Anda di halaman 1dari 12

CULTURAL KEYSTONE SPECIES OF DAYAK AND SUMBA TRIBES IN BETUNG KERIHUN AND MANUPEU TANADARU NATIONAL PARKS (Spesies

Kunci Budaya Suku Dayak dan Sumba di Taman Nasional Betung Kerihun dan Manupeu Tanadaru)
Arzyana Sunkar 1), Yohana Elsi Wello 2), Eva Rachmawati 1) 1) Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 2) Staff at Forestry Service, Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara Province 3) Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism Students Association
Spesies tertentu memiliki peran penting dalam menjaga keseimbangan sebuah budaya, yang oleh Garibaldi dan Turner (2004) disebut sebagai spesies kunci budaya (Cultural Keystone Species - CKS) yaitu "spesies yang membentuk identitas suatu budaya, yang tercermin pada peran fundamental spesies tersebut dalam memenuhi kebutuhan pangan, bahan bangunan, obat-obatan, dan / atau praktek-praktek spiritual". Artikel ini membahas perbedaan pemanfaatan sumberdaya dalam kawasan konservasi antara dua masyarakat adat di Indonesia berdasarkan spesies kunci budaya. Data dan informasi dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dengan dua komunitas adat, yaitu suku Dayak yang tinggal di Taman Nasional Betung Kerihun di Kalimantan dan suku Sumba yang hidup di sekitar Taman Nasional Manupeu Tanadaru di Nusa Tenggara Timur. Identifikasi CKS mengikuti Indeks CKS yang dikembangkan oleh Garibaldi dan Turner (2004). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan fungsi, spesies-spesies yang paling erat hubungannya dengan kedua suku tersebut adalah spesies-spesies yang digunakan untuk keperluan budaya, konsumsi dan bangunan. Sementara berdasarkan lokasi pengambilan spesies, terdapat perbedaan antara masyarakat Dayak dan Sumba. Masyarakat Dayak sangat tergantung kepada sumberdaya alam di dalam taman nasional sementara masyarakat Sumba banyak tergantung kepada sumberdaya alam yang telah dibudidayakan di luar taman nasional. Cara pemanfaatan sumber daya yang berbeda dari kedua budaya menunjukkan pentingnya menggunakan CKS dalam menilai tingkat dan intensitas interaksi antara masyarakat adat dan kawasan konservasi. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan upaya-upaya masyarakat adat dalam pemanfaatan spesies yang berkelanjutan. Spesies Kunci Budaya dapat memberikan informasi mengenai cara-cara sebuah budaya berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya terutama terkait pemanfaatan spesies. Kata kunci: spesies kunci budaya; suku Dayak; suku Sumba; pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam

A. Introduction Protected areas are regarded as the last frontier for the protection and preservation of biodiversities, including fauna, flora and landscapes. Thus, the presence of protected areas is expected to provide significant roles in natural resources management within the stated protected areas. Unfortunately conservation efforts for a protected area cannot stand alone. When talking about protected areas management, many concerns with

biodiversity protection. Furthermore, richer biodiversity is often found in areas close to where traditional people live.

Facts suggest that roles of local people living surrounding a conservation area tend to contribute positive results for the protection of such areas (Gunawan et al, 2003; Wollenberg et al., 2001; Bayu, 2000; and Kusnanto, 2000). This is in line with the current paradigm in protected area management, which emphasizes on the participation of local people in the management efforts based on the understanding of local social, economical and cultural condition of the local people. One such important aspect that has been for so long been ignored but currently received acknowledgements for its significant contributions is culture. Ramakrishan (2007) has shown the positive

correlation between cultural diversity and biodiversity, where an increase of cultural diversity shows higher preservation level of biodiversity. Therefore, the effort to

preserve a culture will provide positive impacts on biodiversity preservation.

Based on this, it is important to learn about what species are important to these people. In relation to this, similar to the term keystone species in the field of ecology, where it has an important meaning for the preservation of ecological area, related to species and culture, Garibaldi and Turner (2004) introduce a concept called Cultural Keystone Species (CKS) which is a species that defines the cultural identity of a group of people and relates closely to the local community. CKS is important to maintain stability within a cultural group (Cristancho and Vining, 2004). Some important elements associated with this concept include the utilization, abundance and functions of such species on the

structure of the culture, physical and social life of the local people. Study of CKS is important to increase the effectiveness of protected area management by involving the locals in the management process, as well as for the conservation of local culture through the conservation of cultural keystone species.

B. Method B.1 Locations of Study The study was conducted in two national parks in Indonesia. The first was conducted in villages within Betung Kerihun National Park (BKNP) within the Province of West Kalimantan to obtain data from the Dayak community from July 4-13, 2005 and in Manupeu Tanadaru National Park (MTNP) within the Province of East Nusa Tenggara to obtain data from the Sumba community from August November 2007.

B.2 Method of Data Gathering B.2.1 Data and Information Collected The identification of Cultural Keystone Species followed the Index of Identified Cultural Influence/ICI of cultural keystone species (Garibaldi and Turner, 2004) which must include the following components: 1. Intensity, type and multiplicity of use; 2. Naming and terminology in a language, including the use as seasonal or phenological indicators; 3. Role in narratives (legends, songs, poems, etc), ceremonies or symbolism; 4. Persistence and memory of use in relationship to cultural change;

5. Extent to which it provides opportunities for resource acquisition; and 6. Level of unique position in culture

B.2.2. Method of data collection Data were collected from 4 (four) watershed areas within Betung Kerihun National Park (Embaloh, Mendalam, Sibau and Kapuas) and 4 (four) villages within Manupeu Tanadaru National Park (Beradolu, Manurara, Katikuloku and Kambatawundut) representing different cultural characteristics/sub-tribes: Iban and Tamambaloh

(Embaloh); Tamam, Kayan and Bukat (Mendalam); Tamam (Sibau); Punan (Kapuas); Loli (Beradolu); Anakalang (Manurara); Wanokaka (Katikuloku) and Lewa

(Kambatawundut).

Data were gathered using key informant interview with leaders of the sub-tribes, head of the national parks as well as acknowledged persons (the elders) using snow ball method. The interviews were conducted using non-structured questionnaires. Observations were also conducted during the conduction of cultural activities as well as during interviews to obtain data on direct utilization of species, cultural related materials and ceremonies.

B.2.3. Method of data analysis Analysis of the data had been modified from Garibaldi and turner (2004, Christancho and Vining (2004), The Snow Leoprad Conservancy (2007). Due to field condition the rating for the Dayak and Sumba tribes were differed as follows:

i.

Dayak communities 5= very high utilization 4= high utilization 3= moderate utilization 2= low utilization 1= not use

ii.

Sumba communities 3= high utilization 2= moderate utilization 1= low utilization 0= not use

Scores were given by the objective answers of the interviews as well as considering the local people aspirations and opinions. The score for each species were summed up. The CKS were rated based on the highest to lowest scores.

C. Results and Discussions C.1. Results C.1.1. CKS for Dayak communities The species most closely associated with the Dayak communities within and surrounding Betung kerihun National Park were dominated by birds, mammals and plants. These were Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), Great argus (Argusianus argus), Wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iron wood (Eusideroxylon zwageri) (Table 1).

Table 1.

Cultural Keystone Species (CKS) for the Dayak communities in Betung Kerihun National Park, West Kalimantan Province
Score Argusianus Sus argus scrofa 3 4

No 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Element of Cultural keystone Species Intensity, type and multiplicity of use y Is the species used intensively (routinely and/or in large quantity y Does the species have multiple use? Naming and terminology in a language y Does the language incorporate names and specialized vocabulary relating to the species? Role in narratives, ceremonies or symbolism y Is it prominently featured in narratives and/or ceremonies, dances, songs, etc? Persistence and memory of use in relationship to cultural change y Is the species ubiquitous in the collective cultural consciousness and frequently discussed? Extent to which it provides opportunities for resource acquisition y Is the species used as a trade item Level of unique position in culture y Would it be hard to replace this species with another available native species? TOTAL

Buceros rhinoceros 4

Eusideroxylon zwageri 5

5 4

4 4

4 0

3 0

31

27

22

20

Source: KPE (2005)

C.1.2. CKS for Sumba communities The study identified 7 (seven) key species important for the Sumba community comprising of 4 (four) species of fauna and 3 (three) species of flora namely, i.e: Betle (Piper Betle) and Pinang

(Areca catechu), Mayela (unknown scientific name), Domestic chicken (Gallus domestica), Domestic pig (Sus domesticus), Water buffalo (Bubalus buballis) and Horse (Equus caballus). Table 2. Cultural keystone species (CKS) for the Sumba communities within the Manupeu Tanadaru National Park, East Nusa Tenggara Province No Element of Cultural keystone Species 1. Intensity, type and multiplicity of use y Is the species used regularly and/or in large quantity and have multiple uses for? Species utilization for traditional purposes y Does the species have significant purpose for the tradition? Role in narratives, ceremonies or symbolism y Is it prominently featured in narratives and/or ceremonies, dances, songs, etc? Persistence and memory of use in relationship to cultural change y Is the species ubiquitous in the collective cultural consciousness and frequently discussed? Extent to which it provides opportunities for resource acquisition y Is the species used as a trade item Level of unique position in culture y Would it be hard to replace this species with another available native species? TOTAL A 3 B 3 Score* C D 3 3

E 3

F 1

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

17

17

16

15

15

13

Note:*: A = Piper betle & Areca catechu; B= Gallus domestica, C= Sus domesticus; D= Bubalus buballis; E = Equus caballus; F= Mayela Source: Wello (2008)

C.2. Results & Discussions The determination of the four species as the CKS for the Dayak communities were based on the intensities of the interaction of the local people with the species. These species were embedded in their cultural traditions, ceremonies, dances, songs and symbols. Determination of Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros hornbill) as the Dayaks community symbol proved the close relationship of the bird with the life of the local communities. Furthermore, until now, this bird is still used by the Dayaks as the provisions utility for

ceremonies or customary rituals. Argusianus argus (Great argus) was another bird that had an important meaning for the Dayaks. This bird was also used as provisions utility for ceremonies or customary rituals, e.g., used by the Dayak Ibans groom as head embellishment. Great argus also has important and philosophical meaning for the Ibans, as the symbol of the community. Other animal that had high interaction with the Dayaks was Sus scrofa (wild boar). They could be found in almost every village within the Dayaks communities. Most Dayak families in the villages owned wild boar as livestock. The meat was eaten and the horn was used for mandaos (Dayaks traditional weapon) decoration. Furthermore, the boar was also use for provision utility in a Dayak marriage tradition (brought by an Iban groom when they got into the long house -Dayak traditional house- where he celebrated his marriage).

Dayaks also regarded some species of plants as species that were closely related to their lives. Eusideroxylon zwageri (ironwood) had high connections to the Dayaks. The wood was used as raw material to build long house. The great endurance and quality (up to hundreds years) made it highly needed and became the prime material in building traditional houses. These clearly showed that Dayak communties were very dependent on Betung Kerihun National Park, as the majority of their CKS were provided within the national parks forest.

Differ from the Dayak communities, CKS for the Sumba communities were dominated by domesticated species, which made it easier for the people to harvests them. Out of the seven species, only one species, the Mayela wood, that was still harvested from the

national park, while the remaining species were domesticated. These showed that the local Sumba Communities were not dependent on Manupeu Tanadaru National Park.

Although different in their sources, all the CKS for both traditional communities showed the important of such species to maintain traditional rituals/ceremonies, food and building materials. The different source of obtaining their CKS, showed the different level of dependency of the local people on the presence of forest within the national park, thus showed the level of interactions between local people and conservation areas. One very important thing from the analysis of this study was that all the CKS were related to the principles of both cultures, that is, related to the local resources management system. Both cultures showed high importance of preserving the CKS based on sustainability, collectivity, biodiversity, subsistence and customary laws as follows:

a. Sustainability The most distinct aspect was that both cultures viewed nature as a common house rather than economic asset or wealth. It is clearly reflected in the use of ritual to ask for permission which must be conducted prior to the start of any activities. By doing so, the species were treated not only for the benefits of human beings but also for all beings. Therefore, destructive and exploitative activities were avoided to maintain harmony with nature. b. Collectivity The scores for the intensity, type and multiplicity of use showed that nature with all its resources was managed based on the principle of collectivity for common benefits.

c. Biodiversity One of the most obvious distinctions of resource management in both cultures, was that biodiversity was the top priority not for productivity. d. Subsistence Both communities exploited the CKS for subsistence purposes, thus tolerable by the environment. e. Customary laws The management and exploitation of the CKS was done based on customary laws which had been formulated in such a way that guaranteed the sustainability of the nature.

All of the above were very much related to the conservation of the surrounding national parks, whether the source of CKS came from the wild or domestication efforts.

D. Conclusions Many of the areas of highest biological diversity such as conservation areas were inhabited by traditional people. Inevitably, the beliefs and practices of these traditional people had positive relations on their use and conservation of biodiversity. This information was very important to increase the participation of local people in conservation area management. If we applied the five principles of CKS management as stated earlier, we undoubtedly shall achieve what we know as sustainable development. It is obvious that traditional peoples such as the Dayaks and the Sumba communities hade practices this so-called sustainable development for years of generation.

REFERENCES Bayu, A. 2000. Hubungan Kondisi Sosial Ekonomi Masyarakat Pemukiman dalam kawasan (Enclave) dengan Penggunaan Lahan di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun (Studi Kasus di Kampung Cier, Desa Cisarua, Resort Cigudeg). Departemen Konservasi Sumberedaya Hutan & Ekowisata. Unpublished Bachelor Thesis. Becker, C. D. and Ghimire, K. 2003. Synergy Between Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Conservation Science Supports Forest Presrvaton in Ecuador. Conservation Ecology 8(1): 1. [online] URL: http:www.consecol.org/vol8/iss 1/art 1 Cristancho, S. J and Vining. 2004. Culturally defined keystone Species. Ecology review (11)2: 153-163 Human

Garibaldi, A and Turner, N. 2004. Cultural Keystone Species: Implications for Ecological Conservation and Restoration. Ecology and Society 9,1. Gunawan, H., Nurhayati, Y. dan Yatlimin. 2003. Motivasi Perambahan Kawasan Taman nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai di Sulawesi tenggara. Hutan Rakyat V 3 Year 2003. [KPE] Kelompok Pemerhati Ekowisata. 2005. Socio-Cultural and Ecotourism. In Final Report SURILI 2005 Volume I- Scientific Report: Study of The Relationships Between Biodiversity and Local Cultures as the Base for The Development and Management of Ecotourism. Betung Kerihun National Park, Kapuas Hulu Regency, West Kalimantan, July 4-13, 2005. Collaboration between Forest resources Conservationa and Ecotourism tudents Association (HIMAKOVA), Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural Unibversity with Tropenbos International Indonesia. Kusnanto, K. 2000. Bentuk-Bentuk dan Intensitas Gangguan Manusia pada daerah Tepi Kawasan Taman nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango Jawa Barat. Departemen Konservasi Sumberedaya Hutan & Ekowisata. Unpublished Bachelor Thesis. Ramakrishan, P. S. 2007. Ecology and Traditional Wisdom. Accessed from http://ignca.nic.in on July 25, 2007.

The Snow leopard Conservancy. 2007. Mountain Cultures Keystone Species: Exploring the Rule of Cultural keystone Species in Central Asia. Accessed from http: www.snowleopardconservancy.org on July 20, 2007. Wello, Y. E. 2008. Species Kunci Budaya (Cultural Keystone Species) Masyarakat Sumba di Sekitar Taman Nasional Manupeu Tanadaru Nusa Tenggara Timur. Departemen Konservasi Sumberedaya Hutan & Ekowisata. Unpublished Bachelor Thesis. Wollenberg, E., Uluk A, and Sudana, M. 2001. Ketergantungan Masyarakat Dayak terhadap Hutan. Bogor: Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).