problems and new issues in power quality. One of the fundamental challenges facing utility and power customer personnel is the need to become familiar with and stay informed about issues dealing with power quality. As the utility industry undergoes restructuring and as customers find their service needs changing with increased use of equipment and processes more susceptible to power system disturbances, power suppliers and customers alike will find a solid background in power quality not only useful, but also necessary for continued productivity and competitiveness. Following solution such as Adjustable Speed Drive Efficient Motor and Drive Monitoring Power Quality and Solving Problems Using Computers to Solve Power Quality Problems Developing a Power Quality Program Power Quality Assurance for High Reliability Facilities

Commercial customers are installing high efficiency lighting and electronic office equipment, resulting in higher harmonic levels in the buildings. These

Introduction
Power quality is a growing concern for a wide range of customers. Industrial customers can experience interruptions to important processes during momentary voltage sags associated with remote faults on the utility system. Power factor correction procedures are complicated by harmonics in the plants from adjustable speed drives (ASDs) and other electronic loads.

harmonic sources cause excessive neutral currents and transformer overheating. Even residential customers are concerned about surge protection for sensitive electronics in the home and the impact of momentary interruptions on their electronic equipment. Electric utilities are dealing with these problems in a variety of ways. One of the most important is better education of customer service representatives and customers themselves. This one-day seminar provides an overview of the most important industrial and commercial facility power quality concerns. The seminar is appropriate for customers interested in power quality concerns, utility representatives that deal directly with these customers, and utility engineers. we will develop a basic understanding of important power quality concerns. They will learn about the different categories of power quality problems being experienced by customers, methods for analyzing these problems, and possible solutions. This paper also provides an overview of important standards relating to power quality. Power Quality problems Wiring and Grounding Problems Voltage Sag and Interruption Problems Harmonic Problems Transient Problems Wiring and Grounding Definitions and Terminology Purpose Wiring and Grounding for Power Quality Typical Problems Problem - Local Area Networks Problem - High Neutral-Ground Voltages

Harmonics Harmonics Harmonic Producing Loads (ASDs, etc.) System Response Characteristics Effect of Capacitor Banks Harmonic Filter Design Impact on Transformer Heating Commercial Building Harmonic Concerns Industrial System Harmonic Concerns Problem - Capacitors Magnify Harmonics Problem - Excessive Neutral Currents Voltage Sags and Interruption Concerns Voltage Sags vs. Outages Faults on the Transmission System Faults on the Distribution System Motor Starting Events Equipment Sensitivity (ASDs, Controls) Utility / Customer / Equipment Solutions Problem - Process Controller Tripping During Voltage Sags Problem - Voltage Variations Caused by Variable Load Transient Overvoltage Concerns Transients Capacitor Switching Transients Basic Principles of Overvoltage Protection Arresters and Surge Suppressors Effect of Chokes and Isolation Transformers Problem - Nuisance Tripping of ASDs Problem - Capacitor Switching Transient Magnification Problem - Voltage Notching Problem - Transients from PWM Inverters

Utility personnel dealing with distribution system design and power quality need to develop an understanding of how events on the distribution system can impact customer operations. Key issues include: capacitor switching transients get magnified in customer plants. Apply IEEE 519 to evaluate the impact of customer loads on distribution system harmonic levels.  Customer equipment so sensitive to voltage sags during remote faults on the power system.  Lightning transients get into customer Facilities. Develop a monitoring program for determining power quality levels on my distribution systems. This paper develop a basic understanding of important distribution power quality concerns. we will learn about the different types of power quality problems being experienced by customers, methods for analyzing these problems, and possible solutions. This paper also provides an overview of important power quality standards. Introduction
What is Power Quality and Why is it Important? What is a Power Quality Problem? Whose Problem is it? Power Quality vs. Reliability Categories of Variations Performing a Site Survey Symptoms of Power Quality Problems

Impact of System Protection on Power Quality


Overcurrent Protection Reclosing Schemes Voltage Sags vs. Interruptions vs. Outages PQ Aspects of Fault Clearing Practices Feeder Design for Power Quality

Major Distribution System Power Quality Concerns


Lightning Protection Capacitor Switching Transients
Magnification at Customer Buses Nuisance Tripping of ASDs Solutions to Capacitor Switching Problems

Voltage Sags & Momentary Interruptions


Voltage Sag Characteristics Impact of System Protection Practices Transmission & Distribution System Analysis Equipment Sensitivity (ASDs, Controls) Utility / Customer / Equipment Solutions

Distribution power quality


Electric distribution system power quality is a growing concern. Customers require higher quality service due to more sensitive electronic and computer-controlled loads. Capacitor switching events and voltage sags associated with remote faults that never caused problems in the past now cause equipment tripping and even failures within customer facilities. Also, customer loads are generating increasing amounts of harmonic currents that can be magnified on the distribution system due to resonance conditions. Electric utilities have addressed these concerns by establishing programs that can help customers evaluate problems and develop solutions. However, the solutions are often not simple because the problems involve interactions between the power system and the customer electrical system and equipment.

Harmonic Distortion Concerns


Harmonic Generation (ASDs, etc.) System Response Characteristics Effect of Capacitor Banks Impact on Transformer Heating Harmonic Filter Design Harmonic Standards (IEEE 519)

Voltage Regulation Voltage Flicker

Power Quality Monitoring and Site

Under voltage

Under voltage is a decrease in voltage below 90% of its nominal value for more than one minute. Under voltage is sometimes called a "brownout" although this term is not officially defined. Brownout is often used when the utility intentionally reduces system voltage to accommodate high demand or other problems. The symptoms of under voltage can range from none to daily equipment malfunction or premature equipment failure. Under voltage may go unnoticed until new equipment is installed or the electrical system is otherwise changed and the new combined load depresses (see Sags) the voltage to a point where symptoms become apparent. Besides the obvious malfunction of equipment, chronic under voltage can cause excess wear on certain devices like motors as they will tend to run overly hot if the voltage is low.

a decrease in voltage to between 10 and 90% of nominal voltage for one-half cycle to one minute External causes of sags primarily come from the utility transmission and distribution network. Sags coming from the utility have a variety of cause including lightning, animal and human activity, and normal and abnormal utility equipment operation. Sags generated on the transmission or distribution system can travel hundreds of miles thereby affecting thousands of customers during a single event. Sometimes externally caused sags can be generated by other customers nearby.

The starting of large electrical loads or switching off shunt capacitor banks can generate sag large enough to affect a local area. If the end user is already subject to chronic under voltage, then even relatively

Under voltage is generally a chronic problem aggravated by a number of factors beyond the end user's control. Electric utilities try to maintain voltage levels delivered to customers at 5%. However, factors like weather, high demand and others can cause the utility voltage to fall within a 10% range. Even under ideal conditions, most customers will see a drop in utility voltage levels over the course of the day as demand begins to increase around 8 AM and peaks around 3 or 4 PM. Distribution system characteristics can also contribute to chronically low voltage situations. For example, customers at the end of a long line may be subject to a permanent voltage drop due to line losses on top of the utility voltage variations.

small amplitude sag can have detrimental effects. Sags caused internally to an end user's facility are typically generated by the starting of large electrical loads such as motors or magnets. The large inrush of current required to starts these types of loads depresses the voltage level available to other equipment that share the same electrical system. As with externally caused sags, ones generated internally will be magnified by chronic under voltage.

Harmonics

Harmonics are a recurring distortion of the waveform that can be caused by various devices including variable frequency drives, non-linear power supplies and Sags account for the vast majority of power problems experienced by end users. They can be generated both internally and externally from an end users facility. The American "sag" and the British "dip" are both names for electronic ballasts. Certain types of power conditioners like Ferro resonant or constant voltage (CVT) transformers can add significant harmonic distortion to the waveform. Waveform distortion can also be an issue with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other inverter-based power conditioners.

Sag or Dip

Symptoms of harmonic distortion include overheating and equipment operational problems.

components if the occur with any frequency. A properly sized industrial-grade surge suppressor is usually ample protection from the damaging effects of high voltage transients.

Notching
CONCLUSION Notching is a disturbance of opposite polarity to the normal voltage waveform (which is subtracted from the normal waveform) lasting for less than one-half cycle. Notching is frequently caused by malfunctioning electronic switches or power conditioners. While it is generally not a major problem, notching can cause equipment, improperly. especially electronics, to operate The widespread use of electronic equipment, such as information technology equipment, power electronics such as adjustable speed drives (ASD), programmable logic controllers (PLC), energy-efficient lighting, led to a complete change of electric loads nature. These loads are simultaneously the major causers and the major victims of power quality problems. Due to their non-linearity, all these loads cause disturbances in the voltage waveform. Along with technology advance, the organization of the worldwide economy has evolved towards globalization and the A swell is the opposite of sag - an increase in voltage above 110% of nominal for one-half cycle to one minute. Although swells occur infrequently when compared to sags, they can cause equipment malfunction and premature wear. Swells can be caused by shutting off loads or switching capacitor banks on. profit margins of many activities tend to decrease. The increased sensitivity of the vast majority of processes (industrial, services and even residential) to PQ problems turns the availability of electric power with quality a crucial factor for competitiveness in every activity sector. The most critical areas are the continuous process industry and the information technology services. When a disturbance occurs, huge financial losses may happen, with the consequent loss of productivity and competitiveness. Although many efforts have been taken by utilities, some consumers require a level of PQ higher than the level provided by modern electric networks. This implies that some Transients are very short duration (sub-cycle) events of varying amplitude. Often referred to as "surges", transients are probably most frequently visualized as the tens of thousands of volts from a lighting strike that destroys any electrical device in its path. Transients can be caused by equipment operation or failure or by weather phenomena like lightning. Even relatively low voltage transients can cause damage to electrical measures must be taken in order to achieve higher levels of Power Quality. The availability of electric power with high quality is crucial for the running of the modern society. If some sectors are satisfied with the quality of the power provided by utilities, some others are more demanding. To avoid the huge losses related to PQ problems, the

Swell

Surges

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