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All in one: Envidor for season-long mite control

ellowing, deformed leaves and small, low-quality fruits: for growers of perennial crops such as citrus fruit, and stone and pome fruit, these are often clear pointers to infestation by mites. Every year, these pests are the unwelcome bringers of poor yields and reduced quality. Accordingly, the use of crop protection products to control them is of particular financial significance to these crops. This sector of agriculture accounts for around 70 per cent of the total market for acaricides. Expenditure on this product group also accounts for 34 per cent of the US$ 1 billion or so that perennial crop growers spend on insecticides each year.

Lack of suitable products

Ever more effective products are needed because of the pests specific properties and habits: for example, many species have already developed resistance to conventional products. Another factor is that many acaricides no longer meet modern requirements or comply with the principles of integrated pest management (IPM). This means that farmers have a very limited choice at the moment.

Envidor, a new acaricide developed by Bayer CropScience, will markedly improve this situation. The potential of this product is unique: it not only controls all harmful mites throughout the entire growing period, but it also has outstanding effects on some significant insect pest species. This new product is therefore the first acaricide to be suitable for use in a comprehensive pest-management strategy alongside other insecticides in the Bayer CropScience portfolio, such as Calypso (thiacloprid).

All in one: Envidor for season-long mite control

Mites: tiny but aggressive
Envidor effectively controls important mite species (some of which measure only 0.1 to 0.7 millimetres), particularly those that attack citrus fruit, stone fruit, pome fruit and grapevine. It can also be used to combat mites that are found in strawberries, ornamental plants and various nut trees. Mites normally colonise a plant in spring, preferring to settle on the lower leaf surface. They pierce individual epidermal cells and suck out the sap, thus destroying the cells through desiccation. Mite infestation is characterised by leaf discoloration (brown, yellow or pale grey) and other leaf symptoms: leaf curl, leaf deformation and leaf fall. Citrus trees attacked by mites are also subject to increased infection by rust fungi. Mites can also transmit viruses to the trees. Fruit drop during the summer can be high, and the fruits that do survive until harvest are often small, and of poor quality, and thus of little commercial value.

Envidor is also effective in controlling insect pests like Lepidosaphes ulmi and Psylla piri

Up to seven generations and 23 million adults

Farmers have various types of mites to deal with: spider mites (Tetranychidae) - including red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae); gall or rust mites (Eriophyidae) including Epitrimerus spp., Aculus spp. and Phyllocoptruta oleivora; false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae), which include the important Brevipalpus genus; and Tarsonemid mites (Tarsonemidae). One reason why these pests are so hard to control is the extreme rapidity with which they develop and reproduce. Their fertility is astonishing, and is especially high at elevated temperatures. From a single pair of mites (e.g. P. ulmi), up to seven generations can be produced during a single season, leading (in theory) to a total adult population of around 23 million. Envidor will set a new milestone in controlling mite pests. It has a combination of properties that has never been seen before: firstly, it is effective against the entire range of mites; and secondly, it has a long duration of action against mites at all developmental stages.

Spirodiclofen: a substance with special qualities

The secret of Envidor lies in its active ingredient: spirodiclofen, a member of the tetronic acids family. It affects fat metabolism, disturbing the energy balance of the pests and eventually killing them. As this new mechanism of action is completely different from all other substances currently in use, cross-resistance with other products is unlikely. Envidor not only has a comprehensive spectrum of action. It also opens up a large window for applications, giving it a clear edge over conventional acaricides: rival products are only effective at certain mite developmental stages, whereas this new product controls the pest at all stages: egg, larva and adult. This gives farmers more room for manoeuvre in deciding when to apply the product.

because spirodiclofen is largely unaffected by unfavourable weather conditions such as extremes of temperature and heavy rain, it can be counted upon to work. The recommended application volumes for the active substance for mite control are as follows: 4.8-15 g in 100 L spray liquid for citrus fruit; and 4.8-9.6 g for pome fruit and grapevines.

Also effective against major insect pest species

Unlike other acaricides, Envidor is also capable of controlling some major insect pest species affecting perennial crops. Tests have shown it to be highly effective against pear psylla (Psylla pyri), a significant pest in European pear cultivation. Envidor will play a key role in future management strategies for this crop. The new product is also very successful in combating certain scale species (Lepidosaphes ulmi, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus). When used to control these pests, the product still has a long duration of action and is largely unaffected by temperature.

A major benefit to farmers of this new acaricide is its suitability in the context of IPM. It does not harm beneficial organisms such as ladybirds and other predators. It is also an ideal component in resistance management strategies. Envidor also complies with the international maximum residue limits. Its toxicity profile is highly favourable and it is well tolerated by all crops.

An ideal addition to Bayer CropSciences insecticide portfolio

With Envidor, Bayer CropScience is gaining access to a market segment with a stable crop-growing acreage and a steady level of investment in crop protection. Nevertheless, the need for new products is strong, as many of the older products are no longer suitable. A new product must have special qualities that distinguish it from its rivals. This is true of Envidor. For example, its spectrum of action and application window are wider than those of any other comparable product. And in the light of the benefits it offers, it represents good value for money from the users point of view.

The launch of this product will bring an outstanding addition to Bayer CropSciences pest control portfolio for citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapevines and nuts. An important strategic point lies in the option of exploiting synergies within Bayer CropSciences existing range of products. Farmers growing any of the crops listed above will be able to use a combination of Bayer CropScience products to control all of the major pests.

Available throughout the world from 2004

Envidor will be sold in most regions of the world (except in north-east Asia) as a 240 SC spray formulation. It was granted registration in some countries (Korea, South Africa, Columbia) in 2002, and market launch in further countries and regions, such as Europe and Brazil, is scheduled for 2003. It will be available throughout the world by 2004. Europe, Brazil and the USA will be the principal markets. s

Long duration of action

Envidor offers further benefits that play a decisive role in practice. After application, it adheres to the waxy layer of the plant where it is protected against run-off due to rain. This ensures that it remains effective for a long time. And

Apples: Great economic losses due to spider mites

Mites in citrus: Influence on yield, fruit quality and tree vitality

Eriophyidae Phyllocoptruta oleivora Eriophyes sheldoni Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus phoenics Tetranychidae Panonychus citri

Panonychus ulmi mite population density

fruit size & colour reduced increased fruit drop infestation level sucking damage on roset leaves fewer and less vigorous buds In summer, life cycle of spider mites is speeded up by temperatures. egg carryover is high

initial population spring

second generation summer time, increasing temperatures

Injury to the fruit, russeting, reduced size and yield reduction.

Mites feed inside the buds, killing them or causing a rosette-like growth of the subsequent foliage and distortion of flowers and fruit. Young fruit appear already disfigured and may drop prematurely.

Mites vector several virus and virus-like diseases of citrus e.g. Leprosis (Large chlorotic blotches on fruit, leaves and twigs). Leprosis results in dieback, sparse foliation and heavy leaf and fruit loss.

Attacked tissue becomes yellow or white, or takes on a bronzy appearance. In the case of heavy infestation, partial defoliation is observed.


Courier 2/2002

Courier 2/2002