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Chapter 1

METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.


1.1 Methods of Scientific Investigation. is a method carried out by following the regulations and precise science principles in a proper and systematic manner to obtain knowledge and science. this method is used by scientist when conducting experiments to study certain matters that occur. Steps of scientific investigation method.

Identify the problem

Identify the variables

Make a hypothesis

Conduct an investigation Collect Data

Plan an investigation Analysis and interpret data Write a report

Control the variables

Make conclusion

Writing a report. The following is the format to be used when writing report 1. Aim 2. Hypothesis 3. Variables o Fixed / constant variable o Manipulated variable o Responding variable 4. Apparatus and materials 5. Procedures 6. Result / observation 7. Data analyse 8. Discussion 9. Conclusion

Example of writing a report. Aim Hypothesis : To determine the boiling points of different types of water. : The boiling point of the tap water is higher than the distilled water.

Variables 1. Fixed Variable : Size of beaker, amount/volume of water. 2. Manipulated Variable : Types of water. 3. Responding Variable : The temperature of water / the boiling point of water. Apparatus and materials : Thermometer, beaker, measuring cylinder, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, tap water and distilled water. Procedure : 1) Measure the same amount of tap water and distilled water using measuring cylinder. 2) Pour the tap water and the distilled water into two beakers respectively. 3) Record the temperature of the water in the two beakers. 4) Heat the water at the same time. 5) Record the temperature every two minutes for the result 16 minutes. 6) Stop heating after reading is constant. Result / observation : Time Temperature Tap Water Distilled Water Data analyse Discussion Conclusion 0 28 28 : : Present of impurities in the tap water increase the boiling point to 102oC. : Boiling point of distilled water is lower than boiling point of tap water. 2 4 0 4 8 4 5 3 6 7 6 6 4 8 2 8 7 4 9 5 1 0 8 2 9 9 12 90 14 96 16 102

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