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139

A particle in a 3 dimensional box


2m (
2

04/13/2005

2 x2

2 y2

2 z2

& ) + V ( x ) = E y [0, b] , z [0, c]

& 0 V (x ) =

inside the box: x [0, a ] , outside the box

Search energies E for which functions (x ) with & ( x ) = 0 at the surface of the box and inside:

&

( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = E 2m
2 2 2 2

Custumary first try:

2m
2

& ( x ) = f ( x) g ( y )h( z ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 f g h [ x 2 f ( x) + y 2 g ( y ) + z 2 h( z )] = E f g h f g h



F (x)

G( y)

H (z)

F ( x) + G ( y ) + H ( z ) = 2 m E = const. F ( x), G ( y ), H ( z ) 2

are constant.
2m
2

2 2 F ( x) = k x2 , G ( y ) = k y , H ( z ) = k z2 , k x2 + k y + k z2 = 2 x2

f ( x) = k x2 f ( x) ,

f (0) = f (a) = 0

Georg.Hoffstaetter@Cornell.edu

140

Products of one dimensional wave functions


2 x2

04/13/2005

f ( x) = k x2 f ( x) ,

f (0) = f (a ) = 0
b c

A one dimensional wave function

f ( x) sin(k x x) and k x = nx a g ( y ) sin(k y y ) and k y = n y h( z ) sin(k z z ) and k z = nz


2 2m
2

for integers nx for integers n y for integers n z

E= ( a2 + b2 + c2 ) & ( x ) sin( k x x) sin( k y y ) sin( k z z )


If ) and ) are solutions of for the same energy E,

2 nx

n2 y

2 nz

then also )

) ) is a solution.

Any linear combination of states for the energy E is also a state for the energy E. Degeneracy: There two or more stationary wave functions which do not only differ by a phase factor.
Georg.Hoffstaetter@Cornell.edu

141

Normalization

& ( x ) = C sin( n x x) sin( n y a

y ) sin( nz

z)

04/13/2005

What does C have to be to normailize the wave function, i.e.


a

| |2 dxdydz = 1
0 0 0

c b a

a a sin 2 ( nx x) d x = sin 2 (n x x) d ( x) = sin 2 ( nx ) d = a a a 0 0 0

a 2

& n x n y nz ( x ) =

2 a

sin(nx x) a

2 b

sin(n y

y)

2 c

sin(nz z ) c

) is a product of stationary states of a one dimensional wave functions. a These are orthogonal for different quantum numbers. f n*x ( x) f mx ( x) dx Two three dimensional wave functions ) are therefore 0 orthogonal when one of their three quantum numbers differ.

= nx mx

& & nxn ynz ( x ) mxmy mz ( x ) dxdydz = nxmx ny my nz mz


0 0 0

c b a

Georg.Hoffstaetter@Cornell.edu

142

04/13/2005 Spherically symmetric potentials and wave functions & + y + z ) + V ( x ) = E 3D Schrdinger equation: 2 m ( x & & & & & & dx = (dr er + rd e + r sin d e ) = dr r + d + d & & & & & & & & & & ek ek , er = e , e = er , er = sin e , e = cos e k & & & & 1 & 1 all other k e j = 0 = er r + e r + e r sin
2 2 2 2

&2 (r , , ) =

1 2 r r 2

(r ) +

1 2 r sin

(sin

) +

1 2 sin 2 r 2 2

Search for only those wave functions for a spherically symmetric potential that are spherically symmetric. The other wave functions will be found later.

2m
2

1 2 r r 2

[r (r )] + V (r ) (r ) = E (r )

u ( r ) = r (r )
2 r 2

u (r ) =

2m
2

[V (r ) E ]u (r )

Like a 1D Schrdinger equation


Georg.Hoffstaetter@Cornell.edu