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Un-renormalized Classical Electromagnetism

M Ibison
Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin,
11855 Research Boulevard, Austin TX 78759-2443, USA
E-mail: ibison@earthtech.org
Abstract
This paper follows in the tradition of direct-action versions of electromagnetism having the
aim of avoiding a balance of infinities wherein a mechanical mass offsets an infinite
electromagnetic mass so as to arrive at a finite observed value. Given that, in this respect the
direct-action approached ultimately failed because its initial exclusion of self-action was
found to be untenable in the relativistic domain, this paper continues the tradition
considering instead a version of electromagnetism wherein mechanical action is excluded and
self-action is retained. It is shown that the resulting theory is effectively interacting due to
the presence of infinite forces. A vehicle for the investigation is a pair of classical point
charges in a positronium-like arrangement for which the orbits are found to be self-
sustaining and naturally quantized.
1. In t r od u ct ion
In using t he classical Maxwell t heor y t o per for m pr act ical calculat ions one r ar ely deals explicit ly
wit h t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass r esult ing fr om elect r omagnet ic self- act ion. Implicit ly, in
t he classical analogue of QED mass- r enormaliz at ion, one assumes a negat ive infinit e
mechanical mass canceling t he posit ive infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass of a point char ge so as t o
ar r ive at t he finit e obser ved value. Though t his balance of infinit ies may be unat t r act ive, a
success of t he t heor y is a r easonable expr ession for t he von Laue 4- vect or , which can be
obt ained from t he r et ar ded act ion of a char ged spher e upon it self - event ually let t ing t he
r adius go t o z er o (see Boyer [1] and also Er ber [2] for a r eview). The self- act ion t hat gives r ise t o
t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass t her efor e appear s t o be necessar y t o explain bot h r adiat ion
damping and r eact ion t o acceler at ion.
Compet ing wit h t he Maxwell t heor y is t he dir ect - act ion ver sion of classical
elect r odynamics (dir ect - act ion CED). The t heor y looked promising because it per mit t ed t he
explicit exclusion of self- act ion, avoiding at t he out set t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic cont r ibut ion
t o t he mass [3- 5]. One was t hen fr ee t o posit a finit e mechanical mass wit hout r equir ing a
balance of infinit ies. The ot her dist inguishing char act er ist ic of t he dir ect - act ion t heor y is t hat
t her e ar e no vacuum degr ees of fr eedom. As a r esult of t he lat t er one t hen has t he pr oblem of
somehow explaining t he (obser ved) r et ar ded field of a point sour ce (having pr opagat or
) by t he collect ive act ion of mult iple sour ces whose influence t he t heory demands
pr opagat e as . Wit hout t hat explanat ion t her e can be neit her r adiat ion nor von Laue 4- vect or
in t he Newt on- Lor ent z equat ion of mot ion.
+
= +
ret
G G G

+
G
Wheeler and Feynman [6,7] made pr ogr ess in favor of t he dir ect - act ion t heory by
pr oviding an explanat ion for t he von Laue 4- vect or as ar ising fr om t he effect s of dist ant
absor ber s on t he for ward light cone. In t heir ver sion of dir ect - act ion EM t he mat t er was t r eat ed
classically, self- act ion was excluded, and fut ur e absor pt ion explained r et ar ded r adiat ion and
r adiat ion r eact ion. The success of t heir explanat ion, however , depended on Cosmologies which
ar e not cur rent ly favor ed [8- 13]. Even so, t he r emoval of infinit ies would seem t o be a point in
favor of dir ect - act ion CED over t he Maxwell t heor y. Subsequent ly Hoyle and Nar likar [14] gave
a quant um- mechanical ver sion of t he Wheeler - Feynman t heor y wher ein t he mat t er was t r eat ed
by t he Feynman pat h int egr al met hod. (Tr adit ional quant iz at ion via a Hamilt onian is
pr oblemat ical because t he act ion is in t wo t imes.) Davies [15] achieved t he same goal using an
S- mat r ix appr oach. In addit ion t o demonst r at ing t he emer gence of r et ar ded r adiat ion, t hese
wor ks also gave, for example, t he cor r ect level shift s normally associat ed wit h t he ZPF, i.e.,
pr ocesses t r adit ionally r egar ded as mandat ing field quant iz at ion. (Pegg [16] gives a shor t
calculat ion showing how t he dir ect - act ion fields mimic t he pr esence of t he ZPF.)
2
Subsequent ly Feynman decided t hat t he exclusion of self- act ion fr om CED was
quest ionable because self- act ion was necessary for a sat isfact or y explanat ion of int er mediat e
pr ocesses in QED [17]. He pr edict ed t hat a consist ent relativistic t heor y of dir ect act ion would,
aft er all, have t o r et ain self- act ion. That conclusion was suppor t ed in t he compr ehensive r eview
by Pegg [10], and also by t he aut hor [11,18]. Feynmans suggest ion was implement ed by Hoyle
and Nar likar in an ext ension of t heir ear lier pat h int egr al wor k t o t he r elat ivist ic domain
[19,20]. Similar ly, Davies incor porat ed self- act ion in an ext ension t o t he r elat ivist ic domain of
his ear lier scat t er ing mat r ix approach t o mat t er quant iz at ion [21]. These wor ks pr oduced
r esult s in accor d wit h QED at all per t ur bat ion or der s, confir ming t he pr edict ion by Feynman.
But along wit h t he r et ur n of t he self- act ion came t he usual pr oblems r equir ing t he usual
t echniques for dealing wit h diver gent self- ener gy. In t he end t he dir ect - act ion t heor y
necessit at ed t he same delicat e balance bet ween infinit ies demanded of t he Maxwell t heor y in
or der t o ar r ive at t he obser ved mass.
The under t aking r epor t ed her e is a cont inuat ion of t he sear ch for an alt er nat ive t o t he
balance of infinit e masses. It s focus is a classical t heor y of EM wher ein t he act ion is ent ir ely
elect r omagnet ic - wit hout t he usual t er m =
)
2
m ech
I m dx
)
for mechanical mass- act ion. It is
clear fr om t he for egoing t hat self- act ion must be r et ained in any new appr oach, independent of
it s Maxwell or dir ect - act ion her it age. The immediat e consequence of such a modificat ion
t her efor e is t hat t he t ot al mass must be pur e elect r omagnet ic and infinit e - uncompensat ed by
mechanical mass.
The obvious advant age of uncompensat ed EM is t hat it does not r equir e a balance of
infinit ies. Less appar ent is how such a t heory could over come t he obvious object ion t hat
char ged par t icles wit h uncompensat ed elect r omagnet ic mass appar ent ly cannot ever effect ively
int er act . But an EM t heor y wit h uncompensat ed mass t ur ns out t o pr ovide for t he exist ence of
t he infinit e for ces necessar y t o acceler at e t hese infinit e (elect r omagnet ic) masses. The
possibilit y of such for ces may be infer r ed fr om t he t r adit ional expr ession for t he Lor ent z for ce
t ensor wher ein, (using t he not at ion of Jackson [22]), one obser ves t he per sist ent mot if of a
denominat or of t he for m ( r aised t o some posit ive power . Her e v is t he velocit y of t he
sour ce wit h r espect t o t he r efer ence fr ame, n is t he unit vect or fr om t he sour ce (t r adit ionally at
t he r et ar ded t ime) t o t he field point . The implicat ion, if t hose expr essions r emain applicable, is
t hat char ges feel an infinit e for ce in t he event t hat t hey r eside simult aneously on t he light cone
and t he Cer enkov cone of anot her char ge. (Her e t he wor d cone is being used in t wo differ ent
ways. The light cone is of co- dimension 1 in space- t ime, wit h symmet r y axis par allel wit h t he
t ime dir ect ion. In 2+ 1 t her efor e, t he light - cone is an ordinar y 2- sur face double- cone. The
Cer enkov cone is also of co- dimension 1 in space- t ime, but has symmet r y it s axis par allel wit h
v in t he space plane t= const ant . The Cer enkov- cone is t her efor e an or dinary 2- sur face
1 v .n
3
double- cone in 3+ 0, but in 2+ 1 is a pair of planes.) A second object ion may now be r aised t hat ,
at t he least , t his r equir es t hat t he lat t er move super luminally, which possibilit y is nor mally
excluded by t he t r adit ional for m of t he act ion. However , classically, t he r est r ict ion t o
subluminal mot ion is a consequence of t he form of t he mechanical mass act ion, and t her efor e
t hat r est r ict ion is absent fr om uncompensat ed classical EM.
Given t he r e- habilit at ion of self- act ion in dir ect - act ion EM, bot h t he Maxwell and dir ect
act ion for mulat ions ar e possible vehicles for t he ` t echnique of non- compensat ion. In t his
paper we consider only t he dir ect act ion ver sion of t he t heor y, mainly on t he gr ounds of
simplicit y; out side of t he par t icle int er act ions t her e ar e no incoming or out going r adiat ion
fields complicat ing t he analysis. We invest igat e her e a r elat ivist ic classical implement at ion of
uncompensat ed EM, and leave aside for t he pr esent t he possibilit y of an implement at ion of a
r elat ivist ic quant um ver sion along t he lines of, for example Hoyle and Nar likar [19].
The r emainder of t he document is st r uct ur ed as follows. The next sect ion pr esent s t he
uncompensat ed ver sion of dir ect - act ion CED. Self- act ion is obt ained t hr ough a limit ing
pr ocedur e analogous t o let t ing t he s iz e A of t he point par t icle t end t o z er o fr om some init ially
finit e value. Mat hemat ically, it r esembles t he r egular iz at ion met hod of t he Feynman pr opagat or
G
F
. Some care is r equir ed in der iving t he Euler equat ion fr om t he act ion; t r adit ional der ivat ions
do not gener ally account for t he possibilit y of super luminal mot ion, which becomes a
possibilit y when t her e is no mechanical mass. A det ailed der ivat ion of t he Euler equat ion is
given in t he appendix. The plausibilit y of t he limit ing pr ocedur e of let t ing t he siz e A t end t o
z er o is demonst r at ed by solving for t he t r ivial case of unifor m mot ion. In sect ions 3 and 4 is
demonst r at ed t he main claim of t he paper , namely t hat t he t heor y is effect ively int er act ing
despit e t he infinit e self- ener gies. The vehicle for t he demonst r at ion is a pair of opposit ely
char ged par t icles moving at const ant speed on a self- sust aining cir cular pat h about a common
or igin. This posit r onium- like ar r angement is t hen t o be shown t o be solut ion of t he Euler
equat ion. In sect ion 3 is ident ified a pr incipal const r aint - t he ` Cer enkov cone condit ion - in
or der t hat t he ar r angement be a solut ion. Fur t her par amet er s of t he mot ion ar e det er mined in
sect ion 4 t o sufficient degr ee in A t hat t he mot ion sat isfies all t he singular component s of t he
Euler equat ion as . That is, t he paramet er s ar e chosen so t hat t he mot ion is at least
consist ent wit h t he act ion of t he singular for ces. The t ot al ener gy and angular moment um of
t he ar r angement is comput ed in sect ion 5, refer r ing t o t he Appendix t o pr ovide gener al
expr essions for t hese quant it ies for a t wo- t ime act ion of which dir ect - act ion EM is a par t icular
case. In sect ion 6 t her e is some br ief discussion of t he r esult s.
+
A 0
4
2. Un comp en s at ed d ir ect act ion EM
2.1 Not at ion
To r educe r eliance on indexes and impr ove r eadabilit y 4- vect or s (which her e ar e not necessar ily
Lor ent z vect or s) ar e denot ed by a lower - case Lat in symbol,
{ } ( =
0 1 2 3
, , ,
a
x x x x x x )
}
, wher e t he
spat ial basis is Car t esian, and wher e t he default , when t he vect or appears alone, is t he Lor ent z
cont r avar iant for m. The scalar pr oduct of t wo vect or s x and y is wr it t en (vect or s
appear ing t o t he r ight of t he oper at or ar e in Lor ent z covar iant for m). The ant i- symmet r ic
pr oduct is denot ed by . The second r ank for ce t ensor is denot ed by
, wit h t he r ight scalar pr oduct t aken t o mean
D
a
a
x y x y
D
{
.
a b a b
x y x y y x
{ }

ab
F F D F u
{ }
ab
b
F u . and ' denot e a pair of
or dinal par amet er s for t he t r aject or ies of point par t icles; ( )
j j
x x r epr esent s t he 4- posit ion
of par t icle j at or dinal t ime , and ( ) ' '
k k
x x r epr esent s t he 4- posit ion of par t icle k at or dinal
t ime ' . ( ) ( ) '
, k j k j
s x x is t he 4- vect or differ ence at t he t wo t imes. /
j j
u dx d and
=
2
/
j j
a d x d
2
is t he ` or dinal 4- velocit y and ` or dinal 4- acceler at ion of t he t r aject or y j at t ime
, and similarly for t he primed quant it ies.
2.2 Act ion
Using t he not at ion int r oduced above t he t r adit ional for mulat ion of classical dir ect - act ion EM
for a collect ion of char ged par t icles wit h r est mass m is
( )
o
=
' ' =
_
) ) )
D
2
,
,
1
2
j k j k k j j j
j k j
j k
I e e d d u u s m d
_
2
u (1)
(see for example [7]). Self- act ion is excluded by excluding t he diagonal t er ms = j k fr om t he
double sum. By cont r ast , in t he uncompensat ed dir ect - act ion EM fr amewor k under
consider at ion her e, we admit elect r omagnet ic self- act ion and deny addit ional mechanical
act ion. That is, we consider t he elect r odynamics of complet ely uncompensat ed point char ges
for mally possessing infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass and z er o mechanical mass. Cor r espondingly,
(1) is init ially r eplaced wit h simply
( )
o ' ' =
_
) )
D
2
,
,
j k j k k j
j k
I e e d d u u s . (2)
(The fact or of is no longer of any consequence and is omit t ed for convenience.) The
cont r ibut ion t o t he act ion at t he point ' = when = j k will be r efer r ed t o as t he local self-
act ion. Because t his cont r ibut ion is singular , we immediat ely r eplace (2) wit h
5
( ) ( ) (
o
o o o
=
' ' ' ' A = + A = A A
_ _ _
) ) ) )
D D
2 2 2 2
, ,
1 , ,
2
s
j k j k k j s j k j k k j
j k j k
I e e d d u u s e e d d u u s
)
4 4
(3)
and assume t hat t he physics of uncompensat ed dir ect act ion EM is for mally descr ibed by t he
Euler equat ion for (3) in t he limit t hat
+
A 0 . (Always it will be assumed t hat A is posit ive.)
That is, (3) is fir st ext r emiz ed wit hout r egar d t o t he magnit ude of A , and only subsequent ly
does one let . This pr ocedur e r et ains t he Lor ent z invar iance and paramet er iz at ion-
invar iance of (1) and (2). However , unlike (2), t hough like (1), t he pr ocedur e is not scale
invar iant . Ther e exist ot her plausible limit ing pr ocedur es.
+
A 0
The for m of (1) per mit s only sub- luminal s peeds lest t he mechanical act ion becomes
imaginar y. Since t his r est r ict ion is absent in (3) bot h super luminal speeds and t ime- r ever sals
ar e allowed. It follows t hat in (3) t he assumpt ion t hat ( ) ( )
0
t x is a monot onic funct ion
amount s t o t he imposit ion of an ext er nal const r aint on t he mot ion. In gener al, in using (3) one
cannot impose a r elat ionship bet ween t he coor dinat e t ime ( )
0
x and t he or dinal t ime
wit hout pr ior physical just ificat ion. (It is wor t h r ecalling t hat a super luminal t r aject or y wit hout
t ime- r ever s als wit h r espect t o some r efer ence fr ame E, say, will acquir e t ime r ever sals when
viewed fr om some iner t ial fr ames t hat ar e moving sub- luminally wit h r espect t o E.)
As a r esult of t he paramet er iz at ion invar iance t he Euler equat ion is for m invar iant
under a Lorent z t r ansfor mat ion even if a par amet er iz at ion is chosen such t hat is not a
Lor ent z scalar (e.g. is not t he pr oper - t ime) and even t hough, in t hat case, u and a will not be
Lor ent z vect or s and scalar pr oduct s such as and will not be Lor ent z scalar s. In
t his paper will be consider ed only candidat e solut ions t o t he Euler equat ion t hat do not t ime-
r ever se when viewed fr om t he labor at or y fr ame, and it will be convenient t o exploit t he
fr eedom of par amet er iz at ion t o choose
D u a D
2
u u u
= t .
The light cone condit ion =
2
,
0
k j
s in (1) and (2) t hat picks out t he t imes of
elect r omagnet ic int er act ion is r eplaced in (3) by t he ` modified light - cone condit ion
. Act ually t he double cone of co- dimension 1 in 3+ 1D is r eplaced wit h t hree
disjoint sur faces each of co- dimension 1. In gener al t his will give r ise t o int er act ions as
illust r at ed in t he 1+ 1 D cr oss sect ion, Figur e 1a. The int er val s is t ime- like if j = k and t he
par t icle in quest ion is always subluminal. Ot herwise s is can be t ime- like, space- like or null, in
which case bot h signs of
A =
2 2
,
0
k j
s
o
s
need be r et ained. Not e however t hat one or mor e of t he
int er act ions will disappear in t he par t icular case t hat t he dist ant int er act ing t r aject or y st r ikes
t he light - cone of t he local par t icle at a t angent . This possibilit y is illust r at ed in Figur e 1b for
mot ion in 1+ 1D, and will t ur n out t o be impor t ant in t he subsequent analysis of super luminal
dual cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D.
6
2.3 Eu ler equ at ion
Since t her e is no mechanical mass, var iat ion of (3) gives simply t hat t he par t icle moves t o
ensur e t hat t he t ot al force is z er o,
( ) ( ) ( ) = =
_
D
,
0
j j k j j
k
f e F u . (4)
( )
j
f is a for ce 4- vect or and ( )
, k j
F is t he for ce t ensor der ived fr om t he t r aject or ies of all t he
par t icles, including t he par t icle = j k . The der ivat ion of F fr om t he Euler equat ion involves a
few depar t ur es fr om t he t r adit ional der ivat ion fr om t he Linar d- Wiecher t pot ent ial, for
example as given by Jackson [22]. The Euler equat ion for a gener al t wo- t ime act ion is der ived in
t he appendix. Inser t ing int o t he r esult (A16) t he par t icular expr ession for t he dir ect - act ion
ker nel (A6), one obt ains, , l
(
o
o

=
| | c c
' '
)
o + A =
|
c c
\ .
_ _
)
D
2 2
,
, 1
0
s
j k j k k j s
j k l l
d
e e d u u s
x d u
. (5)
It is t o be under st ood t hat in t he above we int end t o t ake t he limit A 0 aft er per for ming t he
int egr at ion. Car r ying out t he differ ent iat ions in (5) one has
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
o
=
' ' ' ' o + A =
_ _
)
D D
2 2
, , ,
1
2 0
s
j k k j k j j k k j k j s
k
e e d u u s u u s s , (6)
and wr it ing
( )
( )
(
o o o o

' + A = + A
' ' D
2 2 2
,
,
1
2
k j s k j s
k k j
d
s
d u s
)
2
,
s (7)
t he Euler equat ion becomes
( ) ( )
( )
( )
o
o
o

o o

=
=
' '
' o + A =
' '
' | | .
' + |
|
' '
\ .
_ _
)
_ _
)
D D
D
D
D
, ,
2 2
,
1 ,
, 2 2
,
1 ,
0
0
s
s
k j k j j k k j
j k k j s
k k k j
k k j
j k j k j s
k k k j
u u s u u s
d
e e d s
u s d
u s
d
e e d u s
d u s
A =
. (8)
Per for ming t he int egr at ion over ' , t his is
o

=
' | | .
= |
|
' ' '
\ .
_ _ _
D
D D
,
1 r oot s , ,
1
0
s
k k j
j k j
k k k j k k j
u s
d
e e u
d u s u s
(9)
wher e t he r oot s ar e t he ( ) ' such t hat o + A =
2 2
,
0
k j s
s (t o be subst it ut ed int o t he ker nel of t he
sum af ter t he differ ent iat ion has been per for med). Compar ing wit h (4) one sees t hat t he for ce
t ensor is
( )
o

=
' | | .
=

' ' '


\
_ _
D D
,
,
1 r oot s , ,
1
s
k k j
k j k
k k j k k j
u s
d
F e
d u s u s
|
|
.
. (10)
7
Eq. (10) gives t he gener aliz at ion of t he t r adit ional EM for ce t ensor der ived fr om t he Linar d-
Wiecher t pot ent ial. Comput ing t he der ivat ives, t he 4- for ce on t he j
t h
par t icle is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o =
| |
' ' ' ' ' +
|
=
|
' | ' ' ' ' + +
\ .
_ _ _
D D D D
D D D D D
2
, ,
3
2
1 r oot s
, , , , ,
1
s
k k j k j k k k j k j k j
j j k
k
k k j k k k j j k j k k k j j k j k
u s a u u a s u u s
f e e
u s u a s u s u u s u s a '
,
. (11)
2.4 Un ifor m mot ion
We fir st br iefly consider a single par t icle execut ing uniform mot ion in space. Because t her e is
only one par t icle t he indexes j and k can be omit t ed. Since t her e ar e no coordinat e t ime
r ever sals we can exer cise t he par amet er iz at ion invar iance t o choose t he or dinar y t ime:
( ) =
0
x . Then , wher e is t he or dinar y 3- vect or velocit y, and ( = 1, x v ) v ( ) ( ) ' =
,
1,
k j
s v .
All second der ivat ives appear ing in (11) ar e z er o, and t her efor e
( )
( ) ( ) (
o o = ' + A =
'
' ' =
'
_ _
D D
D
2 2
2
2
3
1 st 0
s s
s
u
f e u s u u u s
u s
)
. (12)
The - modified light - cone condit ion is A
( ) ( )
o o ' + A = + A =
2
2 2 2 2
0 1
s
s v 0
s
. (13)
In t he case t hat < 1 v t her e ar e r oot s cor r esponding t o o = 1
s
but not for o = +1
s
. The
sit uat ion is r ever sed if > 1 v . Since t he force is a sum over bot h cont r ibut ions, one can set
' = A
2
1 v . (14)
Using t his, t he r at io in t he sum in (12) is
( )


'
= =
A '
'
D
2
2 2
2
3 3
3
2
1 1
1
u
u s
v v
v
3
. (15)
The t er m in par ent heses in (12) is ident ically z er o, and t her efor e, following t he pr escr ipt ion of
t aking t he limit aft er for ming t he Euler equat ion - t he self- for ce is unambiguously
z er o. It is concluded t hat all unifor m mot ions ar e valid solut ions of t he Euler equat ion.
+
A 0
It may be obser ved t hat if t he delt a funct ion
( )
o A
2
, k j
s
2
)
2
in (3) wer e absent only super -
luminal r oot s would exist . For mally t his would mean t hat any sub- luminal mot ion of a single
par t icle would solve t he Euler equat ion (which is t hen alr eady z er o). Likewise, if t he delt a
funct ion wer e absent , any super luminal mot ion of a single par t icle confined t o a
single space- t ime plane (i.e. in one space dimension) would gener at e no root s, and t her efor e
would also for mally be a solut ion of t he Euler equat ion. It follows t hat bot h delt a funct ions
t oget her ensur e t hat ar bit r ar y mot ions ar e not aut omat ic solut ions of t he Euler equat ion.
(
o + A
2
, k j
s
8
3. Su p er lu min al cir cu lar mot ion of t wo ch ar ges
3.1 Sp ecificat ion of t h e mot ion
We now explor e as a possible solut ion of t he Euler equat ion (4) t wo char ges in cir cular mot ion,
bot h moving wit h super luminal speeds wit h r espect t o t he labor at or y r efer ence fr ame. Since t he
Euler equat ion is paramet er iz at ion invar iant and t her e ar e no t ime r ever sals of t he
super luminal mot ion when r efer r ed t o t he (st at ic) labor at ory fr ame it is again per missible and
convenient t o par amet er iz e t he t r aject or ies wit h t he laborat or y t ime, = t . Again, t he four -
component vect or s x, u, a, et c. ar e not Lor ent z vect or s and t heir scalar pr oduct s ar e not Lor ent z
invar iant s. Accor dingly we let and { } e , 1,2 j k
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
= =
' ' ' ' ' = =
1, , 0,
1, , 0,
j j j j j j
k k k k k k
u u t t a a t t
u u t t a a t t
v
v
)
'
a
a
. (16)
The modified light cone condition is
( ) ( ) { }
o ' ' ' + A = = A
2 2
,
, 0 ; ,
k j s l k j s
s t t t t t o
, ,
(17)
wher e (for each j, k) l enumer at es t he r oot s ' t . We r es t r ict consider at ion t o t wo par t icles in
cir cular mot ion about a common or igin. Based on symmet r y gr ounds t hat each part icle much
gener at e t he for ce necessar y t o sust ain t he ot her in cir cular mot ion at all t imes it is
r easonable t hat t he t wo par t icles must have t he same speed and must be t r adians out of
phase in t he labor at or y fr ame. This configur at ion t ur ns out t o be sufficient for st abilit y, t hough
ot her possibilit ies ar e not r uled out her e. Confining t he mot ion t o t he plane and
suppr essing t he coor dinat e one has, for
=
1 2
, , x x x y
=
3
x z | | e 1,2 j ,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e | e | = + + , cos , sin
j j
x t t r t r t
j
(18)
where here and throughout e and r are fixed positive quantities, and | | t =
2 1
. With this the other
4-vectors are
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e | e | e | e
e | e |
e e | e |
' ' ' ' ' = = + + + +
= + +
= + +
,
, , cos cos , sin s
1, sin , cos
0, cos ,sin
k j k j k j k j
j j j
j j j
s t t x t x t t t r t r t r t r t
u t t t
a t t t
v v
v
| in
(19)
with and obtained simply by argument substitution. The modified light cone condition (17) is
then
'
k
u '
k
a
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e | | o ' ' + + + A =
2
2
, , , ,
2 cos 1 0
l k j l k j k j s
t t r t t
2
. (20)
Obser ving t hat t he phase differ ence is 0 or t, define
9
o o
=
= =

, ,
1 if
2 1
1 if
k j k j
k j
k j
(21)
and also define t he dimensionless quant it ies
( )
u e c e ' = = A
, , , ,
,
l k j l k j
t t / 2 (22)
wher e c is posit ive because e and A ar e posit ive. Wit h (21) and (22), (20) can be wr it t en
( )
u o u o c + +
2 2 2
, , , , ,
2 cos 1 4
l k j k j l k j s
v = 0 . (23)
Because (23) is even in u, for fixed j,k t he u
, , l k j
come in opposit e signed pair s, making it
convenient t o employ a signed index l such t hat
u u u

> =
, , , , , ,
0,
l k j l k j l k j
. (24)
This symmet r y is t he expect ed out come of t he configur at ion of t he t wo char ges: for ever y
int er sect ion on t he f uture (r et ar ded) light cone at r elat ive phase u t her e exist s anot her
int er sect ion on t he past (advanced) light cone fr om t he same point at t he r elat ive phase - u.
3.2 For ces on t h e p ar t icles
Since t he light cone condit ion depends only on u it is convenient t o go t o t he r ot at ing
fr ame of t he j
t h
par t icle in whose fr ame t he for ce is t o be comput ed:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

e | e |
e | e |
| |
|

= + +

|
+ +
\ .
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
j
j j
x x t t x
t t

|
|
j
. (25)
In t his fr ame t he quant it ies (18) and (19) ar e
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
u o u o
e
o u o u
o e u u

'
'

, , ,
, ,
,
1
, cos 1 , sin
1, sin , cos
0, cos ,sin
1, 0,
k j k j k j
k k j k j
k k j
j
s
u
a
u
v v
v v
v
v
u
. (26)
The scalar pr oduct s appear ing in t he for ce, Eq. (11), ar e fr ame independent , and can be
comput ed using eit her (26) or (18) and (19). Suppr essing t he indexes on u one obt ains
( )
( )
o u
o u
u o u
e
o e u
' =
' =
' ' ' = + =
' = =
' =
D
D D
D D
D
2 2
2
, ,
2 2
, ,
2
, , ,
2
,
1
1 cos
1 cos
1
sin
sin
k
k k j k j
k j k k k j k j
j k j k k j k j
k j k j
u
a s
u u u a s
u s u s
a u
v
v
v
v
v
. (27)
10
Not ing t he equalit ies in (27) of some of t he t er ms in (11), t he for ce in t he r ot at ing fr ame is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o =
' ' ' ' ' ' ' +

'
_ _
D D D D D D
D
2
, , ,
3
1 ,
,
s
k k j k j k j k j k k j k j k k k j k
j k j
l k
k k j
u s a u u u s u s u u u u s a
f e e
u s
'
,
, (28)
wher e t he sum is over t he r oot s l of u as given by (23) and (24). As a consequence of t he lat t er
only t er ms t hat ar e even in u sur vive t he sum. Using (27) let us denot e t he par it y of t he scalar
pr oduct s in (28) by t he subscr ipt s o and e, cor r esponding r espect ively t o odd and even:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o =
' ' ' ' ' ' ' +
=
'
_ _
D D D D D D
D
2
, , ,
3
1 ,
,
s
k k j k j k j k j k k j k j k k k j k
o o e o e o
j k j
l k
k k j
e
u s a u u u s u s u u u u s a
f e e
u s
'
,
. (29)
Let t ing and ext r act t he par t s of t heir oper ands t hat ar e r espect ively odd and even in u it is
deduced t hat (29) can be wr it t en

E
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
o = >
=
'
| |
' ' ' ' ' ' ' +
|
\ .
_ __
D
D D D D D D
3
1 0
,
2
, , ,
1
2

s
j k j
l k
k k j
e
k k j k j k j k j k k j k j k k k j k
o o e o e o
f e e
u s
u s a u u u E s u s u u O u u s E a '
,
)
. (30)
Wit h r efer ence t o (27) it is seen t hat t he 0
t h
and 2
nd
(t he t ime and x
2
- dir ect ion) component s of
t he for ce ar e aut omat ically z er o, which is a pr edict able consequence of t he symmet r y of t he
configurat ion. This leaves only x
1
component of t he for ce t o be r esolved. Not ing t hat
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
( )
u o u o u o
o u u u
' ' ' =
= +
D D D
2 2
2 2 2
, , ,
2 4
,
sin sin 1 cos
2 cos sin 1
k k j k j k j k j k j k j
k j
u s a u u u v v
v v
u
,
v
(31)
and let t ing be a unit vect or in t he x x
1
- dir ect ion, t he t ot al force on t he j
t h
par t icle is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
o
o
o u u u o u
e
o u o u
u o u
u o u
u o u o u
e
u o u
= >
= >
| |
+
|
|
| |
=
|
|
+

|
|
| | +
\ . \ .
+ + +
=

_ __
_ __
2 4
, ,
2
2
, ,
3
2
2
1 0
,
,
2
, ,
4 2 2
2
3
2
1 0
,
2 cos sin 1 cos
2
1 cos sin
sin
sin
sin cos
1 cos
2
s in
s
s
k j k j
k j
j k j k j
l k
k j
k j
k j k j
k j
l k
k j
e e
e e
v v v
x
f v v
v
v
v v
v v v
v x
v
( )
( )
v
( ) ( )
( )
o
u u o
o u u
u o u
e
u o u
o u u u
= >
| |
+
|
|
| +
\ .
| | | |
+ + +
|
|
\ .
=
|
|
+
\ .
_ __
2 2 4 2
,
2
,
2 2
2 2 2
2
,
3
2
2 2 2 1 0
,
,
2 1 cos
1 sin
1 1 cos
2
s in
1 sin sin
s
k j
k j
k j
k j
l k
k j
k j
e e
v v
v
v v
v x
v
v v
u
m
(32)
(t he t ime- component of t he for ce t he power is alr eady z er o). Rest or ing t he indexes on u one
can wr it e wher e is t he scalar =

j j nor
f f f

j
f
11
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
u o
o u u u
u o u
= >
| | | |
+ + +
|
|
\ .
|
|
+
\
=

_ __

2 2
2 2 2
, , , , ,
2 2
, , , , , , ,
1 2
3
2
1 0
, , , , ,
1 1 co
1 sin s in
sgn
sin s
l k j k j l k j
k j l k j l k j l k j
j
l k
l k j k j l k j
f e e
v v
v v
v
u
.
2
s
(33)
and wher e
e
2 2
2
norm
e f v x (34)
is a fixed finit e for ce independent of j, k and l.
3.3 Clas s ificat ion of for ces
A super luminally- moving par t icle may int er act wit h it self by cr ossing it s own light cone any
number of t imes. The fir st such cr ossing is ` local in t hat t he associat ed t ime int er val ' 0 t t
as c 0 . Ot her light cone crossings wher ein ' = 0 t t at c = 0 will be r efer r ed t o as ` dist ant .
Whilst t he local cr ossing necessar ily connot es self- int er act ion, dist ant cr ossings may be eit her
of ` ones own light cone, or of t he light cone of anot her par t icle. In addit ion t o t hese
dist inct ions it is also impor t ant t o dist inguish bet ween for ces t hat ar e singular fr om t hose t hat
ar e finit e as c
+
0 . It will be seen below t hat t he local self- for ce is necessar ily singular ,
wher eas t he dist ant self- for ce and dist ant for ce fr om ot her par t icles can be eit her finit e or
singular . It will t ur n out t hat t her e ar e differ ent degr ees of singular it y, t hough it will be
sufficient for t he following discussion t o dist inguish simply bet ween finit e and singular for ces .
In summar y t hen, a light - cone cr ossing connot ing an elect r omagnet ic int er act ion and giving
r ise t o a for ce can be charact er iz ed by t hr ee qualit ies, each of which can t ake t wo values:
, { } e , strength f inite singular { } e , proxim ity local distant , and { } e , - source self not self .
We have alr eady ident ified an int r insic for ce t hat , in t er ms of t his cat egor iz at ion
scheme, has t he qualit y vect or ( . In accor d wit h t he labels int r oduced in
sect ion 3.1, for par t icle 1 t he
) , , singular local self
= source self qualit y gives t hat = = 1 j k . If we label t he r oot s of
(23) wit h l incr easing as one moves fr om local t o distant, t hen t he for ce in quest ion will be
associat ed wit h , and t her efor e wit h t he angle = 1 l u
1,1,1
. Taking int o account t hat = j k and (24)
, and making t he subst it ut ion u o =
1,1,1
2 , one has t hat o sat isfies
. (35)
c
o o o c o o
+

+ = >
2 2 2 2
0
sin 0, 0, lim 0
s
v =
(Recall t hat t he r est r ict ion t o posit ive o is in accor d wit h t he der ivat ion of (30) from (29).) In
Figur e 1b t he t wo point s of int er act ion cor r esponding t o bot h signs of o ar e shown as t wo r ed
point s close t o t he or igin, t he lat t er being t he pr esent posit ion of t he par t icle. Since t he
12
par t icle is super luminal (35) has r eal solut ions only for posit ive o
s
, as is appar ent fr om t he
figur e. Wit h t his, Eq. (33) gives t hat t he local for ce on par t icle 1 is:
( ) ( ) ( )
o o o o
o o
| |
+ + + +
|
\ .
=

2 2
2 2 2 2 2
3
2
1 4 1 cos 2 1 2 sin 2 sin 2
2 sin 2
local
f
v v v v
v
o
2
=
)
)
)
(36)
wher e t her e ar e now no sums and o has just one value sat isfying, for fixed speed,
. (37)
c
o o c o o
+

+ = >
2 2 2 2
0
sin 0, 0, lim 0 v
The subscr ipt local will t ur n out t o be sufficient t o dist inguish t he for ce in fut ur e calculat ions.
In t he following sect ion it is shown t hat t his for ce can be ident ified wit h (- 1 t imes) t he mass-
acceler at ion of Newt ons second law. Since it is singular, t he associat ed mass is infinit e, and one
concludes t hat t his for ce offer s infinit e r esist ance t o t he act ion of ext er nal for ces.
In or der t o sust ain cir cular or bit s t he char ges must be subject t o anot her for ce whose
st r engt h is singular. Tr adit ionally a for ce having a qualit y vect or ot her t han
is t er med ext er nal. However , t hat designat ion will not be used her e
because such a for ce might mist akenly be int er pr et ed as having a sour ce t hat is necessar ily
not- self . By cont r ast her e t her e exis t s t he possibilit y t hat ot her for ces (i.e. wit h qualit ies ot her
t han ) can be sour ced eit her by self or by not- self , t he for mer possibilit y
ar ising because t he char ges ar e super luminal. The sought for addit ional singular for ce may
even have mult iple singular, distant cont r ibut ions fr om eit her or bot h (self and not- self )
par t icles. In t his document however we will exclusively consider an ar r angement wher ein just
one, ot her , singular for ce is sour ced exclusively by t he ot her , opposit ely char ged, par t icle. Such
a for ce t her efor e has qualit y ( , which for ce, act ing on par t icle 1, in
accor d wit h t he labels int r oduced in sect ion 3.1, has labels
( , , singular local self
( , , singular local self
, , singular distant not - self
= 1 j and = 2 k . The label l for t he
associat ed angle is t he par t icular unique index, = l L say, int o t he or der ed s et of r oot s t hat ar e
t he solut ions of (23) for which t he cor r esponding for ce is singular . Taking int o account t hat
= j k and (24), and making t he subst it ut ion u | =
,2,1
2
L
, one has t hat | sat isfies
. (38) | | o c + =
2 2 2 2
cos 0, 0
s
v | >
(Again, r ecall t hat t he r est r ict ion t o posit ive | is in accor d wit h t he der ivat ion of (30) fr om (29).)
Figur e 1a shows t he gener al case for ar bit r ar y mot ion of a dist ant t r aject or y. The four blue
point s ar e t he point s of int er act ion bet ween t wo dist ant t r aject or y segment s and t he pr esent
locat ion (nominally of par t icle j) at t he or igin. However , in sect ion 3.5 it is shown t hat t he
dist ant t r aject or y must st r ike t he light cone of t he local par t icle at a t angent . Figur e 1b is a
r epr esent at ion of t his sit uat ion but wher e t he mot ion is confined t o 1+ 1D. Wit h t his addit ional
const r aint it is deduced t hat (38) can have a r eal solut ion for just one value of o
s
in t he r egion
13
of some int er sect ion point . (Ther e may be ot her int er sect ion point s involving t he same
t r aject or y.) Accor dingly we can dr op t he sum over o
s
fr om (33) so t hat t he dist ant for ce on
par t icle 1 fr om par t icle 2 is
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
| | | |
| |
| |
+ + + +
|
\ .
=
+

2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 2
3
2
1 4 1 cos 2 1 2 sin 2 sin 2
sgn
2 sin 2
distant
f e e
v v v v
v
|
2
. (39)
The subscr ipt distant will t ur n out t o be sufficient t o ident ify t his for ce in fut ur e calculat ions,
t hough a full descr ipt ion is ( ) . , , singular distant not - self
Under t he st at ed assumpt ions t hese t wo cases ar e an exhaust ive cat alogue of t he
singular forces. One also has, however , addit ional - finit e - elect r omagnet ic for ces t hat ar e
t r adit ionally admit t ed in t he classical and quant um analyses aft er subt r act ion of t he
elect r omagnet ic mass. For t he syst em under discussion it will become appar ent t hat , unlike t he
case of singular for ces, t her e ar e a var iable number of cont r ibut ions t o t he t ot al finit e for ce
fr om bot h par t icles, t hese coming fr om mult iple dist ant cr ossings of t he light cone (see Figur e
3b). The var iabilit y consider ably complicat es an alr eady lengt hy analysis, and so t his document
will concer n it self only wit h balance of t he singular for ces. This is not a big loss however ,
because (as will become clear ) none of t he quant it ies of int er est t he angle | (at c = 0 ), t he
speed v , ener gy, and angular moment um depend, t o leading or der , on t he balance of t he
finit e for ces.
Since t her e is no mechanical mass t he Euler equat ion (4) dict at es t hat t he sum of t he
elect r omagnet ic for ces on each part icle must vanish. Consider ing just t he singular for ces (36)
and (39) one t her efor e has simply
+ =

0
local distant
f f . (40)
Eqs. (35), (38) and (40) (wit h definit ions (36), and (39)) ar e t hr ee equat ions in t hr ee unknowns
, t o be solved as o |
2
, , v c
+
0 . In sect ions 3.3 and 3.4 we solve t hese only t o t he degr ee
r equir ed t o per mit i) ident ificat ion of t he local cont r ibut ion t o t he elect r omagnet ic mass t o
or der 1/ c, and ii) ident ificat ion of t he condit ion t hat t he dist ant for ce is singular t o som e
degr ee. Det er minat ion of t he lat t er condit ion is necessar y but not sufficient t o guar ant ee
sat isfact ion of t he Euler equat ion at t he or der 1/ c. However , it s det er minat ion is sufficient t o
ident ify an impor t ant geomet r ical const r aint leading t o quant iz at ion of t he or bit . Mor e pr ecise
det er minat ion of t he dependencies of on c are necessar y t o pr ove sat isfact ion of t he
Euler equat ion up t o but not including or der c
o |
2
, , v
0
. They ar e also necessar y in or der t o comput e t he
t ot al ener gy and angular moment um of t he sys t em. The r elevant calculat ions ar e given in
sect ion 4.
14
3.4 Local for ce t o or d er 1/ c
Eq. (35) per mit s t he solut ion o
+
0 as c
+
0 which is t he local solut ion t hat gives r ise t o local
self- act ion r esponsible for self- for ce and self- ener gy. Not e t hat o is pr opor t ional t o c in
appr oaching t he limit . It is infer r ed fr om (35) and (38) t hat t he speed is a funct ion of c . Wr it ing
c =

2 2
0
0
v v (35) gives
c
o =

2
0
1 v
(41)
plus higher - or der t er ms in c whose pr es ence her e is suppr essed. The associat ed self- for ce is
found by inser t ing (41) int o (36). Since o is s mall, t he t r ig t er ms need be expanded only t o
lowest or der in o. The numer at or in (36) is even in o , but t he 0
t h
or der const ant t er m
vanishes. One t hen has
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
o o o o o
o
c
o o o o
+ + +
=

2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
3 3 2
2
2 3 2
0
0
0
4 2 1 4 1 4 2 1
1 1
4 1
4 1
8 sin cos 8 1
local
f
v v v v
v
v
v v
= . (42)
As expect ed t he self- for ce is singular as c
+ +
A 0 0 , wit h set t ing t he mass
scale. In fact t he cor r es pondence wit h mechanical is mass is exact . To see t his we r est or e t he
const ant fact or defined in (34), and not e t hat t he speed
A
norm
f v t her ein is r equir ed only at t he
0
t h
or der in o, t o give t he local for ce in t he rot at ing fr ame:
e e
c
=
A
2 2 2
0
2 2
0 0

2 1
local
e e v v
f x
v v
0

1
x . (43)
Compar e t his wit h a plausible expr ession for t he or dinar y r elat ivist ic Newt onian mass-
acceler at ion for a super luminal char ge in cir cular mot ion at speed const ant
0
v , r adian
fr equency e, possessing mechanical mass :
0
m
( )
e
= =

0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2
0 0 0

1 1 1
m m m d
t
dt
v a
x
v v v
v
A
. (44)
Cast in t he r ot at ing fr ame of t he par t icle, (44) is t he negat ive of (43) pr ovided one makes t he
associat ion . The sign differ ence is because t he Newt onian Lor ent z equat ion is
wher eas t he Euler equat ion for t he pur ely elect r omagnet ic syst em is
. That is, if t he dist ant for ce is consider ed as ` applied, a char ge wit h only
elect r omagnet ic mass ` r esponds wit h a r eact ion for ce whose negat ive is t he t r adit ional mass-
acceler at ion of Newt ons second law. It is concluded t hat
=
2
0
/ m e
= 0
dist ant
f m a
+ = 0
distant local
f f
A her e plays t he r ole of t he classical
r adius of t he char ge, which, as it t ends t o z er o, causes t he elect r omagnet ic mass t o t end t o
infinit y. The self- for ce due t o self- act ion r eplaces (- 1 t imes) t he t r adit ional for ce of iner t ia.
15
3.5 Th e Cer en k ov cone con d it ion
Given t hat t he local- for ce is singular at or der c 1/ , for t he t ot al for ce t o vanish it is necessar y
t hat t her e exist anot her canceling - cont r ibut ion at t his or der . For some r elat ive phase |
solving (38) t he distant for ce coming fr om t he ot her par t icle must be singular at or der c 1/ wit h
t he cor r ect magnit ude t o exact ly cancel t he self- for ce. Clear ly, if it exis t s, t hat value of | must
cause t he denominat or in (39) t o vanish as c
+
0 , t hough, as discussed above, t his is a
necessar y but not sufficient condit ion t o guarant ee cancellat ion of for ces at or der c 1/ . Let
c
| |
=

0
0
denot e t he value of | in t he limit t hat c o
+ +
A = 0 0
+
0 . Then for t he
denominat or in (39) t o vanish r equir es
| | | + =
2
0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 v . (45)
To t his or der (38) gives
| | =
2 2 2
0 0 0
cos 0 v . (46)
Toget her t hese give t hat t he speed is
| =
0
cosec v
0
(47)
wher e |
0
is a solut ion of
| | | = >
0 0 0
t an 1, 0 . (48)
( | >
0
0 is r equir ed by (24)). The fir st few solut ions ar e given in Table 1. The smallest (n = 1)
admissible value for |
0
is 2.798, which cor r esponds t o 320.6
o
of or bit al mot ion. Figur es 2a and
2b illust r at e t he balance of for ces s uppor t ing cir cular mot ion for t his par t icular mode. In t he
limit of lar ge speeds t he phase and speed appr oach
| t
0 0
, n v (49)
wher e n is a posit ive int eger . It will be useful for lat er t o expr ess |
0
in t er ms of
0
v . Wr it ing
(46) as
( )
| | =
2 2 2
0 0 0
1 sin v (50)
and using (47), one obt ains
| =
2 2
0 0
1 v (51)
fr om which it is infer r ed t hat t he speed must sat isfy
=
2 2
0 0
1 t an 1 1 v v . (52)
16
Ever y admissible solut ion of (48) causes t he denominat or in (39) t o vanish t o 0
t h
or der in
c. By vir t ue of (47) each of t hese cor r esponds t o a par t icular or bit al speed for bot h par t icles.
One should be clear t hough t hat t he complet e s et of possibilit ies cor r es ponds t o a single value
for t he index l in (24). Ot her values of l, if t hey exist , would corr espond t o a differ ent
int er sect ion by par t icle 2 of t he for war d light cone of par t icle 1 for t he sam e paramet er s r, e,
and
0
v .
Eq. (46) select s t he r elat ive phase |
0
for some fixed speed
0
v at which t her e is
elect r omagnet ic cont act bet ween t he t wo par t icles. That is, (46) det er mines t he t imes at which
one par t icle is on t he light cone of t he ot her . For any laborat or y t ime t of par t icle 1, t her e will
always be at least t wo t imes (t wo values for t in (20)) at which par t icle 2 is in elect r omagnet ic
cont act . Independent of t he specifics of t he mot ion, at A = 0 t he light - cone condit ion (17) is
( ) ( )

' ' =
2 1
t t t t x x . (53)
which gives r ise t o (37) and (38) in t he par t icular case of cir cular mot ion consider ed her e. It will
be helpful t o r egar d t he coor dinat e t of par t icle 1 as t he fixed pr esent t ime, and ident ify wit h

' t
t he t wo t imes t hat ar e t he fut ur e and past (r elat ive t o t) t imes t hat par t icle 2 is in
elect r omagnet ic cont act .
Wher eas (37) and (38) and t her efor e Eq. (53) decides t he t iming of t he elect r omagnet ic
int er act ion, Eq. (45) imposes a const r aint on t he mot ion, valid only at t hat t ime. Independent of
t he specifics of t he mot ion and wit h r efer ence t o t he denominat or of (11), (45) cor r esponds t o
t he condit ion
' = D
2 2,1
0 u s (54)
which, in 3+ 1D for m, is
( ) ( ) ( )

' ' =
2 2 1
t t t t v . x x . (55)
This is t he condit ion t hat t he dist ant for ce fr om par t icle 2 on par t icle 1 is singular . As
discussed in sect ion 3.4, it is a necessar y but not sufficient condit ion in or der t hat an
uncompensat ed char ge deviat es fr om st r aight - line mot ion. In t he par t icular case of cir cular
mot ion discussed above, it has been ar r anged t hat t he denominat or of t he dist ant for ce vanish,
and t her efor e (54) hold, at both t imes

' t , symmet r ically dist r ibut ed eit her side of t. Let us


define t wo unit vect or s, each connect ing t he t wo par t icles at t he t wo t imes of EM cont act :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

'

'
2 1
2 1

t
t
x x
n
x x
t
t
. (56)
Then (53) combined wit h (55) give
+
= =
2 2
1, 1 v .n v .n (57)
17
which gives t hat at t he t ime of EM cont act t he component of velocit y of par t icle 2 in t he
dir ect ion of par t icle 1 disr egar ding t he sign - is t he speed of light . For any super luminal
par t icle t he set of such velocit ies (which for ms a double cone in space) is called it s Cer enkov
cone. Mor e specifically, Eqs. (57) give t hat par t icle 2 is moving away fr om par t icle 1 at t he speed
of light at t he fut ur e t ime, i.e. as par t icle 2 cr osses t he r et ar ded light cone of par t icle 1, and t hat
par t icle 2 is moving t owar ds par t icle 1 at t he speed of light at t he hist or ical t ime, i.e. as par t icle
2 cr osses t he advanced light cone of par t icle 1. These condit ions will be r efer r ed t o collect ively
as t he Cer enkov cone condit ion. In t he space- t ime diagr am t he condit ions (57) mean t hat
par t icle 2 int er sect s t he (double) light cone of par t icle 1 at a t angent . Figur e 1b illust r at es t his
possibilit y in 1+ 1 D. Figur es 2a and 2b show how t he balance of for ces suppor t s cir cular
mot ion. Figur e 3 shows a r ender ing of t he act ual mot ion in 2+ 1.
4. High er or d er t er ms in t h e Eu ler equ at ion
4.1 Mot iv at ion
The calculat ion of t he dist ant for ce culminat ing in (47) and (48) enforces t he Cer enkov cone
condit ion discussed in sect ion 3.7. Yet alt hough t hey guar ant ee t hat t he dist ant for ce is
singular , Eqs. (47) and (48) ar e not sufficient t o guar ant ee t hat t he dist ant for ce cancels t he self
for ce, for which it is necessar y t o expand t o higher or der s. In t he par t icular case of cir cular
mot ion, it will t ur n out t hat higher or der cor r ect ions will play no dir ect r ole in det er minat ion of
t he allowed mot ion; once t he speed have been chosen in accor d wit h (47) and (48) one has in
hand a full descr ipt ion of t he mot ion of bot h par t icles subject t o t he pr ior const r aint of
concent r ic cir cular mot ion. That is, t he out come of t his calculat ion can have no impact on t he
speed and r elat ive phase (at t he t ime of EM cont act ) in t he limit A = 0 . Nonet heless, it is
impor t ant t o show t hat it is mat hemat ically feasible t o com pletely cancel t he self- for ce wit h t he
local for ce, wit hout , say, int r oducing imaginar y quant it ies. Also, it will t ur n out t hat t he higher
or der t er ms comput ed below will be r equir ed t o comput e t he ener gy and t he angular
moment um of t he syst em.
4.2 Ser ies s olu t ion of t h e ligh t - con e con d it ion s
We r equir e t he simult aneous solut ion of Eqs. (37), (38) and (40) (wit h definit ions (36), and (39))
for t he t hr ee unknowns , as o |
2
, , v c
+
0 . Not ing t hat Eq. (42) gives c 1
local
f , it follows, in
or der for t he t ot al for ce vanish, t hat t he denominat or of t he dist ant for ce (39) must be
pr opor t ional t o c (unless per haps t he numer at or vanishes at c = 0 , which will be seen not t o be
t he case). Fr om t he form of t he denominat or , | | | +
3
2
sin cos v , it is deduced t hat o| c
1/ 3
at
18
t he lowest or der and t her efor e t hat t he quant it ies can be expanded as a ser ies in o |
2
, , v c
1/ 3
.
Ther efor e let us define c =
1/ 3
(t her e is just one r eal r oot ) and wr it e
o o | |
= =
= =
_ _
0 0
,
n
n
n n
n
n
(58)
wher e n is an int eger and t he coefficient s ar e const ant s. It will be convenient t o r e- wr it e t he
modified light - cone condit ions (37) and (38) using c =
1/ 3
as
( ) ( )
o | | o o + +
2 6 2 2 6 2
cos sin 0
s
= , (59)
and
o
o
+
=
2 6
2
2
sin
v . (60)
The pr oblem may now be st at ed as t he det er minat ion of t he coefficient s o | , ,
n n n
fr om t he
simult aneous equat ions (58), (59) and (60), and (40) (using (36) and (39)).
Fir st we solve for t he { } o
i
in t er ms of t he { } |
i
. Subst it ut ion of (58) int o (59) and
collect ing t er ms, one obt ains at 0
t h
order
o | | o =
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
cos sin 0 . (61)
Since it has been alr eady deduced t hat |
0
sat isfies (48), plus t hat o
+
0 as c
+
, 0 , it
follows t hat t he above requir es t hat o =
0
0 , as expect ed. At t he 1
st
or der t he coefficient of in
(59) gives
(
(62)
)
o | | | o o | | o o o | | o +
2 2 2
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
2 cos sin 2 cos 2 cos sin 2 sin 0 =
2
which is clear ly alr eady sat isfied at o =
0
0 . One pr oceeds likewis e, set t ing t he coefficient of
each t er m in t he power ser ies for t o z er o. One can use (48) t o r eplace all appear ances of t he
t r ig t er ms wit h ir r at ional funct ions of |
0
:
|
| |
| |
= =
+
0
0 0
2
0 0
1
cos , sin
1 1 +
2
. (63)
One event ually obt ains
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
| | | | | | |
o
| | |
| | | | | | | | | | |

|
+ +
= +
+ + +
+ +
2 2 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 0 2
3 5 6
3 4
0 0 0
2 4 2 2 2
0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 3 0 2
7 8
5
0
1 1 3
1
2 3
1 1 24 12
24
O
. (64)
Using (64) one can now expr ess as given by (60) in t er ms of t he {
2
v } |
i
. Expanding and
collect ing t er ms one finds
19
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
| | | | |
| | |
|
| | | | | | | | | | |

|
+
= + + + +
+ + + +
+ +
2 2
1 0 0 2 1
2 2 2 2 2 3
0 1 0
0
2 4 2 2 2
0 1 0 0 1 0 3 1 2 0 2
4 5
2
0
2 1 3
1 1
3
1 2 1 6 3
3
O
v
. (65)
4.3 Ser ies s olu t ion of t h e Eu ler equ at ion
Using (64) and (65), and t he expansion (58) for |, it is now possible t o expr ess t he for ces
ent ir ely in t er ms of t he { } |
i
. A ser ies expansion of t he Euler equat ion (40) in will t hen fix t he
in t er ms of { } | > ,
i
i 0 |
0
. One finds for t he local for ce, (36), t hat
( ) ( )
|
|
| |
|
= + +

2
2 1
0
3 2
0 0
1 1
1
4 2
local
f
|
|
|
.
0
O . (66)
Put t ing (64) and (65) and t he expansion (58) for | int o t he expr ession for t he dist ant for ce (39)
gives
( )
( )
| | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |
| |
+
= + + +
|
|
+
\ .

2 4 2 2 2 2
0 1 0 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 2 1 2
3 2 2 2 2 3
0 1 0 1 0 1
3 2 2 3 6 s gn( ) 1
4 1
distant
e e
f O . (67)
It may be obser ved t hat o
s
does not appear in eit her of t he above for ces. This is because o is
non- z er o only at t he t hir d or der , so t hat t er ms involving o
s
fir st appear in t he expansion of
(59) at t he 12
t h
or der , which is t oo high t o cont r ibut e t o t he singular component s of t he for ce.
The t ot al for ce must be set t o z er o by solving (40) using (66) and (67) by set t ing t he
coefficient t o z er o of each of t he Taylor - Laur ent ser ies t er ms in up t o and including t he t er m
at or der
0
. Fr om (66) and (67) t he dominant t er m at or der
3
gives
( )
|
| |
+ =
+
1 2
2 3
0
0 1
sgn( ) 1
0
1
e e
. (68)
One sees immediat ely t hat =
1 2
s gn( ) 1 e e , i.e. t he t wo char ges ar e of opposit e sign as expect ed.
Given t hat t his is t he case, one t hen has
|
|
| o
|
| |
=
|
|
+
\ .
1/ 3
0
1 1
2
0
1
(69)
wher e
|
o
1
can be eit her of . Pr oceeding likewise for each t er m of t he Taylor - Laur ent ser ies ,
one event ually obt ains
1
( ) |
| |
| | o
| | |
| | | |
= + + +
| |
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
1/ 3 2/ 3
2 0 0
0 1
2 2
0 0 0
1
3 1 1
O
3
. (70)
20
The |
i
implied in t he above (i.e. as defined in (58)) can now be subst it ut ed int o (64) and (65) so
t hat o and can now be r egar ded as funct ions of and
2
v |
0
. However , it is pr efer r ed her e t o
use (51) t o expr ess ever yt hing in t er ms of (t he squar e of t he speed in t he limit t hat
2
0
v = 0 ),
since t his is per haps mor e r eadily r egar ded as an obser vable pr oper t y of t he t wo- par t icle
syst em. In t hat case t he ser ies (64) for o becomes
( ) ( )
( )

o
+
= +


2/ 3
2 3
0 5 0
7 / 6 11/ 6
2/ 3 2
2 2
0
0 0 0
9 28
1
2 1 72 1
O
v v
v
v v v

7 9
(71)
t he fir st t er m of which is in agr eement wit h (41). The ser ies for | is
( )
( )
( ) |
| o

= + + +

1/ 6
2
0
2
0 1
2/ 3 1/ 6
4 / 3
2
0
0 0
1
1
1
3 1
O
v
v
v
v v

2 3
(72)
and t he ser ies (65) becomes
( )
( )
( )

+
= + + +

2
1/ 3
2/ 3
2 2 2 2 4 6 0
0 0 0
1/ 3
2/ 3
2
0 0
9 7
1
9 1
O
v
v v v v
v v
. (73)
We can now invest igat e how each of t he t er ms in t he expansion of eit her t he local or t he dist ant
for ce depends on t he speed (because t he sum is z er o, one is just t he negat ive of t he ot her ).
Examinat ion of (66) and (67) immediat ely r eveals t hat t he coefficient of
2
must be z er o
because a t er m of t hat or der appear s in only one of t he t wo for ces. There r emains only
( )
( )


= = +


2/ 3
0 0
3 7 / 6
2
2
0
0
1 1 1
4 1
8 1
local dist
f f O
v
v
v
. (74)
To r est or e t he unit s t o t he for ces we r ecall and not e also t hat t he
nor maliz ing for ce (34) is it self a funct ion of via
( ) c e = = A
1/ 3
1/ 3
/ 2
v , an expansion for which can be obt ained
fr om (73):
( )
( )
( )
e e
e
e
| |
| |

|
= + +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
|
| |
A
|
|
= + + A
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
1/ 3
2
2 2 2 2 2 4 0
0
0
1/ 3
2 2 2
0
2 2 4 / 3
0
0
1 1
2 2
2
1
2
32
norm
e e O
e O
v
f x v x v
v
v
x v
v
|
. (75)
Mult iplying (74) by (75) gives
( )
( )
e
e
= = + A
A
A
2
2 5/ 3
0 0
7 / 6
1/ 3 2
5/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
0 0

1
2 1
local dist
e
e
O
v x
x
f f
v
v v
. (76)
21
(In fact t here ar e no cont r ibut ions in (76) t o t he for ce at or der A
0
ar ising fr om t he for egoing
analysis; t he fir st non- singular cont r ibut ion t ur ns out t o be at or der A
1/ 3
. Ther e ar e, however ,
cont r ibut ions at fr om t he finit e int er act ions ignor ed in t his analysis, as discussed
above.) As requir ed, t he fir st t er m is in agr eement wit h (43). Though weaker t han t he fir st , t he
second t er m is also singular , and t her efor e likewise r equir es nullificat ion fr om balance of local
and dist ance for ces.
(
A
0
O
)
Ther e wer e no pr oblems encount er ed in t he above in assigning real values t o t he
expansion coefficient s in t he ser ies (58) in or der t hat t he singular part s of t he t ot al for ce
vanish. This confir ms t hat t he cir cular mot ion of t he t wo char ges (18) does indeed sat isfy t he
singular part s of t he Euler equat ions for t he act ion (3) in t he limit t hat - pr ovided t he
speed is a solut ion of (52). The non- singular par t s, in par t icular t he t ot al for ce at
A = 0
( )
A
0
O can
similar ly be nullified t hr ough appropr iat e choice of t he coefficient s of t he higher or der t er ms
on t he expansions (58). As discussed above, t his is not demonst r at ed her e because of space
limit at ions and also because it has no bear ing on t he quant it ies of int er est . The main point , t hat
t he char ges int er act t o pr oduce non- t r ivial mot ions despit e t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic
masses, is sufficient ly demonst r at ed by r esolving just t he singular par t s of t he for ce.
5. En er gy an d An gu lar Momen t u m
5.1 En er gy of p air in cir cu lar mot ion
In t his sect ion t he local and t hen t he dist ant cont r ibut ions t o t he energy ar e fir st comput ed
separ at ely. The t ot al ener gy is t hen given as t he sum. In t he case t hat t he mot ion is given by
(18) and t he scalar pr oduct s ar e (27), t he ener gy is
( ) ( ) (
( ) ( )
)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u o u u o u o u u
e
u o u
u u o u o u u o u
e
u u u u u o u u u u
u o u
>
| |

|
=
|
| +
\ .
= + +

_ _
_ _
2
2 2 2
, , ,
3
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
,
,
, , ,
4 2 2 2 2
,
3
2
, 0
,
2 sin 2 sin 1 cos
1
2
sin
sin sin 1 cos
2sin sin cos 2 sin
sin
k j k j k j
j k
j k roots
k j
k j k j k j
j k
k j
j k roots
k j
e e
H
e e
v v v
v
v v v
v v
v
+
. (77)
The sum over o
s
has been dr opped because, as discussed above, bot h t he local and dist ant
int er act ions can simult aneously sat isfy t he modified light - cone condit ion and t he Cer enkov
cone condit ion for just one of t he t wo values. The root s ar e now given by (23). The angle
br acket s have been be omit t ed because not hing inside depends on t. Not ing t hat t he whole
expr ession is even in u, and t hat (23) is even in u and t her efor e t he r oot s come in opposit e
signed pair s, t he sum over r oot s gener at es a fact or of 2, and it is under st ood t hat in t he second
expr ession above one now uses just t he posit ive r oot of (23).
22
In accor d wit h t he discussion of sect ion 3.4 we dist inguish bet ween ener gy ar ising fr om
local self- act ion and any ot her ener gy ar ising fr om t he act ion of t he dist ant for ce:
= +
local dist
H H H . (78)
The local ener gy is char act er iz ed by = j k and u
+
0 as
+
A 0 . Using u o = 2 and t hat t her e
ar e t wo par t icles having local cont r ibut ions fr om t he pair s ( ) ( ) = , 1, j k 1 ) 2 and ( ) , (77)
becomes
( = , 2, j k
( ) ( ) ( ( )
e
)
o o o o o o o o o
o o
= + +

2
4 2 2 2 2
3
2
4
2 sin 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2 1 sin 2 2
2 sin 2
local
e
H v v
v
+ (79)
wher e o is t he solut ion of (37). Using now t he expansion (71) for o and (73) for , aft er some
algebr a one finds
2
v
( )
( )
( )
(
e e
e

= + + = + +
A
A
2/ 3 2/ 3
2 2 2/ 3
2 2
0 0 0 0
7 / 6 7 / 6
3 2 2
2 2/ 3 1/ 3 2
0 0
0 0
2
1 1
2 1 2 1
local
e e
e e
H O
v v
v v
v v
)
A

O . (80)
Just as for t he for ce, t he t er m at or der A
0
comes fr om finit e int er act ions ignor ed in t he
for egoing analysis. The fir st t er m is just t hat expect ed fr om a pair of par t icles each of
(elect r omagnet ic) r est - mass , pr ovided one accept s t he gener aliz at ion, alr eady implied in
(80), of t he t r adit ional - fact or t o t he super luminal domain.
A
2
/ e
Taking int o account t he exchange symmet r y bet ween t he t wo par t icles, t he int er act ion
ener gy is t wo t imes t hat of just one of t hem. Using u | = 2 and t hat t her e ar e t wo opposit ely-
char ged par t icles cor r esponding t o t he pair s ( ) ( ) = , 1, j k 2 and ( ) ( ) = , 2, j k 1 , bot h pair s assumed
t o cont r ibut e equally, (77) becomes
( ) ( ) ( ( )
e
)
| | | | | | | | |
| |
= + + + +
+
2
4 2 2 2 2
3
2
4
2 sin 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2 1 sin 2 2
2 sin 2
dist
e
H v v
v
(81)
wher e | is t he solut ion of (38). Using now t he expansion (72) for | and (73) for , one obt ains
2
v
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
e e
e


= + = + A
A
A
2/ 3 2/ 3
2 2 1/ 3 2 2/ 3 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
7 / 6 7 / 6
3 2 2
2 1/ 3 2
0 0
0 0
3 2
2
1 1
3 1 3 1
dist
e e
e e
H O
v v v v
v v
v v
v v
3
O . (82)
The int er act ion ener gy is negat ive, as it should be.
Adding (80) and (82), t he t ot al ener gy is
( )
(
e
= + A
A
A
2/ 3
2 2/ 3 2 2
0 0 0
1/ 6
2/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
2 1
2 1
e e
H
v v
v
)
O . (83)
23
The t ot al ener gy of t he syst em is negat ive, confir ming t hat t he or bit s are binding. The ener gy is
not bounded fr om below; incr easing t he speed makes t he ener gy mor e negat ive. Since must
obey (52), t he ener gy is quant iz ed. Table 2 gives t he spect r um for t he fir st few quant um
number s. At high quant um number s (49) gives t hat t he ener gy appr oaches
2
0
v
t A
2
2 H e n , (84)
wher e n is a posit ive int eger .
Denot ing t he equivalent r est mass of each par t icle by = A
2
/ m e it may be not iced t hat t o
fir st or der in t he mass (83) appear s t o be a super - luminal gener aliz at ion of t he r elat ivist ic
Vir ial Theorem [23]
=
_
2
1
j j
j
H m v . (85)
However , a for mal r elat ion bet ween t he t wo has not been est ablished her e; t hat would r equir e
demonst r at ion of (83) independent of t he det ails of t he mot ion.
In t his purely elect r omagnet ic t heor y t he coefficient of t he act ion (3) is ent ir ely
ar bit r ar y. A coefficient pr opor t ional t o A , say, would in effect be a for m of r enor maliz at ion,
which would leave t he ener gy (83) finit e and t he angular moment um (96) z er o. In any case, t he
absolut e values of t he ener gy and angular moment um must be r egar ded as ar bit r ar y. Of cour se,
t he fact of t heir quant iz at ion is unaffect ed by t his ar bit r ar iness, since t he excit ed st at es can be
expr essed as dimensionless r at ios r elat ive t o t he gr ound st at e. For example, upon int r oducing
an ext r a subscr ipt t o denot e t he quant um number , so t hat , for example, t he n
t h
solut ion t o (52)
is labeled , t hen (83) gives
2
0,n
v
t
+
A

= ~

2
0,
2
2 0 lar ge
0 0,0
0,0
1
lim 1.301
1
1
n n
n
H n
n
H
v
v
v
(86)
wher e we used ~
0,0
2.614 v .
5.2 An gu lar momen t u m of p air in cir cu lar mot ion
In t his sect ion t he local and t hen t he dist ant cont r ibut ions t o t he angular moment um ar e fir st
comput ed separ at ely. The t ot al angular moment um is t hen given as t he sum. Fir st we simplify
t he t hir d t er m in lar ge par ent heses in (A77) using t he scalar pr oduct s for t he dual cir cular
mot ion (27):
24
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u u
u o u o u o e u o
e e e
u u u o u u u u
e
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' + +
| |
= +
|
\ .
= + +
D D D D D
2
, ,
2
2 2 2 2
, , , ,
2
2 2
,
1
sin 1 cos sin 1 cos
s in cos 1 sin cos
k k j k j k j k k k j k j
k j k j k j k j
k j
u s u u t t a u t t u a s u u
v v v v
v
v
u . (87)
Fr om t he definit ions (18) and (19) t he vect or cr oss pr oduct s ar e:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
e | | o u
e e
e | | o u
e | | o u
e e
e | | o
e e
' ' = + =
' ' = + =
' ' = + =
' ' = + =
2 2
,
2 2
2 2
,
2
,
2 2
,
sin sin
sin sin
cos cos
cos cos
k j k j k j
k j k j k j
k j k j k j
k j k j k j
t t
t t
t t
t t
v v
x x z z
v v zv zv
v
x v z z
v v
v x z z u
2
v
. (88)
Then t he fir st vect or expr ession in (A77) is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
u
o u o u o u
e e e
o u u u
e
' ' ' ' + + = +
=
2 2
2
, , ,
2
,
cos cos sin
2 cos sin
j k k k j k j k j k j
k j
t t
v v
x v x v v z z z v
v
z
. (89)
Put t ing (87)- (89) in (A77) one obt ains t he angular moment um specific t o t he dual cir cular
mot ion
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u o u u u u
o
u o u o u u u
u o u
u u u o u u u u u
u u
o
o u u u
u o u
| |

|
|
=
|
|
|
+ +
\ .
= + +

_ _
2
2
,
2
, 2 2
, ,
3
2
,
,
2 2 2
,
4 2
2
, 2 2 2
,
3
2
,
sin 2 cos sin

sin 1 cos cos


2
sin
s in cos 1 sin cos sin
s in cos

s in 4 s
s in
k j
j k k j
k j k j
j k roots
k j
k j
k j j k
k j
k j
e e
e e
v
z v
L v v
v
v v
v
z v
v
v
( )
( )
u u
u u u u
>
| |
|
|
|
|
+
\ .
_ _
, 0
2
in cos
cos sin
j k roots
. (90)
In accor d wit h pr evious discussions t he sum over o
s
has been dr opped. The angle br acket s
have been be omit t ed because not hing inside depends on t. Given t hat t he whole expr ession is
even in u and t hat (23) is even in u - and t her efor e t he r oot s come in opposit e signed pair s
t he sum over r oot s has been r eplaced wit h a fact or of 2 and t he posit ive r oot of (23) has been
st ipulat ed.
Pr oceeding as for t he ener gy let
= +
local dist
L L L (91)
25
wher e t he local cont r ibut ion is char act er iz ed by = j k and u
+
0 as
+
A 0 . Using u o = 2 and
t hat t her e ar e t wo par t icles cor r esponding t o t he pair s ( ) ( ) = , 1, j k 1 ) 2 and , (90)
becomes
( ) ( = , 2, j k
( )
( )
o o o o o
o o o o o o
| |
+ +
|
=
|
+
\ .
4 2 2 2 2
2 2
3
2 2
sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 4 8 sin 2 cos 2
2

4 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 sin 2


local
e
v v
v
L z
v
o
(92)
wher e o is t he solut ion of (37). Using now t he expansion (71) for o and (73) for , t his is
2
v
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

e
e
| |

|
= + +
|
|
\ .
|

|
= +
|
A | A
\ .
2/ 3 2
2
0 0
2 0 0
7 / 6
3 2
2
0
0
2/ 3 2
2
0 0
2 0 0
7 / 6
2
2/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
0
2

1
2 1
2
2

1
2 1
local
e O
e O
v v
v
L z
v
v
v v
v
z
v
v
|
+ A
. (93)
In comput ing t he dist ant cont r ibut ion t o t he angular moment um we use u | = 2 and t hat
t her e ar e t wo opposit ely- char ged par t icles cor r esponding t o t he pair s ( ) and
, and t hat bot h pair s cont r ibut e equally. Eq. (90) t hen gives
( = , 1, j k ) 2
) 1 ( ) ( = , 2, j k
( ) ( )
( )
| | | | | | |
| |
= + + +
+
2 2
4 2 2 2 2 2
3
2
2
s in 2 cos 2 s in 2 4 4 cos 2 2 sin 2
2 sin 2
dist
e v
L z v v
v
| + (94)
wher e | is t he solut ion of (38) . Using now t he expansion (72) for | and (73) for t his is
2
v
( )
( )
( )
( )

e
e
= + +

= + + A
A
A
2 2 2 8/ 3
0 0 0
7 / 6
3 2
2
0
0
2 2 2 8/ 3
0 0 0
7 / 6
2
2/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
0

1
2 1
2
1
2 1
dist
e e
O
e e
O
z v z v
L
v
v
z v z v
v
v
. (95)
Compar ing (93) and (95) one sees t hat t he leading or der par t s of t he angular moment um
cancel, wit h t he r esult t hat t he t ot al moment um is singular only t o or der 1/ :
( )
( )
( )
( )

e
= + = +
A
2 2/ 3 1/ 3 2 2/ 3
0 0 0
1/ 6 1/ 6
2 1/ 3 1/ 3 2
0 0
2

1 1
e e
O
v v
L z z
v v
A
0
O . (96)
The angular moment um is quant iz ed by vir t ue of (52). At high quant um number s, (49) gives
t hat t he magnit ude of t he angular moment um appr oaches
t
e
| |

|
A
\ .
1/ 3
2
2n
e L (97)
wher e n is a posit ive int eger .
26
6. Dis cu s s ion
6.1 Cer en k ov Rad iat ion
The advant age of t he dir ect - act ion analysis is t hat wit hout addit ional mat t er t her e can be no
r adiat ion fr om t he cir cular or bit s, i.e. even t hough t her e is acceler at ion. That is, t he analysis
above is exact for a 2- par t icle univer se. This is in cont r ast t o t he Maxwell t heor y in which t her e
will be (r et ar ded) r adiat ion due t o t he acceler at ion of t he sour ces. Wit h t his caveat it was st at ed
in t he int r oduct ion t hat t he t echnique of non- compensat ion, and in par t icular t he analysis of
t he dual cir cular mot ion, could also be per for med in a Maxwell fr amewor k because t he t heor ies
ar e ot her wise t he same.
Ther e is an addit ional r eason, however , for pr efer r ing t he dir ect - act ion t heor y t hat was
not ment ioned in t he int r oduct ion. It is widely held t hat unif orm ly moving char ges at v > c will
r adiat e int o a vacuum. Such r adiat ion was pr edict ed by Sommer feld [24] in 1904. Ther e wer e no
known physical manifest at ions, and pr esumably wer e not expect ed t o be any - at least not due
t o or dinar y elect r ons whose speed could not exceed c - unt il 1934 when Cer enkov and Vavilov
obser ved luminescence pr oduced by r elat ivist ic elect r ons passing t hough a medium. The
phenomenon was explained in 1958 by Cer enkov, Tamm and Fr ank [25] as an inst ance of t he
effect pr edict ed by Sommer feld, but wher e t he condit ion for r adiat ion was r efor mulat ed as t he
r equir ement t hat t he char ged par t icle move fast er t han t he speed of light in t he local mat er ial.
See [26] for a suppor t ing calculat ion. Wimmel & Jones [27,28] lat er r e- analyz ed t he pr oduct ion
of Cer enkov r adiat ion, r eplacing Sommer felds model of a r igid finit e- siz ed elect r on
(int r oduced t o pr ovide a cut off for t he r adiat ion) wit h a r elat ivist ically- cor r ect var iable for m, t o
achieve a finit e r elat ivis t ically- invar iant expr ession for t he power loss. But t her e wer e feat ur es
of t he r esult t hat led Wimmel t o conclude t hat somet hing was wr ong wit h t he whole appr oach.
Ther e is a det ailed dis cussion of t his issue and a suggest ed solut ion in t he r ecent book by
Fayngold [29].
However , t her e ar e some - for example [30- 32] - who hold t hat Sommer felds or iginal
analysis applies only t o elect r ons moving t hr ough a dense medium, and does not apply t o
mot ion in a vacuum. In par t icular , Recami and Mignani [30] make an ext ended ( ) Lor ent z
t r ansfor mat ion [33] of t he behavior of or dinary char ged t ar dyons t o deduce t hat Cer enkov
r adiat ion fr om char ged t achyons appear s only if t raveling wit h speed less t han t hat of light in a
medium, i.e. when . (The r efr act ive index n is less t han 1 in t achyonic mat er ial.)
> v c
> > / c n v c
An addit ional advant age, t her efor e, of adopt ing t he dir ect act ion over t he Maxwell
t heor y is t hat it avoids having t o t ake sides on t his cont est ed issue. Just as for or dinar y
acceler at ion r adiat ion, in t he dir ect - act ion t heor y t her e can be no Cer enkov r adiat ion of
ener gy wit hout t he pr esence of addit ional absorber s, r egar dless of which posit ion on t he issue
is cor r ect .
27
6.2 Real v er s u s imagin ar y mas s
Commonly it assumed t hat super luminal speeds connot e an imaginar y value for t he mass in
or der t hat t he classical mechanical act ion =
)
2
m ech
I m dx r emains r eal [29]. A consequence is
t hat one is for ced t o r egar d t ar dyonic ( < v c ) and t achyonic ( ) charged mat t er as differ ent
species, each making t heir own dist inct cont r ibut ion t o t he act ion:
> v c
= =
=
_ _
) )
*
2 *
1 1
N N
m ech i i i i
i i
I m dx m
2
dx (98)
wher e m and m * ar e t ar dyon and t achyon masses r espect ively. This is consist ent wit h t he
Himalayan analogy deployed by Sudar shan in defense of t achyons [34]. By cont r ast it may be
infer r ed fr om t he analysis above t hat a mass of pur ely elect r omagnet ic or igin cont r ibut es an
act ion
=
A
)
2
2
self i
e
I dx (99)
valid t her efor e for all s peeds. Of cour se t her e is not hing in t he above t o suggest t he possibilit y
of differ ent masses, or even of t he emer gence of a finit e mass scale; t hese ar e separ at e issues
t hat r equir e t r eat ment elsewher e. The impor t ant point here is t hat a s ingle act ion now cover s
t he full domain of speeds, wit h no ment ion necessar y of imaginar y mass.
It appear s t hat in un- compensat ed EM a single species of char ge has t he capacit y t o
move wit h speeds bot h less t han and gr eat er t han light . It should be point ed out t hough t hat
t he possibilit y of null mot ion is not cover ed by t his conclusion and has yet t o be invest igat ed.
(Init ially it might appear t hat such a possibilit y is excluded because one always expect s a self-
for ce of t he for m (43), and t her efor e an infinit e cont r ibut ion fr om t he gamma fact or as .
But a mor e car eful analysis shows t hat if
v c
= v c is st ipulat ed at t he out set , a differ ent Taylor -
Laur ent ser ies expansion in of t he local force exist s, i.e., having finit e coefficient s, and
t her efor e could pot ent ially be cancelled by a dist ant for ce of t he same or der .) Only if v = c is
per mit t ed is t her e a possibilit y of a single char ge (an unbr oken wor ld line) explor ing bot h
r egimes.
6.3 Non - localit y
It is clear fr om (10) and (11) t hat ' = D
,
0
k k j
u s wit h =
2
,
0
k j
s is t he Lor ent z - invar iant condit ion
t hat t her e exist s a singular for ce bet ween par t icles (mor e exact ly, event s) k and j. If t he speed of
bot h par t icles is less t han c t hen t his condit ion is sat isfied only at =
k j
x x I.E., when t he t wo
par t icles ar e coincident , in which case t he singular for ce is t he Coulomb for ce at z er o
28
separ at ion. For t he purposes of comput ing singular for ces, t her efor e, ' = D
,
0
k k j
u s wit h =
2
,
0
k j
s
is t he Lor ent z - Invar iant gener aliz at ion of t he z er o separ at ion condit ion, fr om which it follows
t hat a superluminal charge should be r egar ded (for t hese pur poses) as an ext ended object . Mor e
specifically, for each 4- point , ( ) z say, on t he wor ld line, a sour ce is effect ively ext ended
t hr oughout t he sur face whose point s ( ) { }
x simult aneously sat isfy t he t wo equat ions
( ) ( )

= D
2
0, 0
dz
z x z x
d
= . (100)
For a single value of t he sur face ( ) { }
x has co- dimension 2 (i.e. a 2- sur face in 3+ 1D), so t hat
t he 1 dimensional world- line gener at es an ext ended source of co- dimension 1 (a volume in
3+ 1D). This ext ension is in space- t ime, not in space alone. For example, a unifor mly moving
sour ce wit h speed gener at es a (double) Cer enkov cone or iginat ing fr om each point of
t he wor ld line - whose angle u bet ween t he sur face and t he axis of symmet r y sat isfies
> v c
u = cos v c . This double cone exist s for all t ime, and t her efor e has 3 dimensions in 3+ 1. The
addit ional const r aint t hat t he ext ended sour ce lie on t he (double) light cone t hen select s a
moving cr oss- sect ion t hr ough t he double cone t hat is a pair of expanding cir cles of r adius
u = sin t r unning away fr om t he sour ce- point at speed c, i.e. wit h = r t . A pair of expanding
cir cles is gener at ed by ever y point indexed by on t he wor ld line; t hey ar e t he effect ive
ext ension of t he char ge at least insofar as t hey det er mine a sur face upon which a t est char ge
will exper ience a singular elect r omagnet ic for ce. Due t o t he effect ive space- t ime ext ension of a
super luminal char ge, at ever y point in t ime on t he dual cir cular mot ion analyz ed above each
char ge feels an infinit e for ce fr om it s par t ner fr om t wo places at once, as illust r at ed in Figur e 2.
(It may addit ionally feel t he influence of any number of finit e for ces, t hough t hese do not ar ise
fr om t he effect ive ext ension but fr om z er o- dimensional point s on t he wor ld line.) Each inst ance
of t he infinit e for ce ar ises fr om t hose point s wher e t he wor ld- line of one char ge sour ce
int er sect s t he effect ive ext ension (of co- dimension 1) of t he ot her sour ce.
Con clu s ion
Fr om t he analysis of t wo par t icles in a posit r onium- like configur at ion it has been demonst r at ed
t hat t her e exist s a non- t r ivial physics of classical dir ect - act ion elect r omagnet ism of point
sour ces wit h mechanically un- compensat ed elect r omagnet ic mass, even t hough t hose masses
ar e infinit e. In t he absence of mechanical mass adequat e infinit e for ces have been found t o
ar ise fr om dist ant char ges in super luminal mot ion. The for ces can be r egar ded as der iving fr om
super luminally- induced change in dimensionalit y of a sour ce fr om a 1D wor ld line t o a hyper -
sur face in 3+ 1D. In t he par t icular case analyz ed it was found t hat t he adequat e infinit e for ces
29
exist only for discr et e values of t he par amet er s of t he mot ion, r esult ing in quant iz ed values for
t he t ot al ener gy and angular moment um.
30
Appendix A
Force, energy and angular momentum of a system of particles
governed by a two-time action
A.1 In t r od uct ion
In classical mechanics Noet her s t heor em is usually applied t o an act ion has just one t ime
var iable and cont ains only fir st der ivat ives:
( ) =
)

; , I dt L t q q , (A1)
wher e q can have any number of component s. Bar ut [35] gives a gener aliz at ion t o an ar bit r ar y
number of der ivat ives. However , published der ivat ions of conser ved quant it ies associat ed wit h
a classical two- tim e Lagr angian,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' =
) )

; , , , I d d J q q q q '
)
, (A2)
have not been found. The solut ion t o t his deficit adopt ed her e is t o cast (A2) in t he one- t ime
for m (A1) by int r oducing auxiliar y degr ees of fr eedom subject t o const r aint s, as descr ibed in
sect ion A.2, and t hen apply Noet her s t heor em t o t hat one- t ime act ion. In sect ion A.3 it is
demonst r at ed t hat t he new alt er nat ive one- t ime for m gives t he same Euler equat ion as
obt ained for t he or iginal t wo- t ime for m. In t hat analysis q is a 4- component vect or t hat is t he
locus of t he par t icle wor ld- line. The cor r esponding Euler equat ion is valid for t r aject or ies t hat
t ime- r ever s e. If it is known a pr ior i t hat t her e ar e no t ime r ever sals, t hen a ver y similar analysis
can be per for med r est r ict ing q t o t hr ee degr ees of fr eedom, t he r esult s of which ar e simply
st at ed in sect ion A.4. The r esult ing one- t ime act ion is t he st ar t ing point for comput ing t he
ener gy in s ect ion A.5 and in sect ion A.6 t he ener gy is given for t he par t icular case t hat t he
or iginal t wo- t ime act ion is t hat of dir ect act ion EM. In sect ion A.7 is comput ed t he angular
moment um for t he alt er nat ive act ion of sect ion 4 and sect ion A.8 gives t he angular moment um
for t he par t icular case t hat t he or iginal t wo- t ime act ion is t hat of dir ect act ion EM.
A.2 Conv er s ion fr om t wo- t ime t o on e- t ime for m
In t his appendix we will consider t he gener al case of a t wo- t ime act ion t hat can be wr it t en in
t he for m
( ' ' ' ' ' ' = =
) ) ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
J
I d d J x x u u x x u u d L (A3)
wher e
( )
k k
+ + + +

) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , , ..., , , ..., , ,..., , ,...
J
L d J x x u u x x u u (A4)
31
and wher e t he following shor t hand has been used for t he 4- vect or s x and u
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) (

) k

+ +
'
' ' ' +
'
, , , , ,
j j
j j j j j j j j j j
dx dx
x x u x x u x x u u
d d
k +
o
|
|
.
. (A5)
Not e t he for m (A3) pr ecludes a mor e gener al possibilit y wher ein t he ker nel depends explicit ly
on bot h t imes independent ly; it depends explicit ly only on t he differ ence bet ween t he t wo
t imes. Clear ly, t he dir ect - act ion (3) is in t his form. In par t icular ,
. (A6)
( )
o
o
+ +
=
|
= + A

\
_ _
D
2
2
, 1
s
j k j k k j
j k
J e e u u x x
Eq. (A3) can be wr it t en as a one- t ime act ion by expr essing t he posit ion and velocit y at t ime
k + in t er ms of t he der ivat ives of t he posit ion at t ime as a Taylor ser ies:
( ) (
k k
) + + +
= =
= =
_ _
1
0 0
,
!
m m
m
j j j
m m
x x u x
m m !
m
j
. (A7)
Here and subsequently it is assumed that the trajectory is infinitely differentiable, and that series
such as (A7) converge. Because we wish to cast (A3) as a one-time action with only first derivatives,
we now proceed as if, for each m,
( ) m
j
x in (A7) is an independent variable to be varied when
extremizing the action (A3), and establish the association between
( ) m
j
x and ( )
m
j
d d x with
Lagrange multipliers. In place of (A3) therefore, consider the action =
)
I d L where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
| |
|
|
= +
|
|
\ .

0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
, ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, ,..., , , ..., , ,...,... , ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, ,..., , , ..., , , ..., ...
aux J
x x x x x x
L L x x x x x x L x x x x x x
p p p p p p
, (A8)
wher e is t he auxiliar y densit y
aux
L
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

+
=
_

D
1
,
m m m
aux j j j
j m
L p x x . (A9)
J
L is t he or iginal densit y
J
L but wit h t he replacement s
( ) ( ) ( )
k k + + +

_ _
1 1
, , ,
!
m m
m
j j j j j j j
m m
x x u x x x u x
m m !
m
j
(A10)
so t hat (A4) becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k k k k
k k
+ +
| |

|
\ .
_ _ _ _
)
0 0 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , , ...
! ! ! !
m m m m
m m m m
J
m m m m
L d J x x x x x x x x
m m m m
. (A11)
It may be obser ved t hat
J
L cont ains no der ivat ives (at all) and is in one- t ime for m; t he
funct ions depend only on . In t hese t er ms t he par t icular case (A6) of dir ect act ion EM
becomes
( ) m
j
x
32
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
k k
k o
+
=
| |
| |

= + A
|

\ .
\ .
_ _ _ _
)
D
2
1 1 0 2
, 1
! !
s
m m
m m
j k s j k k J
j k m m
L e e d x x x x
m m
o
|
|
j
. (A12)
A.3 Eu ler equ at ion s
The goal of t he following is t o show t hat t he act ion (A8) is equivalent t o (A3) in t hat t he
r esult ing Euler equat ions for t he par t icle t r aject or ies ar e t he same. The Euler equat ions for (A3)
ar e ver y s imply obt ained as follows. The incr ement in t he act ion due t o an incr ement in t he
t r aject or ies is:
o o o o o
| | c c c c
' ' = + + +
|
'
' ' c c c c
\ .
_
) )
D D D D
l l l l
l l l l l
I d d x u x u
x u x u
J . (A13)
Int egr at ing t he 2
nd
and 4
t h
t er ms by par t s, and assuming t hat t he incr ement s vanish on t he
boundar y (i.e. in t he r emot e - past and r emot e - fut ur e), t his is
o o o

| | | | | c c c c
' ' = +
| |
|
' ' ' c c c c
\ . \ \ .
_
) )
D D
l l
l l l l l
d d
I d d x x
x d u x d u
|
|
.
J . (A14)
Renaming as ' and ' as one obt ains
( )
(
o o

| | c c
' = +
|
c c
\ .
_
) )
D

1
l
l l l
d
I d d x S
x d u
)
' J (A15)
wher e oper at es on J swapping and

S ' . At an ext r emum, t he incr ement o I vanishes for


ar bit r ar y o
j
x . It follows t hat t he Euler equat ions for (A3) ar e
( )
( )

| | c c
' ' + =
|
c c
\ .
)

1
l l
d
d S
x d u
0 J l . (A16)
The Euler equat ions for t he syst em (A8) can be comput ed as follows. Var iat ion of t he
auxiliar y var iables in t he auxiliar y act ion (A9) immediat ely est ablishes t he r equir ed
r elat ion bet ween
( ) m
j
p
( )
( )
m
j
x and ( ) ( )
m
j
d d x :
( ) ( ) +
=

1
,
m m
j j
k m x x . (A17)
Eq. (A9) also gives that
( ) ( )
c c =

n
l l
L x p
n
. (A18)
Bot h t he auxiliar y and t he or iginal act ion (A11) par t icipat e in giving
( ) ( ) ( )

c c = O
1
1
n n n
n l l l
L x g p (A19)
wher e g is t he 4- vect or
33
( )
( )
k k
k o o

+ +

c c c c
+ + +
`
c c c c

)
)
1
,0 ,1 1
! 1 !
n n
n
n n n l
l l l l
J J J J
g d
x u n n x u
O . (A20)
Here the o s are Kronecker symbols, and O is the asymmetric Heaviside step function limited to
integer arguments which is zero for negative argument and otherwise one, so that . The
derivatives of J in (A20) are to be evaluated using the form given in (A4). With (A18) and (A19), one
has that the Euler equation for is
O =
0
1
( ) n
l
x
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

c c
= O
c c

1
1
0
n n n
n l l l
n n
l l
L d L d
g p p
d
x x

=
d
. (A21)
The can be eliminated by differentiating n times and alternately adding and subtracting:
( ) n
l
p
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

| | | | | |
O = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
_
1
1
0
n n
n n n
n l l l l
n
d d
g p p g
d d
_
n
n
d
d
. (A22)
Putting in from (A20)
( )
k k
k o o

+ +

c c c c | |
+ + +
`
|
c c c c \ .
)
_
)
1
,0 ,1 1
0
! 1 !
n
n n
n n n
n l l l l
d J J J J
d
d x u n n x u
O = . (A23)
Offset t ing by 1 t he sum over t he last t er m in br aces, ' = 1 n n n , (A23) is
k
k k

+ +
(
| | | c c c c | |
+ ( | |

c c c c \ .
( \ . \

_
) )
0
!
n
n
n l l l l
J d J d J d J
d d
x d u n d d x u
|
=
|
|
.
. (A24)
Recognizing the expression in square braces as the shift operator
( ) ( )
k
k

| |
=
|
\ .
_
:
!
n
n
n
d
h h
n d
h , (A25)
the second term in (A24) is
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k
k k

k k k k k k

k k

+ + + +
+ +
(
| |
c c | |
( |
|
|
c c \ .
( \ .

| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
_
)
)
)
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
!
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
,
n
n
n l l
l l
l l
d d
d J x x u u x x u u
n d d x u
d
d J x x u u x x u
x d u
d
d J x
x d u
( )
u
( )
( )

+ + + +
| | c c
' ' ' ' ' ' =
|
c c
\ .
| | c c
' ' =
|
c c
\ .
)
)
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ..., , , ..., , , ..., , , ...
, , , ..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...

l l
l l
x u u x x u u
d
d J x x u u x x u u
x d u
d
d S J
x d u
(A26)
(The t hir d st ep comes fr om negat ing t he var iable of int egr at ion, k.) Using t his for t he second
t er m in (A24) and using t hat k ' = d d in t he fir st t er m in (A24), one obt ains (A16). It is
concluded t hat t he syst em (A8) is equivalent t o t he t wo- t ime densit y (A4).
34
Having now a one- t ime fir st or der differ ent ial for m for t he act ion, one can employ t he
st andar d r esult s for ener gy and angular moment um.
A.4 Res t r ict ion t o t ime- mon ot on ic wor ld - lin es
So far t he t r aject or y x has been t r eat ed as a gener al 4- vect or wit hout r est r ict ion on t he 0
t h
element . For t he r emainder of t he appendix however , in or der t o employ est ablished r esult s, it
will be necessar y t o assume t hat t her e ar e no t ime r ever sals, and t her efor e t hat t he 0
t h
component is a monot onic funct ion of t he or dinal par amet er . Wit h t he 0
t h
component no
longer a degr ee of fr eedom, in place of (A3) and (A4) we now consider t he act ion
(A27) (
' ' ' ' ' ' = =
) ) ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , , ..., , ,..., , , ..., , ,...
K
I dt dt K t t dt L x x v v x x v v )
)
|
+ A
|
.
2
wher e
. (A28)
(
k k
+ + + +

) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ,..., , ,..., , , ..., , ,...
K
L d K x x v v x x v v
Clear ly t hese ar e not so gener al as (A3) and (A4) because t he t ime coor dinat es , which could
have appeared in an arbit r ar y way in t he lat t er , must now appear only as a differ ence. The
dir ect - act ion ker nel (A6) can be wr it t en in t his for m:
', t t
. (A29)
( ) ( )
o
o k o
+ +
=
|
=

\
_ _
2
2
, 1
1
j k j k k j
j k
K e e v .v x x
The Euler equat ions cor r esponding t o (A16) ar e
( )
( )
| | c c
' ' + =
|
c c
\ .
)

1
l l
d
dt S t t K l
dt x v
0 . (A30)
The pr evious analysis demonst r at ing t hat (A8) is equivalent t o (A4) can be r epeat ed wit h t he
act ion specified by (A27) and (A28) as t he st ar t ing point . One easily finds t hat t he equivalent
one- t ime syst em is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
| |
|
|
= +
|
|
\ .

0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
, ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, , ..., , , ..., , ,...,... , ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...
aux K
L L L
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
p p p p p p
, (A31)
wher e
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
+
=
_

1
,
m m m
aux j j j
j m
L t p . x x . (A32)
In place of Eq. (A21) one t hen has
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

c c
= O
c c
1
1
0
n n n
n l l l
n n
l l
L d L d
dt dt
g p p
x v
= (A33)
wher e
35
( )
( )
k k
k o o

+ +

c c c c
+ + +
`
c c c c

)
)
1
,0 ,1 1
! 1 !
n n
n
n n n l
l l l l
K K K K
d
n n
g
x v x v
O . (A34)
A.5 En er gy of wor ld - lin es ext r emiz in g a t wo- t ime act ion
Tr eat ing t he as independent var iables, t he Hamilt onian for t he syst em is
( ) n
l
x
( )
( )
( ) ( )
c
= =
c
_ _
, ,
n n
l l
n
l n l n
l
L
H L v . v .p
v

n
l
L (A35)
wher e L is t he t ot al densit y. The conjugat e moment a
( ) n
l
p can be found by solving (A33)
it er at ively as follows. From onwar ds (A33) can be wr it t en = 0 n
( ) ( ) + | |
+ =
|
\ .
1

1
n n
l l
d
E
dt
p g (A36)
wher e incr ement s t he super scr ipt :

E
( ) ( ) ( ) +
=
1

,
n n
Eq q q
n
. Assuming conver gence, (A36) can be
inver t ed as
( ) ( ) ( ) + + +
| |
| | | | | |
= + + = |
| | |
|
\ . \ . \ .
\ .
_
2 3
1

1 ...
m
n n
l l
m
d d d d
E E E
dt dt dt dt
p g
1 m n
l
g . (A37)
Put t ing t his in (A35) gives
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
t t
t o o
+ +
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ +
| |
=
|
\ .

c c c c | |
= + + + O
`
|
c c + + + c c \ .
)
_
_
)
1
, ,
1
1,0 1,1
, ,
1 ! !
m
n m n
l l
l m n
m
m n m n
n
m n m n m n l
l n m l l l l
d
H L
dt
d K K K K
d L
dt m n m n
v . g
v .
x v x v

. (A38)
The fir st t er m in br aces is z er o. The second t er m is
( ) ( )
k o k o o k
+ +
c c | | | |
= =
| |
c c
\ . \ .
_ _
) ) 1,1 ,0 ,0
, , , ,
m m
n n
m n m n l l l
l n m l n m l l l
d K d K
d d
dt dt
v . v . v .
v v
c
c
_
)
l
K
d
v
. (A39)
The t ot al densit y L appear ing in (A38) is t he sum (A31). However , t he auxiliar y densit y is z er o
once t he Euler equat ions (A17) ar e invoked. Ther efor e L can be r eplaced wit h
K
L , which is t hen
equal t o . Wit h t his and (A39), (A38) can be decomposed as
K
L
= +
0
H H H
1
(A40)
wher e
k
c
=
c
_
) 0 l
l l
K
H d v .
v

K
L (A41)
and
36
( )
( ) ( )
k k
k
+ + +
+ +

c c | |
= +
`
|
+ + + c \ . c

_
)
1
1
, ,
! 1
m
m n m n
n
l
l n m l l
d K
H d
dt m n m n
v .
v
)
!
K
x
. (A42)
(Not e t hat one cannot wr it e (A41) as
c
=
c
_ 0
K
l
l l
L
H v .
v

K
L because t he appar ent commut ivit y of
t he funct ional der ivat ive wit h t he int egr at ion can be dest r oyed simply by a change of
int egr at ion var iable.) Since it is conser ved, t he ener gy and it s t ime- aver age over t - denot ed by
br aces - ar e t he same. Her e we choose t o aver age over a per iod of t he syst em. In t hat case t he
aver age of any t ot al t ime der ivat ive will vanish, ( ) = 0 g dg t dt , and t her efor e
( )
( )
( )
( )
=
db t da t
a t b t
dt dt
. (A43)
Wit h t his, (A42) gives
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
k k
k
k
k
k
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+
+ +

c c | |
= +
`
|
+ + + c c \ .

| |
c c
=
|
|
+ + c c
\ .
_
)
_
)
1
1
, ,
1
, ,
1 ! !
1 !
m
m n m n
n
l
l n m l
m n
n m
l
l n m l l
d K
H d
dt m n m n
K d K
d
m n d
v .
x v
v .
x v
) l
K
(A44)
wher e t he second t er m in br aces has been int egr at ed over k by par t s, and it is assumed t hat all
quant it ies vanish on t he boundar y (t he limit s of t he int egr at ion over k). Let t ing and
r eplacing t he sum over m , t he above becomes
+ = m n p
( )
( )
k
k
k
+
+
=
|
c c
=

+ c c
\
__
)
1
1
, 0
1 !
p p
p
l
l p n l l
K d K
H d
p d
v .
x v
+
|

|
|
.
. (A45)
Not ing t hat t he sum over n just gives p+ 1 and using (A25), t his is
( )
k
k k k k
k k
+
+ + +
| | |
c c c c
= =
|
|
c c c c
\ . \
_ _
) ) 1
,
!
p
p
l l
l p l l l l l
K d K K d K
H d d
p d d
v . v .
x v x v
+
|

|
|
.
. (A46)
Not ing t hat
k k k k
+ + + +
+ + + + +
| | |
c c c c c c
= + + = +
| | `
| |
k
|
c
+
`
c c c c c c c
) \ . \ )
_ _

l l l l
l l l l l l l
dK K K K K d K d K K
d d
v . v . v . v .
x v x v v
.
d
, (A47)
(A46) is
k k
k k k
+
+
|
c
=

c c
\
_
) 1 l
l l
dK K d K
H d
d d
v .
v
|
c
|
|
.
. (A48)
Int egr at ing by par t s and again assuming t hat quant it ies vanish on t he boundar y:
k k k k k
k k
+ +
+ +
| |
c c c
= =
|
|
c c c c
\ .
_ _
) ) 1 l l
l l l l
K K K
H d K d L d v . v .
v v
c
) K
K
. (A49)
Combining (A41) and (A49), and, for not at ional simplicit y, ext ending t he t ime aver age t o
include t he t er ms in H
0
, one finally obt ains
37
k k k
k
+
+
c c
= + k
c
c c c
_ _
) ) )
2
l l K
l l l l
K K
H d d L d v . v .
v v
K
(A50)
wher e t he angle br acket s denot e an aver age over a per iod of t.
The plausibilit y of (A50) can be demonst r at ed by showing t hat t he expr ession Eq. (A50)
agr ees wit h t he t r adit ional r esult when t he act ion is one- t ime. If one set s
( ) ( ) o k = ,
trad
K L x v (A51)
t hen (A27) wit h (A28) gives t he t r adit ional for m
( ) =
)
,
trad
I dt L x v . (A52)
Put t ing (A51) in (A50) and not ing t hat
+
c c = 0
trad
L v , one has
( )
( )
o k
k k
k
c c
=
c c
)
2
trad
trad trad
L
H L d L v . x v
v
, . (A53)
Not ing now t hat in t his case t he par t ial der ivat ive wit h r espect t o k is t he same as t he t ot al
der ivat ive wit h r espect t o k, t he last t er m can be int egr at ed by par t s, aft er which one simply has
c
=
c
trad
trad
L
H v .
v
L (A54)
as r equir ed.
A.6 En er gy of ch ar ges obey in g d ir ect - act ion EM
Comput ed above is t he ener gy associat ed wit h a gener al t wo- t ime act ion wher ein t he explicit
dependence on t ime is only on t he t ime differ ence, i.e.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' ' ' ' =
) ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , , ..., , , ..., , ,..., , ,... I dt dt K t t t t t t t t t t x x v v x x v v . (A55)
Pr ovided t he par t icle world lines ar e t ime- monot onic, it is shown t hat ener gy is given by (A50):
( )
c c c
' ' ' = +
`

' ' c c c
)
_
)
2
l l
l l l
K K
H dt K t t
t
v . v .
v v
K
(A56)
wher e
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' , , ,
j j j j j j j j
t t t x x v v x x v v ' t (A57)
wher e t he angle br acket s signify a t ime- aver age (over t) over a per iod of t he mot ion. In t he
par t icular case of t he dir ect - act ion EM considered in t his document , t he K in (A55) implied by
(3) is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
o
o
=
' ' ' =
_ _
2
2
2
1 ,
1
s
j k j k k j s
j k
K e e t t v .v x x o + A . (A58)
Inser t ing (A58) int o (A56), t he ener gy a syst em of t ime- monot onic, self- int er act ing,
mechanically massless par t icles int er act ing elect r omagnet ically is found t o be
38
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
o
o
=
c | |
' ' ' ' ' =
|
' c
\ .
_ _
)
2
2
2
1 ,
2 1
s
j k j k k j s
j k
H e e dt t t t t
t
v .v x x o + A . (A59)
Not ing t hat
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o o ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' + A = + A
'
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
k j s k k j k j s
d
t t t t t t
dt
v x v . x x x x o . (A60)
t hen
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o o o
o o
k
+
c
| |
' ' ' ' ' + A = + A
|
' c \ .
'
' ' =
' ' '
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
k j s k j s
k j s
k k j
t t t t t t
t
t t d
t t
d t t
x x x x
x x
v . x x
+ A
. (A61)
Put t ing t his in (A59) and int egr at ing t he second t er m by par t s gives
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
o
=
| | | |
' '
| |
' ' = +
| ' | ' ' '
\ . \ .
_ _
)
2
2
2
2
1 ,
1
2
s
j k
j k k j s
j k
k k j
t t
d
H e e dt t t
dt t t
v .v
x x
v . x x
o ' + A . (A62)
Not ing t hat t he r esult of a t ot al differ ent ial is insensit ive t o t he choice of algebr aic
r epr esent at ion of it s oper and, t he 4- vect or not at ion can be rest or ed t o give
( )
( )
o
o o
=
| | | |
' '
| | ' =
' ' | |
\ . \ .
_ _
)
D
D
2
2 2
,
1 , ,
2
s
k j
j k k j s
j k k k j
t t u u
d
H e e dt s
dt u s
+ A . (A63)
Car r ying out t he int egr at ion over t and per for ming t he differ ent iat ion, t his is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
+
=
| |
' ' ' '
|
=
|
' ' ' ' ' ' + + |
\ .
_ _ _
D D D
D D D D D
2
, ,
3
2
2
1 ,
, , ,
2 2
1
2
s
k k j k k j k j
j k
j k roots
k k j k j k k k j k k j k j
u s t t u s u u
e e
H
u s t t u u u a s u s a u
. (A64)
wher e t he r oot s ar e t hose values of t sat isfying (17). Eq. (A64) is a gener ally valid expr ession for
t he t ot al ener gy of a syst em of t ime- monot onic mechanically massless par t icles int er act ing
accor ding t o dir ect - act ion EM. It is evaluat ed in t he par t icular case of dual cir cular mot ion in
t he following sect ion.
A.7 An gu lar momen t u m of wor ld - lin es ext r emiz in g a t wo- t ime act ion
Tr eat ing t he as independent var iables, t he angular moment um L of t he densit y (A31) is
( ) n
l
x
( )
( )
( ) ( )
c
= =
c
_ _

, ,
n
i l l
n
l n l n
l
L
L x x p
x
n n
. (A65)
Using t he r esult (A37) for t he conjugat e moment um and inser t ing (A34) t his is
( )
( ) ( )
k k
k o o
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ +

c c c c | |
= + + + O
`
|
c c + + + c c \ .
)
_
)
1
1,0 1,1
, ,
1 ! !
m
m n m n
n
m n m n m n l
l m n l l l l
d K K K K
d
dt m n m n
L x
x v x v
. (A66)
We now pr oceed much as for t he ener gy. The fir st t er m in br aces is z er o. The second t er m is
39
( ) ( )
k o k o o k
+ +
c c | | | |
= =
| |
c c
\ . \ .
_ _
) ) 1,1 ,0 ,0
, , , ,
m m
n n
m n m n l l l
l m n l m n l l l
d K d K
d d
dt dt
x x
v v
c
c
_
)
l
K
d x
v
. (A67)
Using (A67) we can wr it e for (A66)
= +
0
L L L
1
(A68)
wher e
k
c
=
c
_
) 0 l
l l
K
d L x
v
(A69)
and
( )
( ) ( )
k k
k
+ + +
+ +

c c | |
= +
`
|
+ + + c \ . c

_
)
1
1
, ,
1 ! !
m
m n m n
n
l
l m n l l
d K
d
dt m n m n
L x
x
)
K
v
. (A70)
Since it is conser ved, t he angular moment um and t her efor e it s t ime- aver age over t - denot ed in
t he following by angle- br acket s - ar e t he same. Repeat ing st eps leading fr om (A44) t o (A46)
t hen gives
k k
k
+
+
|
c c
=

c c
\
_
) 1 l
l l l
K d K
d
d
L x
x v
+
|
|
|
.
. (A71)
Int egr at ing t he second t er m by par t s:
k k
+ + +
+ +
|
c c c
= + +

c c c
\
_
) 1 l l l
l l l
K K
d L x x v
v x
+
|
|
|
. l
K
v
. (A72)
Combining t his wit h (A69) one has t hat t he angular moment um of a syst em wit h act ion (A27)
wit h (A28) is
k k
+ + +
+ +
|
c c c c
= + + +

c c c c
\
_
) l l l l
l l l l
K K K K
d L x x x v
v v x
+
|
|
|
. l
v
. (A73)
A.8 An gu lar momen t u m of ch ar ges obey in g d ir ect - act ion EM
The gener al r esult for t he angular moment um vect or of a closed syst em whose act ion is of t he
for m (A55) is
( )
| c c c c
' ' ' ' ' = + + +

|
|
' ' c c c c
\
_
) l l l l
l l l l
K K K K
dt t t L x x x v
v v x v '
. l
. (A74)
Using t he K int r oduced in (A58) t he angular moment um of a syst em of t ime- monot onic, self-
int er act ing - but mechanically massless - par t icles int er act ing elect r omagnet ically is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
o o
=
| | c
' ' ' ' ' ' ' + + +
|
' c
\ .
' =
' ' + A
_ _
)
2
, 1 2
2
1
s
j k k k j k j k
k
j k
j k
k j s
t t t t
e e dt
t t
x v x v v v .v x
x
L
x x
. (A75)
40
Using t hat
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o o o
o o
c
' ' ' ' ' ' + A = + A
' c
'
' ' = + A
' ' ' '
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
k j s k j k j s
k
k j
k j s
k k j
t t t t
d
t t
dt t t
x x x x x x
x
x x
x x
v . x x
, (A76)
and assuming all r elevant quant it ies vanish on t he boundary, (A75) can be wr it t en
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
o
o
o o
=
=
| | | | ' ' '
| | ' ' ' ' + +
' | | ' ' '
' = \ . \ .
' ' + A
| ' ' '
' ' ' ' = + + +
' ' '
\
_ _
)
_ _ _
D
D D
, 1
2
2
2
, 1 , ,
1
1
2
s
s
k j k j
j k k k j
k k j
j k
j k
k j s
k j k j j k
j k k k j
j k roots k k j k k j
t t
d
t t
dt t t
e e dt
t t
t t u u e e
d
t t
dt u s u s
v .v x x
x v x v v
v . x x
L
x x
x x
x v x v v
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
o =
| | |
| |
| |
. \ .
| |
|
|
' ' ' ' ' + +
|
|
' ' ' ' = +
|
'
|
| | ' ' ' ' +
|
|
' + |
|
' ' ' ' | +
\ . \ .
_ _ _
D
D D
D
D D D
D D
2
,
,
3
, 1
,
,
2
,
1
2
s
k k j j k k k j
j k
k k j k j k j
j k roots
k k j
k k j k j k j
k j
k k k j k j
u s t t
e e
t t u s u u
u s
u s u u t t a u
t t u a s u u
x v x v v
v x
x x
. (A77)
41
References
[1] F. Rohrlich, Phys. Rev. D 60 (1999) 084017-084017-5.
[2] T. Erber, Fortschritte der Physik 9 (1961) 343.
[3] A. D. Fokker, Zeits. f. Phys. 58 (1929) 386.
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[5] H. Tetrode, Zeits. f. Phys. 10 (1922) 317.
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[7] J. A. Wheeler and R. P. Feynman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21 (1949) 425.
[8] P. C. W. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry, University of California Press, 1977.
[9] P. C. W. Davies, J. Phys. A 5 (1972) 1722.
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[12] F. Hoyle and J. V. Narlikar, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 277 (1964) 1.
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[14] F. Hoyle and J. V. Narlikar, Annals of Physics 54 (1969) 207.
[15] P. C. W. Davies, Proc. Cam. Phil. Soc. 68 (1970) 751.
[16] D. T. Pegg, Phys. Lett. A 76 (1980) 109.
[17] R. P. Feynman, Phys. Rev. 76 (1949) 749.
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Press, 2004.
[19] F. Hoyle and J. V. Narlikar, Annals of Physics 62 (1971) 44.
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42
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43
Table 1
Tit le: Solut ions of t he equat ion | | =
0 0
t an 1 wit h | = +
2
0 0
1 v .
mode index |
0 0
v
1 2.798 2.972
2 6.121 6.202
3 9.318 9.371
4 12.486 12.526
5 15.644 15.676
6 18.796 18.823
7 21.946 21.968
lar ge n nt nt
44
Figu r e Cap t ion s
Figu r e 1a
Effect of modified light cone condit ion on point s of int er act ion. The pr esent posit ion of t he
par t icle is at t he or igin. The t wo r ed dot s show t he point s of local self- act ion. The blue dot s
show t he point s of dist ant act ion for arbit r ar y mot ion of a dist ant t r aject or y.
Figu r e 1b
The same modified light cone condit ion except now t he dist ant t r aject or y int er sect s t he light
cone at a t angent so t her e is just one point of int er act ion wit h each segment . In 1+ 1D t angency
t o t he light cone necessit at es light - speed at t he point of cont act , but in 2+ 1D and 3+ 1D t he
t angency condit ion can be fulfilled by a dist ant t r aject or y having any super luminal speed.
Figu r e 2a
For ces keeping t he t wo char ges in cir cular mot ion. A posit ive char ge of infinit e elect r omagnet ic
mass, her e denot ed by t he r ed disk, lies simult aneously - on t he light cone and t he Cer enkov
cone of bot h t he point s indicat ed by dar k blue disks, which ar e hist or ical and fut ure locat ions
of t he negat ive char ge. The r esult ant for ce on t he posit ive char ge is singular and dir ect ed
t owar ds t he or igin. An ident ical r elat ionship exist s bet ween t he pr esent locat ion of t he negat ive
char ge and t he hist or ical and fut ur e locat ions of t he posit ive char ge.
Figu r e 2b
Det ails of t he geomet r y showing t he r ole of t he angle | for t he mode n = 1. A char ge moves
t hr ough an angle 2| dur ing t he t ime it t akes for t he singular elect r omagnet ic cont act t o
pr opagat e t o it s opposit e signed part ner . For t he mode n = 1 t his is .
o
= 5.596 r ad. 320.6
45
Figu r e 3a
A r ender ing of t he cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D for t he mode n = 1 showing point s of singular
elect r omagnet ic cont act . The lower / upper br own dot s, for example, show t he locat ion of
posit ive char ge when it was / will be simult aneously on t he light - cone and Cer enkov cone of
t he pr esent locat ion of t he negat ive char ge.
Figu r e 3b
A r ender ing of t he cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D for t he mode n = 1 showing t he int er act ion point s
on t he light cone of t he posit ive char ge. The pink dot s ar e non- singular dist ant self-
int er act ions. The light - blue dot s (only one of which is visible in t his view) ar e non- singular
dist ant int er act ions wit h t he ot her negat ively- char ged par t icle. The dar k blue dot s ar e t he
singular dist ant int er act ions wit h t he negat ively- char ged par t icle, t he s pace- t ime helical pat h
of which gr az es t he light cone at t hese point s in fulfillment of t he Cer enkov cone condit ion.
The heavy black lines show t he locus of t he singular int er act ions.
46
x
t
2 2 2
0 t x A =
2 2 2
0 t x +A =
A
1 o =
s
1 o =
s
1 o =
s
1 o =
s
0
1
s
o
o
>
=
0
1
s
o
o
<
=
Figu r e 1a
Effect of modified light cone condit ion on point s of int er act ion. The pr esent posit ion of t he par t icle is at t he or igin. The t wo r ed dot s
show t he point s of local self- act ion. The blue dot s show t he point s of dist ant act ion for ar bit r ar y mot ion of a dist ant t r aject or y.
x
t
2 2 2
0 t x A =
2 2 2
0 t x +A =
A
0
1
s
|
o
>
=
0
1
s
o
o
>
=
0
1
s
o
o
<
=
0
1
|
o
<
=
s
Figu r e 1b
The same modified light cone condit ion except now t he dist ant t r aject or y int er sect s t he light cone at a t angent so t her e is just
one point of int er act ion wit h each segment . In 1+ 1D t angency t o t he light cone necessit at es light - speed at t he point of cont act ,
but in 2+ 1D and 3+ 1D t he t angency condit ion can be fulfilled by a dist ant t r aject or y having any super luminal speed.
|
present location of
positive charge
present location of
negative charge
v = c / cos|
historical location
of negative charge
future location of
negative charge
retarded light-speed influence
from historical location
advanced light-speed influence
from future location
(diverging spatially with
decreasing time)
resultant of
singular attractive forces
Figu r e 2a
For ces keeping t he t wo char ges in cir cular mot ion. A posit ive char ge of infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass, her e denot ed by t he r ed disk, lies - simult aneously -
on t he light cone and t he Cer enkov cone of bot h t he point s indicat ed by dar k blue disks, which ar e hist or ical and fut ur e locat ions of t he negat ive char ge.
2|
2t- 2|
| - t/2
t
-

|

a t
-

|

Figu r e 2b
Det ails of t he geomet r y showing t he r ole of t he angle for t he mode n = 1. A char ge moves t hr ough an angle 2 dur ing t he t ime
it t akes for t he singular elect r omagnet ic cont act t o pr opagat e t o it s opposit e signed par t ner .
present location
of positive charge
locus of singular
electromagnetic contact
t
x
y
Figu r e 3a
A r ender ing of t he cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D for t he mode n = 1 showing point s of singular elect r omagnet ic
cont act . The lower / upper br own dot s, for example, show t he locat ion of posit ive char ge when it was / will
be simult aneously on t he light - cone and Cer enkov cone of t he pr esent locat ion of t he negat ive char ge.
Figure 3b