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Bagmati Area Sewerage Construction/Rehabilitation Project (BASP) In order to curb further environmental degradation of the Bagmati River and

adjoining area as well as to restore the condition of once pristine Bagmanti River, the Government of Nepal formed a High Powered Committee for Implementation and Monitoring of the Bagmati Area Sewerage Construction/Rehabilitation Project (BASP) in 1995 A.D. The committee comprises of 30 members who represent technical experts socially and politically renowned persons and reputed administrators. The main objective of BASP is to keep Bagmati River and its tributaries clean by preventing the direct discharge of solid and liquid wastes to the river and to conserve the river system within the Kathmandu valley. And to achieve its objective it has performed following activities: Constructed trunk sewer pipeline along both the banks of river. Constructed secondary sewer pipelines Constructed wastewater treatment plants Constructed River Training works. Constructed roads and green belts along the banks of the river and Conducted public awareness programme.

Work Plan of BASP In the initial phase of its activities, the committee prepared a Master plan. As the Bagmati received heavy pollution downstream of the Gokarneshwor temple and referring to the cultural, religious and environmental importance of the river flowing through the area of world heritage, the committee decided to start this task in the stretch of river from Gokarna to Tilganga. However, the committee has divided its program into three phases. First phase: The cleaning of Bagmati River from Gokarna to Tilganga has been taken as the first Project of this committee. BASP has installed interceptor drains along the Bagmati corridor to check direct discharge of untreated sewage into the Bagmati, and treatment of sewage prior to its disposal in the river. These trunk sewers are connected to the sewerage treatment plant at Guheswori. The treated wastewater is then discharged into the 572 meter long tunnel which bypasses the holy shrines but joins the Bagmati river down stream of Aryaghat.

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Second Phase: The second phase consists of construction of sewer pipelines and wastewater treatment plants in the upstream of Gokarna to Sundarijal. Third Phase: It includes the construction of Sewer pipelines and wastewater treatment plants in the downstream of Tilanga to Chovar. These two phases are yet to be completed. Salient Features of the Project: Project Name District Coverage Area Service Area Design Period Physical Structures: Sewer Line Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewer Tunnel RCC Conduit Earthen Road Green Belt River Training Water Supply System : 17 Kilometers : Extended Aeration type : 572 Meters (Horseshoe Type) : 55 Meters : 11.5 Kilometers : 11.5 Kilometers : 11.5 Kilometers : 8 no. Public Taps : Bagmati Area Sewerage Project : Kathmandu : Upper Bagmati Basin (Gokarna, Bouddha, Jorpati, Chabahil, Tushal, Mitrapark, Gaurighat, and Pashupati) : 537 hectares : 25 years

Guheswari Wastewater Treatment Plant: Guheshwori wastewater treatment plant is located at the bank of the Bagmati river on the northeastern part of Kathmandu City. It is constructed at the initiative of the government to clean up the Bagmati river and a part of program of BASP. The Guheshwori wastewater treatment plant consist mainly of grit chamber for screening, aeration tank with activated sludge and a settling tank. The treatment plant site covers an area of 5 hectares. The plant
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treats the untreated wastewater generated by the household, industries and other institutions of Gokarna, Chabahil, Bouddha and Jorpati. It serves an estimated population of around 198,000. The operation cost of the plant is around NRs 10 million (US$12820) a year and is currently being funded by the government. The plant intends to implement the polluters pay principle and expected to be self-sustaining after three years of support from HMG/N and DANIDA. The treatment plant adopts most advanced Technology of wastewater treatment. The process is Extended Aeration consisting of Deep Oxidation Ditch of Carrousel type. The water depth is 3.25m.

Design Parameters are as follows: Parameters BOD5 COD Suspended solid Influent 270 mg/l 1150 mg/l 216 mg/l Effluent 25 mg/l 250 mg/l 100 mg/l

The Major components of the Treatment Plant are: I. Primary Unit Operation: This unit consists of a) Mechanical Bar Screen b) Sump Well c) Mechanical Grit Chamber with Detritus Mechanism. II. Biological Unit Operation: Two units of Carrousel type oxidation ditch (80M x 20M) Capacity MLSS concentration Re-circulation ratio Total Power required III. Secondary Clarifier: Total Nos. Capacity IV. = 2 nos. of 27 m. diameter = 1650 cubic meter each = 10400 cubic meter = 3500 mg/l = 67-100% = 375 KWh Total oxidation demand = 355 kg/hr

Sludge Treatment: No.s of drying beds = 2 units of 27 x 74 m Drying period = 2-3 weeks

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Estimated By-product of the plant Organic Manure Production Grit and sand Screening : 40 m3/day (7% DS) : 3 m3/day : 2-3 m3/day

D.

Influet line

C.Primary treament
B1 Mechanical Bar Screen B2 Sewage pump B3 Mechanical Grit Removal System and Flow measurement

A1 Sewer line from Gokarna A2 Sewer line from

B. Biological Treatment
C1 Oxidation Ditch C2 Secondary Clarifier C3 Recirculation

A. line

Effluent

D1 Effluent Channel D2 Flow measurement

Figure 1 Flow diagram of wastewater treatment plant

Activated Sludge Treatment Process The activated sludge wastewater treatment process is identified by three major characteristics: a biological reactor for the decomposition of degradable organic chemicals, a settling tank for the removal of solids and biomass from the water, and a recycle stream from the settling tank to the reactor to ensure sufficient levels of microorganisms. In operation since January 2001, the wastewater treatment plant at Guheshwori is the first activated sludge treatment plant in Nepal. This facility provides pre-treatment of wastewater with a mechanical bar rack and a grit chamber. The bar rack eliminates large objects from the influent, and inorganic particles like sand are removed in the grit chamber. The wastewater at Guheshwori waste water treatment plant(WWTP) is biologically treated in two carrousel type oxidation ditches, each with three aerators. From the oxidation ditches, wastewater flows into two secondary clarifiers for the settling of solids. Up to 2,500 MLSS sludge is pumped from

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the clarifiers back to the oxidation ditches to be metabolized by microorganisms, and any excess sludge is wasted to one of fourteen drying beds. Also a tunnel is constructed to bypass treated or untreated sewage directly to Tilganga (downstream of Lord Pashupatinath temple). It is the only solution to divert unwanted flow that comes to the treatment plant during the monsoon period i.e. it allows bypassing the excess sewage entering the treatment plant. The tunnel mostly passes through sandy soil with a high ground water table approximately 6-24 m above the crown of the tunnel. The internal diameter of tunnel is 2 m while the longitudinal slope is 0.17%. Conclusion Our visit to BASP was very fruitful but since there was no electricity at that time we could not watch the plant operating. There should be an alternative source of energy for operating the plant during no-light period. Also we found that BSAP has a well designed and adequately equipped laboratory to analyze influent, effluent characteristics and to monitor the performance of the sewage treatment plant. However, we found that despite of all these effort, the quality of water of Bagmati River has not raised to usable level. So, there is urge need to construct this type of waste water treatment plant in many places because unless and until the sources of Bagmati and its tributaries are not conserved and managed properly, problems related to water pollution and water resources are likely to increase further. .

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