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Electronics design for biomedical instrumentation

(Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Ingegneria Elettronica e Ingegneria Biomedica)

Applications of electronics technologies in medicine and biology:


Biomedical instrumentation (traditional and innovative) based on acquisition (sensors), amplification (circuits) and processing (systems) of electrical signals with biological origin Imaging systems for medical diagnostic employ detectors (solid state), integrated circuits (VLSI) and processing systems (ex. DSP) for the acquisition and the processing of large quantities of information Bioelectronics: advanced and multi-disciplinary applications of combined electronics and biology/medicine (bio-labs on chip, acquisition/stimulus of cellular electrical signals, electronics prosthesis)

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

Purpose of the course:


provide a basic knowledge of the most significant use of sensors, circuits, electronics systems in the biomedical field Tipologies of addressed topics

Conventional and advanced instrumentation for the analysis of signals of biological origin The method

Systems for medical imaging based on the use of radiation (X and gamma rays)

Recall of the basic principles analysis and design of the electronics (analog and digital) employed in the instrumentation and a special look on applications of microelectronics to biomedicine
Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

Course program:
I part: Electronics for acquisition and processing of biological signals

Origin of biological signals. Electrodes and sensors. Circuits for the amplification and filtering of signals. Application: the electrocardiograph. Amplifier for bio-potentials: noise, insulation, rejection of common-mode and interferences, ... design examples. Instrumentation amplifiers. Implantable bio-medical devices: The pacemaker: working principles, batteries, amplifiers, pulse generators, telemetry. Special topics on the Pacemaker, low-power amplifiers for bio-signals (articles on course web site). Selected applications of microelectronics to bio-medicine: prosthesis for artificial vision.

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

II part:

Detectors and electronics for medical imaging systems

Basics on medical imaging. Radiographic and tomographic systems. Figures of merit. Examples of applications. Interaction of X and radiation with matter. X generators . Radioactive emitters and +. Fundamentals on detectors for X and rays. Detectors for medical imaging. The Gamma Camera. Electronics for digital radiography. Electronics for SPECT and PET. Electronics for medical imaging: - integrated front-end for detectors, electronics noise - examples of analog processing of signals - circuits for timing (PET)

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

Informations about the course


Lecturer: Prof. Carlo Fiorini tel: 3733 email: carlo.fiorini@polimi.it web: www.elet.polimi.it docenti Fiorini receivability: Wed 14.30-16.30 or on appointment lectures + exercises + seminars

Course org. :

Course material: slides of the lectures available on web (with password) in addition: articles, application notes, texts.. Bibliography: Books for consultation:
Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design, J.G.Webster, John Wiley and Sons, 1998 Design of Cardiac Pacemakers, J.G.Webster, IEEE, disponibile su web Radiation Detection and Measurement, 3rd ed., Glenn Knoll, John Wiley and Sons The Physics of Medical Imaging S.Webb, Taylor & Francis, 1988 Medical Imaging: Principles, Detectors and Electronics, Krzysztof Iniewski, Wiley, 2009

Exam:

Oral exam only. In the first two dates (Feb./Mar.) with possibility of choice of the date in a list with about 20 days, for the other dates, in the official day only.

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

Other opportunities
Opportunity of learning design software for integrated circuits design (Cadence) Not mandatory One general lecture + one practice session (3 hours). Organize groups of 3-5 students each. Five groups maximum. Calendar of practice sessions to be organized soon (Mon or Tue at 2.30pm). Opportunity for Thesis List of topics for thesis on the web General presentation of the thesis early November call for thesis starting in the II semester (March 2012) already open

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

The course is held for the first time in English:

Be patient and please do not esitate to ask if you do not understand my fluent Oxford English

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

Biomedical instrumentation

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

The biological potentials

voltmeter cell membrane microelectrode placed inside the cell microelectrode placed outside the cell

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

The action potential


Na+ channels open Other Na+ channels open Na+ channels closed K+ channels open K+ channels closed

Membrane potential (mV)

Threshold

Time

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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The bio-potentials in the heart

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Pacemaker potential (mV)

T II 0 Slope 60 85 Time 0 IV

Heart rate = 1 T

Threshold potential

Maximal diastolic potential (MDP)

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Measurement of bio-potentials

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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The electrocardiograph
I + aVL +

II

III

aVR

aVF

V1

WCT WCT + + + V5
PR interval 0.180.2 s

R
V3
ST segment

0.110.16 s

T U

J Q
ST interval

S
QT interval 0.280.43 s

WCT

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Instrumentation amplifier
(V+- V-) (1+2R2/R1)

V+ V+ V-

V-

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Example: rejection of common mode

Vcm = idb RLv/ (1+2Rf/Ra)

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Electronics for implantable prosthesis (pacemaker)

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Sensing unit Lead

Power source Control unit Pulse generator

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Pacemaker low-power (1.5V, 100nA) readout circuits (1)

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Pacemaker readout circuits (2)

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Switched capacitors amplifiers


1 V2 Ci V1 1 nTT 1 2
ON OFF

Cf

Vi = V1-V2
Vo +

I = VifCi Reff = Vi/I = 1/fCi Vo = I 1/jCf = VifCi/jCf

2 nT nTT/2

OFF

ON

Vo C 1 = i Vi Cf jT

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Pulses generators (with V > Vsupply)


(a)

+Vbat + 0

+Vbat
Vbat Cp Co

0
Rbat Phase I (b)

+ Vout -

IL

+Vbat

+Vbat +Vbat 0
+ Vbat

Vout=+2Vbat
IL

0
Cp Co

-Vbat
Rbat Phase II

+ Vout -

-Vbat
-Vbat

Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Artificial vision

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Multiple Unit Artificial Retina Chipset (MARC)

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Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Diagnostic systems for medical imaging based on X and rays

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The X rays

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X rays generators

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Digital radiography

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Detectors for digital radiography

indirect conversion

direct conversion

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Computerized Tomography (CT, Italian TAC)

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Computerized Tomography: principle


intensity

2D Object

intensity 1-dimensional vertical projection

1-dimensional horizontal projection

By measuring 1D projections along different angles, it is possible to reconstruct the 2D distribution of the object density
Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

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Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

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The Anger camera

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Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET)

coincidence window (10ns) (electronic collimation)

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PET Images of Breast Cancer Patient

Brain

Heart

Bladder

Metastases Shown with Green Arrows


Electronics Design for Biomedical Instrumentation Prof. Carlo Fiorini

Normal Uptake in Other Organs Shown in Blue

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CT

PET

CT+PET

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Electronics for the acquisition and processing of the signals

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amplitude energy, position

threshold

signal arrival time timing (e.g. for coincidence)

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The Peak Stretcher

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Timing techniques (for PET) leading edge

zero crossing

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