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# 1

Instructor: M.A. Ingram
ECE4823
Accounts for random variations in
comparable to the widths of buildings
Extra transmit power (a fading margin)
must be provided to compensate for
Local Average Power
Measurements
Take power measurements in Watts as the antenna is moved in
a on the order of a few wavelengths
Average these measurements to give a local average power
measurement
Velocity of antenna
Points where power measurements are made
> /2
Scanning in 3D
After the cart is stabilized,
the XYZ actuators move an
antenna in 3 D to make a set
local power measurements
One local average power is
computed for each cart
location
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0
10
20
30
400
5
Scan volume
X Y
Z
X
Y
Z
The antenna
Same-Distance Measurements
Local averages are made for many
different locations, keeping the same
These local averages will vary randomly
with location
Example Tx-Rx
locations within
a floor of a building
Repeat for Multiple Distances
Similar collections of average powers
are made for other Tx-Rx distances
2
Likelihood of Coverage
At a certain distance, d, what is the
probability that the local average
received power is below a certain
threshold ?
) ) ( ( < d P P
r
r t
r t t
r
L d L L
G G P
d P
) (
) ( =
distance dependence shown explicitly
Likelihood of Coverage, contd
Since only the path loss L(d) is random,
the probability can be expressed as a
probability involving path loss:
) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( > = < d L P d P P
r
maximum tolerable path loss
Typical Macrocell
Characteristics
T
o
t
a
l

P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

[
-
d
B
]
10log
10
(Distance from Base Station [km])
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 1
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
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[not real data]
The set of average
losses measured
[10log
10
(4)=6]
Path Loss Assumptions
The mean loss in dB follows the power law :
mean according to a zero-mean Gaussian RV,
X

## , with standard deviation

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o
o
d
d
n d L d L
10
log 10 ) ( ) (

X
d
d
n d L d L
o
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
10
log 10 ) ( ) (
Typical Data Characteristics
T
o
t
a
l

P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

[
-
d
B
]
10log
10
(Distance from Base Station [km])
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 1
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
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Best Fit
Path Loss
Exponent:
n=4
[not real data]
is usually
5-12 dB for
mobile comm
Probability Calculation
Since L(d) is Gaussian, we need to
know how to calculate probability
involving Gaussian RVs
) ) ( ( > d L P
3
Q Function
If X is a Gaussian RV with mean and
standard deviation , then
where Q is a function defined as
|
.
|

\
|
= >

b
Q b X P ) (
dx
x
z Q
z

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
exp
2
1
) (
2

## The Problem with Q

The integrand of Q has no
antiderivative
Q is found tabulated in books
Q can be calculated using numerical
integration
What is Log-normal
If Y is a Gaussian RV and Z is defined
such that Y=logZ, then Z is a log-
normal RV
when the path loss in dB is Gaussian;
this means that the path loss expressed
as a ratio is log-normal
Inverse Q Problems
Sometimes, the probability is specified and
we must find one of the parameters in the
argument of Q
Suppose the value of is given, along
with values of b and . Solve for
Must look up the argument of Q that gives
the specified value.
|
.
|

\
|
= >

b
Q b X P ) (
) ( b X P >
Example Inverse Q Problem
Suppose the mean of the local average received powers at a
certain distance is -30dBm, that the standard deviation of
above the threshold 95% of the time. What is the threshold
power?
Q is usually tabulated for arguments of 0.5 and less, so we must
use the fact that
The argument of Q that yields 0.05 is about 1.65
95 . 0
9
) 30 (
) ( = |
.
|

\
|
= >
b
Q b P P
r
dBm 85 . 44 and , 65 . 1
9
30
= =
+
b
b
( ) ) ( 1 z Q z Q =
Boundary Coverage
Suppose that a cell has radius R and is the
Then is the likelihood of
coverage at the boundary of the cell
is also the fraction of time that a
mobiles signal is acceptable at a distance R
from the transmitter, assuming the car moves
around that circle
) ) ( ( > R P P
r
) ) ( ( > R P P
r
4
Percentage of Useful Service
Area
By integrating these probabilities over
all the circles within a disk, one can
compute the fraction of the area within
the cell that will have acceptable power
levels

d rdr r P P
R
U
R
r

> =
2
0 0
2
) ) ( (
1
) (
Integral Evaluated
power path loss model, the fraction of useful
service area is
where
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
b
ab
b
ab
a U
1
erf 1
2 1
exp ) ( erf 1
2
1
) (
2

2
) (

R P
a
r

=
2
log 10
10

e n
b = and
The Error Function
erf(x) is another form of the Gaussian integral
(like Q(x))
erf(x) has odd symmetry, with extreme values
1.
Note that some authors may define erf
differently

=
x
t
dt e x
0
2 2
) ( erf

1
erf
1
(x)
x
-1
erf and Q
The erf function and Q are related:
( ) z Q z 2 2 1 ) ( erf =
When the Average Boundary
Power is Acceptable
Suppose
.
Then we may
use this graph
from [Rappaport
96] to figure
the percent
useful service
area
= ) (R P
r
Summary
Local averages in dB of received power (or
path loss) tend to be Gaussian when the
ensemble is all Tx-Rx locations with the same
distance in the same type of environment
The mean local average path loss follows the
standard power model (proportional to
10logd
n
)
Can use Q or erf to calculate the likelihood of
boundary coverage or the percent of useful
service area
5
References
[Rapp, 96] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless
Communications, Prentice Hall, 1996
[Saunders,`99] Simon R. Saunders,
Antennas and Propagation for Wireless
Communication Systems, John Wiley
and Sons, LTD, 1999.