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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

1. Introduction We chose Richard Branson as we felt that he is highly charismatic with an interesting leadership style. His ability to overcome difficulties, discover new business opportunities across diverse industries and preference to be unconventional and a flair for controversy generated our interest in him. The other leader that we have chosen is Donald Trump. He has shown ability to anticipate profitable ventures and influence his partners in a positive way through charismatic influences. Trumps approach to business was an autocratic way of which was the polar opposite with Bransons approach. 1.1 Richard Branson Never let facts get in the way of a good idea Richard Branson Born 18th July 1950, Blackheath, South London, Richard Branson is a well known entrepreneur. Some words commonly associated with him include creative, fun, anti-establishment, fast moving, opportunist, adventurer, risk taker, warm, friendly, competitive, workaholic and tough negotiator. Diagnosed with Dyslexia (beingdyslexic.co.uk 2009), he had a problem and reading writing when he was studying, resulting in bad academic grades. At 16, he decided to drop out of school to start his first business, and became a millionaire by the age of 24. His unique interests in attempting dangerous stunts, flying around the world in a balloon, breaking world records etc, attributed to his career success. Being an entrepreneur whose timing is renowned, he is the ultimate brand builder. Creating a unique business phenomenon, he is the driving force at the centre of 150 to 200 companies, employing more than 8,000 people in 26 countries. He began his business with a unique, multi university student magazine and a small mail order record company in 1970. This humble beginning was the catalyst for the creation of Virgin Records. Twenty two years later, he sold Virgin Music Group to Thorn EMI. Branson has started over 200 businesses, which have expanded into 23 countries, ranging from planes, to drinks, to investment funds; growing his label to be
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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

a $3.5 billion company. In his own words, though their growth has been rapid, it is based on developing good ideas through excellent management principles. Richard Branson was knighted in 1999 for his services to entrepreneurship (bbc.co.uk 1999).

1.2 Donald Trump Donald John Trump, born 14th June 1946 in Queens, New York, was the son of a builder and real estate developer (Biography.com 2009). He did well as a child socially and academically, 2009). Trump was strongly influenced by his father, starting his business career in Trump Organization with him. He believed in New York Citys strong economic potential then, and ventured into Manhattan real estate (Biography.com 2009). He became involved in large building projects in Manhattan offering opportunities for earning high profits by utilizing attractive architectural design, consequently winning public recognition (Biography.com 2009). Several of these include the worlds renowned Trump Tower and his most recent Trump International Hotel & Tower. He has also ventured into casino gaming, developing of golf courses, author of many bestseller books and the highly popular reality show, The Apprentice, gaining world recognition. 2. Contrasting Both Leaders Both leaders adopt different leadership styles and have been successful in their own ventures. This paper attempts to evaluate both personas leadership effectiveness via analysis of their leadership style in terms of six specific areas of leadership namely contingency and situational leadership, charismatic and transformational leadership and entrepreneurial and strategic leadership. later graduating from University of Pennsylvania with a degree in economics (Biography.com

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

2.1 Richard Bransons Leadership Style 2.1.1 Contingency and Situational Leadership Richard Branson possesses good leader-member relations and treats his employees with due respect, like his family, even to the extent of inviting junior crew to his home for parties (Dearlove 2007). He invites employees to give feedback and contribute ideas. Virgins task structure is generally low as Branson gives his employees the freedom and initiative to be creative. There is no fixed procedure in which how things should be done (Dearlove 2007). His organisation operates on a flat, non-hierarchical structure (NCE 2009), made of clusters of companies that operate independently and given flexibility to run without much interference (Dearlove 2007). Position power he proves to be a dominant thinker, and usually makes first hand decisions himself (NCE 2009). Looking at Fielders contingency theory, he belongs to being the intermediate style leader, who is equally task-motivated and socio-independent (Durbin Dalglish Miller 2006). Branson is considered a prospector, and possesses strong contingency and situational leadership skills. He is always looking out for and takes every opportunity to venture into new viable businesses. He is also prompt in managing situations and is a high risk-taker (Dearlove 2007). His willingness to take up joint ventures and partnerships with established companies has allowed Virgin to enter into complex markets without the need to start an organisation from scratch, hence eliminating unnecessary costs associated with new start-ups (Dearlove 2007). For instance, Virgins 50:50 joint-venture with Norwich Union, United Kingdoms leading financial services company, enabled Virgin to enter into the financial market easily (Dearlove 2007). Branson has proved himself to be a good leader in driving his path goal approach towards leadership, always setting a direction for others to follow, leading to success. Based on the characteristics of group members and the demands of the task, he adopts different leadership behaviours to suit the two elements of situation (Durbin Dalglish Miller 2006).

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

The Hersey Blanchard situational leadership model indicates Branson being flexible in considering how he should lead based on the tasks nature. In seeking new business opportunities, he usually adopts the directive behavior, knowing the required tasks and how to perform them. He sets the direction, explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification. Participation is allowed for employees to share ideas and facilitate in decision making (Dearlove 2007). Upon success of a business venture, Branson places trusts in his staff and their capability to do work and empowers them with full autonomy (NCE 2009). Another directive example was his stand in the dirty tricks affair. Branson was ruthless in refuting the allegations made by British Airways (BA), accusing him of making allegations against BA to create publicity for Bransons airline in the dirty tricks affair. Knowing what should be done and how it should be done, he transformed the allegations to his advantage and instead wrote a libel suit against BA (Dearlove 2007). In this fiasco, Branson not only managed to refute the accusations, but drew media attention and managed to seek personal compensation of 500,000 from BA, 110,000 to his airline, and BA incurred legal costs of up to three million pounds (BBC.co.uk, 11 January 1993). He later adopted a supportive behavior approach style by distributing the airline compensation amongst his staff to show that he cares for his well-being and is looking out for them (Glendinning 2007). He has also proven to be strong in the ability to implement changes quickly. Virgin Cola in US was able to change its strategy, management and location of its soft drinks business, concentrating on new age drinks such as fruit juices and energy beverages when it saw no prospect in the war against Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola in the Cola businesss (Dearlove 2007).

2.1.2 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Transformational leaders are often equated with those who can adapt quickly to change (Bass, 1985). Branson clearly showed his flexibility and success in adapting to changing organisational cultures as he bought new businesses and moved into new sectors, bringing his people with him. The literature shows that ratings of transformational leadership were positively correlated with supervisory evaluations of
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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

managerial performance (Hater and Bass, 1988), recommendations for promotion (Waldman, Bass and Yammarino, 1990) and percentage of goals achieved in strategic business units (Howell and Avolio, 1993). Also, research by Patterson, Fuller, Kester and Stringer (1995) have confirmed the positive relationship between transformational leadership and performance. Bass (1985) argued that transformational leadership is more likely to reflect social values and to emerge in times of distress and change, whereas transactional leadership is more likely to be observed in a well ordered, steady environment. Virgin is an organisation that is centered on continual growth and change, therefore suited to the transformational style. Branson demonstrated charismatic leadership when he gave employees in his airline his personal phone number and encouraged them to contribute ideas and suggestions for areas of improvements by talking to him directly. The Virgin empire is one where the individual personality of Branson is stamped everywhere throughout the business, therefore, his values and goals are those which drive and permeate every element of the corporation. A review of transformational and charismatic leadership theories suggests that such leaders may achieve their impact by the creation of followers who personally identify with this style as well as with the work group they are with (Yukl, 1988). It is the transformational approach, in our view, best summarizes the style of this renowned business leader. In conclusion, Bransons charismatic style of leadership is one that stems from a largely transformational approach to how he influences those in his organisation. He shows clear skills in his ability to read the emotions of others and to assess the mood of his own culture, while having tremendous skills in how he can adapt his style and approach to the particular situation or context he is in. His drive and determination to succeed has been a key element of his success, something that stems from a combination of genetics and family circumstances. His success in becoming and remaining an effective leader of Virgin is largely due to his willingness and ability to empower individuals within the organization.
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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

Branson has shown sensitivity to the needs of others, such as the need for recognition, growth and achievement. Through his attention to and encouragement of ideas and initiatives, Branson has gotten the support of his subordinates. His authority at Virgin is extended by his flamboyant and charismatic personality and attention grabbing behavior, both of which increased his visibility and appeal to staff and the public. Although unique to Branson himself, this style of leadership is one that works very well within the Virgin Empire.

2.1.3 Entrepreneurial and Strategic Leadership Branson believes in leading his workers and companies with freedom and lesser formality. One time every month, he will send his employees letters to encourage them to talk to him about their problems and ideas (Shepler 2009). Branson avoids the management role in the numerous companies he owns and leaves the running of the companies to his own advisory board. He is more interested in dealing with public relations (Morris 2003). Bransons advertising campaigns had always been creative and at times, shocking. One instance, he wore a wedding dress as publicity for his business, Virgin Brides (BBC.co.uk 2007). He is a driven person, being the first to lead his people from the front. From blowing up the Coke sign in New Yorks Times Square (Shepler 2009) to supporting new business opportunities and humanitarian works, he has always been the first one to head them. He launched Virgin Galactic, a commercial spaceflight that enable people to experience life in space (Virgin 2009). Branson possesses the ability to revolutionize businesses and come up with amazing strategies that best suit current trends. In 1970, the British Government decided to abolish the Retail Price Maintenance Agreement and Branson immediately positioned Virgin Record using cost leadership strategy; offering consumers huge discounted record prices (Shepler 2009) and in turn, gaining market share. Branson has always been on the lookout for new business opportunities. When he noticed that current airline industries were not performing up to standards, he ventured into this business and created a benchmark, differentiating Virgin from other airlines. Branson also maintains a high level of responsibility to the community.
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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

He is currently a trustee for multiple charities including the Virgin Healthcare Foundation, pledging to invest all of his profit from the train and airline divisions into renewable or clean energy to fight against global warming (Allen 2009).

2.2 Donald Trumps Leadership Style 2.2.1 Contingency and Situational Leadership Donald Trumps reality TV show, The Apprentice has portrayed him being a typical authoritarian with a in your face management style. At the end of each competition in the show, he unsympathetically fires the person that showed least capability of managing his business operations. This shows that Trump is a low LPC leader, being unable to work well with his least preferred co-worker (LPC), or task-oriented, in Fielders contingency theory (Dubrin Dalglish Miller, 2006). Fielder classifies situations as high, moderate, and low control. The more control exercised by the leader, the more favourable the situation is (Dubrin Dalglish Miller, 2006). There are three dimensions to which determine the classification of the situation. The rating for each dimension is shown below in Figure 1.1. Dimension Leader-member relations Task structure Classification Rating Measures how well the group and the leader get along Measures how clearly the procedures, goals, and evaluation of the job are Position power defined Measures the leaders authority to hire, fire, discipline, and grant salary increases to group members Figure 1.1

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

Figure 1.2 Leader-match Concept Trump being task motivated, his leadership performance and favorability lies in area, (i), (ii), (iii), and (viii) of the Leader-match Concept above in Figure 1.2. It is very clear that almost all of Trumps businesses revolve around properties, from real estate to golf courses and casinos, showing that he works with situations that are more familiar to him, thus making it favourable too. But as these three areas show that the leader has good leader-member relations, Trump seems to lack this skill. However, Trump is not such a prick the world makes him out to be. His long time employees describe him as a strong yet merciful leader and insiders state he is a far more righteous leader than he is given credit (Biography.com 2009). Utilising Fieldlers contingency theory of leadership effectiveness, it is evident that Trumps best style of leadership is being a task-motivated leader.

2.2.2 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

Donald Trump exhibits an unconventional leadership style and has been a powerful agent of change in the business world with his do-whatever-it-takes attitude. He possesses the verbal fluency that can build relationships between many parties, and is an expert at selling the big picture. When Trump speaks, people listen. He is able to articulate and sell his ideas to people. He has accomplished impossible deals and has made luxury lifestyle the premier way to live. Without charisma, his ability to build relationships, and sell the big picture, his wealth and reputation would not be what it is today (Seruga, Seruga & Bishop 2005). It is through this charisma that he possesses that makes him able to transform peoples mindsets into positive ones; and make even opposing forces to agree on a common goal and move forward ambivalently. Donald can do just this- igniting passion and excitement that lines people up to follow in his direction. He becomes a true leader that others happily follow because they believe in him and his message (Seruga, Seruga & Bishop 2005).

2.2.3 Entrepreneurial and Strategic Leadership An entrepreneur is a task-oriented and charismatic person who drives themselves and others relentlessly, yet their personalities inspire others (Dubrin, Dalglish & Miller 2006). Entrepreneurs focus on opportunity while employees focus on resources like money, people and time. A person with an entrepreneurs thinking will say "Let's tie up the deal and find the money later" (Kiyosaki 2006, para. 6). This is what Trumps character is like. Trump shows his strong achievement drive and risk-taking abilities with his lofty goals. His personal philosophy of thinking big was the strategy behind his business deals. From building the tallest residential tower like the Trump International Hotel and Tower to installing a seven storey waterfall in the Trump Tower, Trump feels that it has to be done big or not at all (Evan Carmichael Communication Group 2009). Trump also has impressive visionary perspectives of daring to do things differently. While his competitors were focused on building medium-income housing, he was designing million dollar condominiums. When the public lost faith in the real estate,
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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

he only saw possibilities (Evan Carmichael Communication Group 2009). Another characteristic that Trump possesses was the tendency to act when the situation arises. During the 70s, when the gambling business proved profitable, he decided to gain a foothold in the industry by acquiring a piece of property in Atlantic City while gaining gambling licenses, permits and financing. He further strengthened his hold in the gambling and hotel industry by opening a $250 million complex called Harrahs at Trump Plaza in 1982 (Biography.com 2009). By 1990, he had acquired the largest hotel-casino at the time in the world, the Taj Mahal at Atlantic City (Biography.com 2009).

Strategic leadership is the process of providing direction and inspiration necessary to create and to sustain an organization or an organizational unit (Dubrin, Dalglish & Miller 2006). Trump showed his strategic leadership when planning for his company, The Trump Organization and its associate companies like the Trump Hotel Collection, a division of the Trump Organization. Trumps vision for the Trump Hotel Collection raised the bar on top-end travel experiences with a style of customized service unmatched in the market by taking the condo-hotel concept worldwide with projects in 12 different locations (Trump Hotel Las Vegas 2008). We are going to have a collection of hotels that is superior to any company in the world. We have the ability to get the best locations and the best projects because people want to be associated with the Trump brand Donald Trump (Duell 2008, para. 12). One such example was the development of a lush real estate resort with a local company in the Dominican Republic. Trump led the Trump Organization in a strategic alliance with Cap Cana, a Dominican Republic company by combining the Trumps groups recognized experience in developing resorts and ability to construct luxurious facilities with one of the worlds most beautiful destination (DominicanToday 2009). By carefully using the Trump brand and creating strategic alliances with partners for growth and development, Trump anticipates and creates a future for the organization, an aspect in strategic leadership (Dubrin, Dalglish & Miller 2006).

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

3. Comparisons (Richard Branson vs. Donald Trump) 3.1 Contingency and Situational Leadership Branson has cultivated a company culture which is controversial and enjoys a good rapport with his subordinates while Trump enjoys a clear chain of command hierarchy in which feedback is channeled. Branson is relationship oriented while Trump is an authoritarian with a in your face management style. Bransons leadership is skewed towards a relationship-oriented approach, adopting supportive and participative behavior. He lets his subordinates know that he cares for them and at times, he even get ideas from his subordinates to generate new business opportunities. Trump on the other hand, is more task-oriented and adopts a more directive behavior. He believes strongly in hierarchy and authority level. He prefers to tell his subordinates what to do rather than give them the freedom to perform the task base on their more favorable methods as long as the result is achieved which is the style portrayed by Branson. With reference to the Hersey and Blanchard model, Branson gives responsibility to his subordinates according to their readiness for the task as shown in the power he give to his advisory board while Trump is very selective of who he gives power to, i.e. he does not take into account subordinates locus of control.

3.2 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership While Branson has no qualms about getting his hands dirty, and using his personality to publicize his brand through his wit and charm, like wearing a wedding dress to publicize his companies; Trump is seen as uptight and always seen in a suit, preferring to let his subordinates handle tasks that are considered to menial to him, he makes the big decisions. Trump managed to obliterate an empire and walk away from the ruins almost unscathed, and remarkably, without doing irreparable harm to the Trump brand. This is perhaps due to Trump's amazing ability to sell himself, his showmanship. He has redeemed these failures ironically to a large extent by being the central part of a very popular and successful television show in which he presents himself as the doyen of financial finesse.

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

Branson failed to secure the lottery, has admitted to smoking cannabis and (as was pointed out above) was arrested (at a young age) for illegally selling bootleg records. On the other hand, Branson has set a number of world records (in ballooning and crossing the Atlantic by boat) and continues to demonstrate a commitment to creating companies that seem to do the world a lot of good, and inject a fun-for-all wherever the Virgin Brand flag flutters with those qualities we have come to respect in Sir Richard: passion and the charm of fun loving innocence and curiosity.

3.3 Entrepreneurial and Strategic Leadership Branson exhibits strong achievement drive and sensible risk taking. Although Trump has also a strong achievement drive, he takes uncalculated risks and much of his empire is built on loans as shown by his recent bankruptcy. Branson exhibits a high degree of enthusiasm and creativity in his publicity campaigns and has a preference for dealing with the external environment whereas Trump relies on the old tried and tested methods of marketing and prefers not to be publicly seen publicizing his projects but has recently tried to shake off the old image by launching the TV series The Apprentice. Both of them are visionaries in their own right but Branson has an immense aversion of hierarchy and bureaucracy believing in a flat structure, all subordinates have a clear open direct line to him whereas Trump runs his organization in a tall structure where power is vested in the highest echelons of his empire. Although Bransons Virgin group of companies are concerned with profit making, they are also have a strong sense of corporate social responsibility, Branson himself is a trustee for multiple charities and has not hesitated in pledging all the profits from his train and airline divisions for the research and development in renewable energy further demonstrating his visionary perspective as renewable energy is the energy for the future (Allen 2009).

4. Overview of Key Learning Issues on Richard Branson and Donald Trump

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

Based on Chemers (1997) framework, an effective organization focuses on strong leadership, power and political issues. These components are critical to creating an organization mindful of values, ethics, culture and innovation. The analysis of power and politics are essential in understanding the behavior of individuals within organizations. Some already have qualities essential for effective leadership; however they may not have yet gone through processes needed to bring these qualities to life (Daft 2007). It is hence important to realise that leadership can be learnt and developed as most may not have natural leadership skills and qualities.

4.1 Practice Makes Perfect Theoretical knowledge alone is insufficient to develop leadership styles. The best way to develop it is to apply it in every situation. Leadership is not only about handling situations. It also includes interacting and presenting yourself to people. Successful leadership requires trust between the leader and team whereby the leader needs to work well with the team and generate trust to build a cohesive group.

4.2 Successful Leaders Create a Vision that Represents Himself, the Employees and the Company Successful leaders create a clear vision for the organisations desired state in the future. It must be able to draw upon the leaders philosophy and leadership style, as well the companys profile and goals. This will allow the leader to align the leadership style upon the companys key competencies, and project a compelling vision that members will buy into. The passion, drive and guidance the leader provides will enable everyone to achieve this vision efficiently. According to Kotter and Heskett (Bell 2006, p. 138), organisations with a clear and common vision outperform those without vision. Figure 3: Statistical indicators of companies with or without vision

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

(Source: Adapted from Bell, A. 2006, Great Leadership: What It Is and What It Takes in a Complex World, DaviesBlack Publishing, Mountain View, Canada p. 139)

Hence, the power of a vision and a leaders role in creating it is something we ought to consider, because it has a huge impact on organisational performance and outcomes.

4.3 Successful Leaders Make Things Happen Vision and trusts promotes cohesiveness and participation amongst employees and thus drives the organisation forward (Rosen & Brown 1996). From our analysis, both leaders provide hands-on guidance and feedback to aid employees especially in the case of Richard Branson in reaching the companys vision. This will increase their employees motivation to strive harder and unleash the true potential of their people. Subsequently, it encourages risk taking and problem solving, which in turn leads to the success for the organisation and the leader (Citrin & Neff 1999). A successful leader must ensure that guidance is not overly-provided, lest it becomes micro-management (Dubrin et al 2003).

5. Challenges Encountered The challenges for this project were chiefly; working under pressure and group dynamics. In work and life, this project gave us new insights to the different
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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

leadership styles and approaches. We have learnt how to handle team dynamics and demonstrate competent leadership abilities.

6. What We Have Learnt Thus Far 1. As a leader, it is still not good enough to be only task-related. People need to be managed (relationship orientation). 2. A leader must be consistent to be valued and trusted. Prioritize. 3. Servant leadership propagates complacency. Motivate and empower. 4. Loafers must be dealt with, for his / her own benefit as well as the acknowledgement of sincere value contributors. Being soft-hearted and forgiving are terrible excuses. 5. Our personal and career goals must be aligned, prioritised, planned and carried out accordingly.

(Word Count: 4,120 words)

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

7. References Books/ Journal Articles 1. Avolio, B.J., Bass, B.M. and Jung ,D.I. 1999, Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the multifactor component questionnaire, Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 72, 441462. 2. Bass, B.M. 1985, Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York : Free Press. 3. Bell, A. 2006, Great Leadership: What It Is and What It Takes in a Complex World, Davies-Black Publishing, Mountain View, Canada 4. Chemers, M 1997, An Integrative Theory of Leadership, Lawerance Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey. 5. Citrin, J.M. & Neff, T.J. 1999, Lessons from the Top: The Search for Americas Best Business Leaders, Random House, New York, United States of America 6. Dearlove, D 2007, Business the Richard Branson way, Capstone, Chichester, UK 7. Dubrin, A, Dalglish, C & Miller, P 2006, Leadership 2nd Asia-Pacific Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Australia 8. Daft, Richard L. 2007, Understanding the Theory and Design of Organizations, International Student Edition, Thomson South-Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation, China 9. Howell, J.M. 1988, Two faces of charisma : socialised and personalised leadership in organisations. In J. A. Conger and R.N. Kanungo (Eds), Charismatic leadership, pp 213 266. San Francisco : Hossey Bass. 10. Rosen, R.H. & Brown, P.B. 1996, Leading People: Transforming Business from the Inside Out, Penguin Group, New York, United States of America

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

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Leadership and Management (BUSM 3195) Task 2: Leadership Analysis on Richard Branson & Donald Trump

14. Seruga, T, Seruga, Y & Bishop, Y, 2005, Want to learn what Donald Trump has that you dont But can get it?, accessed 24 February 2009, <http://www.articlejoe.com/article.php?id=34872&act=print> 15. Shepler, J 2009, The Incredible Triumph of an Enigmatic Entrepreneur , johnshepler.com, viewed 21st February 2009, <http://www.johnshepler.com/articles/branson.html> 16. Trump Hotel Las Vegas 2008, Trump Hotel Las Vegas The Nest Generation in Luxury Hospitality, Trump Hotel Collections Latest Addition Makes A Bold New (Under) Statement, Trump Hotel Las Vegas, United States of America, viewed 27th February 2009, <http://www.trumplasvegashotel.com/_files/pdf/press_releases/PR_TIHT_ LV_Overview.pdf>. 17. Virgin, 2009, Virgin, Britain,Viewed 21st February 2009, <http://www.virgin.com/Companies/VirginGalactic/VirginGalactic.aspx>

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