M Ibison
Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin,
11855 Research Boulevard, Austin TX 787592443, USA
Email: ibison@earthtech.org
Abstract
This paper follows in the tradition of directaction versions of electromagnetism having the
aim of avoiding a balance of infinities wherein a mechanical mass offsets an infinite
electromagnetic mass so as to arrive at a finite observed value. Given that, in this respect the
directaction approached ultimately failed because its initial exclusion of selfaction was
found to be untenable in the relativistic domain, this paper continues the tradition
considering instead a version of electromagnetism wherein mechanical action is excluded and
selfaction is retained. It is shown that the resulting theory is effectively interacting due to
the presence of infinite forces. A vehicle for the investigation is a pair of classical point
charges in a positroniumlike arrangement for which the orbits are found to be self
sustaining and naturally quantized.
1. In t r od u ct ion
In using t he classical Maxwell t heor y t o per for m pr act ical calculat ions one r ar ely deals explicit ly
wit h t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass r esult ing fr om elect r omagnet ic self act ion. Implicit ly, in
t he classical analogue of QED mass r enormaliz at ion, one assumes a negat ive infinit e
mechanical mass canceling t he posit ive infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass of a point char ge so as t o
ar r ive at t he finit e obser ved value. Though t his balance of infinit ies may be unat t r act ive, a
success of t he t heor y is a r easonable expr ession for t he von Laue 4 vect or , which can be
obt ained from t he r et ar ded act ion of a char ged spher e upon it self  event ually let t ing t he
r adius go t o z er o (see Boyer [1] and also Er ber [2] for a r eview). The self act ion t hat gives r ise t o
t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass t her efor e appear s t o be necessar y t o explain bot h r adiat ion
damping and r eact ion t o acceler at ion.
Compet ing wit h t he Maxwell t heor y is t he dir ect  act ion ver sion of classical
elect r odynamics (dir ect  act ion CED). The t heor y looked promising because it per mit t ed t he
explicit exclusion of self act ion, avoiding at t he out set t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic cont r ibut ion
t o t he mass [3 5]. One was t hen fr ee t o posit a finit e mechanical mass wit hout r equir ing a
balance of infinit ies. The ot her dist inguishing char act er ist ic of t he dir ect  act ion t heor y is t hat
t her e ar e no vacuum degr ees of fr eedom. As a r esult of t he lat t er one t hen has t he pr oblem of
somehow explaining t he (obser ved) r et ar ded field of a point sour ce (having pr opagat or
) by t he collect ive act ion of mult iple sour ces whose influence t he t heory demands
pr opagat e as . Wit hout t hat explanat ion t her e can be neit her r adiat ion nor von Laue 4 vect or
in t he Newt on Lor ent z equat ion of mot ion.
+
= +
ret
G G G
+
G
Wheeler and Feynman [6,7] made pr ogr ess in favor of t he dir ect  act ion t heory by
pr oviding an explanat ion for t he von Laue 4 vect or as ar ising fr om t he effect s of dist ant
absor ber s on t he for ward light cone. In t heir ver sion of dir ect  act ion EM t he mat t er was t r eat ed
classically, self act ion was excluded, and fut ur e absor pt ion explained r et ar ded r adiat ion and
r adiat ion r eact ion. The success of t heir explanat ion, however , depended on Cosmologies which
ar e not cur rent ly favor ed [8 13]. Even so, t he r emoval of infinit ies would seem t o be a point in
favor of dir ect  act ion CED over t he Maxwell t heor y. Subsequent ly Hoyle and Nar likar [14] gave
a quant um mechanical ver sion of t he Wheeler  Feynman t heor y wher ein t he mat t er was t r eat ed
by t he Feynman pat h int egr al met hod. (Tr adit ional quant iz at ion via a Hamilt onian is
pr oblemat ical because t he act ion is in t wo t imes.) Davies [15] achieved t he same goal using an
S mat r ix appr oach. In addit ion t o demonst r at ing t he emer gence of r et ar ded r adiat ion, t hese
wor ks also gave, for example, t he cor r ect level shift s normally associat ed wit h t he ZPF, i.e.,
pr ocesses t r adit ionally r egar ded as mandat ing field quant iz at ion. (Pegg [16] gives a shor t
calculat ion showing how t he dir ect  act ion fields mimic t he pr esence of t he ZPF.)
2
Subsequent ly Feynman decided t hat t he exclusion of self act ion fr om CED was
quest ionable because self act ion was necessary for a sat isfact or y explanat ion of int er mediat e
pr ocesses in QED [17]. He pr edict ed t hat a consist ent relativistic t heor y of dir ect act ion would,
aft er all, have t o r et ain self act ion. That conclusion was suppor t ed in t he compr ehensive r eview
by Pegg [10], and also by t he aut hor [11,18]. Feynmans suggest ion was implement ed by Hoyle
and Nar likar in an ext ension of t heir ear lier pat h int egr al wor k t o t he r elat ivist ic domain
[19,20]. Similar ly, Davies incor porat ed self act ion in an ext ension t o t he r elat ivist ic domain of
his ear lier scat t er ing mat r ix approach t o mat t er quant iz at ion [21]. These wor ks pr oduced
r esult s in accor d wit h QED at all per t ur bat ion or der s, confir ming t he pr edict ion by Feynman.
But along wit h t he r et ur n of t he self act ion came t he usual pr oblems r equir ing t he usual
t echniques for dealing wit h diver gent self ener gy. In t he end t he dir ect  act ion t heor y
necessit at ed t he same delicat e balance bet ween infinit ies demanded of t he Maxwell t heor y in
or der t o ar r ive at t he obser ved mass.
The under t aking r epor t ed her e is a cont inuat ion of t he sear ch for an alt er nat ive t o t he
balance of infinit e masses. It s focus is a classical t heor y of EM wher ein t he act ion is ent ir ely
elect r omagnet ic  wit hout t he usual t er m =
)
2
m ech
I m dx
)
for mechanical mass act ion. It is
clear fr om t he for egoing t hat self act ion must be r et ained in any new appr oach, independent of
it s Maxwell or dir ect  act ion her it age. The immediat e consequence of such a modificat ion
t her efor e is t hat t he t ot al mass must be pur e elect r omagnet ic and infinit e  uncompensat ed by
mechanical mass.
The obvious advant age of uncompensat ed EM is t hat it does not r equir e a balance of
infinit ies. Less appar ent is how such a t heory could over come t he obvious object ion t hat
char ged par t icles wit h uncompensat ed elect r omagnet ic mass appar ent ly cannot ever effect ively
int er act . But an EM t heor y wit h uncompensat ed mass t ur ns out t o pr ovide for t he exist ence of
t he infinit e for ces necessar y t o acceler at e t hese infinit e (elect r omagnet ic) masses. The
possibilit y of such for ces may be infer r ed fr om t he t r adit ional expr ession for t he Lor ent z for ce
t ensor wher ein, (using t he not at ion of Jackson [22]), one obser ves t he per sist ent mot if of a
denominat or of t he for m ( r aised t o some posit ive power . Her e v is t he velocit y of t he
sour ce wit h r espect t o t he r efer ence fr ame, n is t he unit vect or fr om t he sour ce (t r adit ionally at
t he r et ar ded t ime) t o t he field point . The implicat ion, if t hose expr essions r emain applicable, is
t hat char ges feel an infinit e for ce in t he event t hat t hey r eside simult aneously on t he light cone
and t he Cer enkov cone of anot her char ge. (Her e t he wor d cone is being used in t wo differ ent
ways. The light cone is of co dimension 1 in space t ime, wit h symmet r y axis par allel wit h t he
t ime dir ect ion. In 2+ 1 t her efor e, t he light  cone is an ordinar y 2 sur face double cone. The
Cer enkov cone is also of co dimension 1 in space t ime, but has symmet r y it s axis par allel wit h
v in t he space plane t= const ant . The Cer enkov cone is t her efor e an or dinary 2 sur face
1 v .n
3
double cone in 3+ 0, but in 2+ 1 is a pair of planes.) A second object ion may now be r aised t hat ,
at t he least , t his r equir es t hat t he lat t er move super luminally, which possibilit y is nor mally
excluded by t he t r adit ional for m of t he act ion. However , classically, t he r est r ict ion t o
subluminal mot ion is a consequence of t he form of t he mechanical mass act ion, and t her efor e
t hat r est r ict ion is absent fr om uncompensat ed classical EM.
Given t he r e habilit at ion of self act ion in dir ect  act ion EM, bot h t he Maxwell and dir ect
act ion for mulat ions ar e possible vehicles for t he ` t echnique of non compensat ion. In t his
paper we consider only t he dir ect act ion ver sion of t he t heor y, mainly on t he gr ounds of
simplicit y; out side of t he par t icle int er act ions t her e ar e no incoming or out going r adiat ion
fields complicat ing t he analysis. We invest igat e her e a r elat ivist ic classical implement at ion of
uncompensat ed EM, and leave aside for t he pr esent t he possibilit y of an implement at ion of a
r elat ivist ic quant um ver sion along t he lines of, for example Hoyle and Nar likar [19].
The r emainder of t he document is st r uct ur ed as follows. The next sect ion pr esent s t he
uncompensat ed ver sion of dir ect  act ion CED. Self act ion is obt ained t hr ough a limit ing
pr ocedur e analogous t o let t ing t he s iz e A of t he point par t icle t end t o z er o fr om some init ially
finit e value. Mat hemat ically, it r esembles t he r egular iz at ion met hod of t he Feynman pr opagat or
G
F
. Some care is r equir ed in der iving t he Euler equat ion fr om t he act ion; t r adit ional der ivat ions
do not gener ally account for t he possibilit y of super luminal mot ion, which becomes a
possibilit y when t her e is no mechanical mass. A det ailed der ivat ion of t he Euler equat ion is
given in t he appendix. The plausibilit y of t he limit ing pr ocedur e of let t ing t he siz e A t end t o
z er o is demonst r at ed by solving for t he t r ivial case of unifor m mot ion. In sect ions 3 and 4 is
demonst r at ed t he main claim of t he paper , namely t hat t he t heor y is effect ively int er act ing
despit e t he infinit e self ener gies. The vehicle for t he demonst r at ion is a pair of opposit ely
char ged par t icles moving at const ant speed on a self sust aining cir cular pat h about a common
or igin. This posit r onium like ar r angement is t hen t o be shown t o be solut ion of t he Euler
equat ion. In sect ion 3 is ident ified a pr incipal const r aint  t he ` Cer enkov cone condit ion  in
or der t hat t he ar r angement be a solut ion. Fur t her par amet er s of t he mot ion ar e det er mined in
sect ion 4 t o sufficient degr ee in A t hat t he mot ion sat isfies all t he singular component s of t he
Euler equat ion as . That is, t he paramet er s ar e chosen so t hat t he mot ion is at least
consist ent wit h t he act ion of t he singular for ces. The t ot al ener gy and angular moment um of
t he ar r angement is comput ed in sect ion 5, refer r ing t o t he Appendix t o pr ovide gener al
expr essions for t hese quant it ies for a t wo t ime act ion of which dir ect  act ion EM is a par t icular
case. In sect ion 6 t her e is some br ief discussion of t he r esult s.
+
A 0
4
2. Un comp en s at ed d ir ect act ion EM
2.1 Not at ion
To r educe r eliance on indexes and impr ove r eadabilit y 4 vect or s (which her e ar e not necessar ily
Lor ent z vect or s) ar e denot ed by a lower  case Lat in symbol,
{ } ( =
0 1 2 3
, , ,
a
x x x x x x )
}
, wher e t he
spat ial basis is Car t esian, and wher e t he default , when t he vect or appears alone, is t he Lor ent z
cont r avar iant for m. The scalar pr oduct of t wo vect or s x and y is wr it t en (vect or s
appear ing t o t he r ight of t he oper at or ar e in Lor ent z covar iant for m). The ant i symmet r ic
pr oduct is denot ed by . The second r ank for ce t ensor is denot ed by
, wit h t he r ight scalar pr oduct t aken t o mean
D
a
a
x y x y
D
{
.
a b a b
x y x y y x
{ }
ab
F F D F u
{ }
ab
b
F u . and ' denot e a pair of
or dinal par amet er s for t he t r aject or ies of point par t icles; ( )
j j
x x r epr esent s t he 4 posit ion
of par t icle j at or dinal t ime , and ( ) ' '
k k
x x r epr esent s t he 4 posit ion of par t icle k at or dinal
t ime ' . ( ) ( ) '
, k j k j
s x x is t he 4 vect or differ ence at t he t wo t imes. /
j j
u dx d and
=
2
/
j j
a d x d
2
is t he ` or dinal 4 velocit y and ` or dinal 4 acceler at ion of t he t r aject or y j at t ime
, and similarly for t he primed quant it ies.
2.2 Act ion
Using t he not at ion int r oduced above t he t r adit ional for mulat ion of classical dir ect  act ion EM
for a collect ion of char ged par t icles wit h r est mass m is
( )
o
=
' ' =
_
) ) )
D
2
,
,
1
2
j k j k k j j j
j k j
j k
I e e d d u u s m d
_
2
u (1)
(see for example [7]). Self act ion is excluded by excluding t he diagonal t er ms = j k fr om t he
double sum. By cont r ast , in t he uncompensat ed dir ect  act ion EM fr amewor k under
consider at ion her e, we admit elect r omagnet ic self act ion and deny addit ional mechanical
act ion. That is, we consider t he elect r odynamics of complet ely uncompensat ed point char ges
for mally possessing infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass and z er o mechanical mass. Cor r espondingly,
(1) is init ially r eplaced wit h simply
( )
o ' ' =
_
) )
D
2
,
,
j k j k k j
j k
I e e d d u u s . (2)
(The fact or of is no longer of any consequence and is omit t ed for convenience.) The
cont r ibut ion t o t he act ion at t he point ' = when = j k will be r efer r ed t o as t he local self
act ion. Because t his cont r ibut ion is singular , we immediat ely r eplace (2) wit h
5
( ) ( ) (
o
o o o
=
' ' ' ' A = + A = A A
_ _ _
) ) ) )
D D
2 2 2 2
, ,
1 , ,
2
s
j k j k k j s j k j k k j
j k j k
I e e d d u u s e e d d u u s
)
4 4
(3)
and assume t hat t he physics of uncompensat ed dir ect act ion EM is for mally descr ibed by t he
Euler equat ion for (3) in t he limit t hat
+
A 0 . (Always it will be assumed t hat A is posit ive.)
That is, (3) is fir st ext r emiz ed wit hout r egar d t o t he magnit ude of A , and only subsequent ly
does one let . This pr ocedur e r et ains t he Lor ent z invar iance and paramet er iz at ion
invar iance of (1) and (2). However , unlike (2), t hough like (1), t he pr ocedur e is not scale
invar iant . Ther e exist ot her plausible limit ing pr ocedur es.
+
A 0
The for m of (1) per mit s only sub luminal s peeds lest t he mechanical act ion becomes
imaginar y. Since t his r est r ict ion is absent in (3) bot h super luminal speeds and t ime r ever sals
ar e allowed. It follows t hat in (3) t he assumpt ion t hat ( ) ( )
0
t x is a monot onic funct ion
amount s t o t he imposit ion of an ext er nal const r aint on t he mot ion. In gener al, in using (3) one
cannot impose a r elat ionship bet ween t he coor dinat e t ime ( )
0
x and t he or dinal t ime
wit hout pr ior physical just ificat ion. (It is wor t h r ecalling t hat a super luminal t r aject or y wit hout
t ime r ever s als wit h r espect t o some r efer ence fr ame E, say, will acquir e t ime r ever sals when
viewed fr om some iner t ial fr ames t hat ar e moving sub luminally wit h r espect t o E.)
As a r esult of t he paramet er iz at ion invar iance t he Euler equat ion is for m invar iant
under a Lorent z t r ansfor mat ion even if a par amet er iz at ion is chosen such t hat is not a
Lor ent z scalar (e.g. is not t he pr oper  t ime) and even t hough, in t hat case, u and a will not be
Lor ent z vect or s and scalar pr oduct s such as and will not be Lor ent z scalar s. In
t his paper will be consider ed only candidat e solut ions t o t he Euler equat ion t hat do not t ime
r ever se when viewed fr om t he labor at or y fr ame, and it will be convenient t o exploit t he
fr eedom of par amet er iz at ion t o choose
D u a D
2
u u u
= t .
The light cone condit ion =
2
,
0
k j
s in (1) and (2) t hat picks out t he t imes of
elect r omagnet ic int er act ion is r eplaced in (3) by t he ` modified light  cone condit ion
. Act ually t he double cone of co dimension 1 in 3+ 1D is r eplaced wit h t hree
disjoint sur faces each of co dimension 1. In gener al t his will give r ise t o int er act ions as
illust r at ed in t he 1+ 1 D cr oss sect ion, Figur e 1a. The int er val s is t ime like if j = k and t he
par t icle in quest ion is always subluminal. Ot herwise s is can be t ime like, space like or null, in
which case bot h signs of
A =
2 2
,
0
k j
s
o
s
need be r et ained. Not e however t hat one or mor e of t he
int er act ions will disappear in t he par t icular case t hat t he dist ant int er act ing t r aject or y st r ikes
t he light  cone of t he local par t icle at a t angent . This possibilit y is illust r at ed in Figur e 1b for
mot ion in 1+ 1D, and will t ur n out t o be impor t ant in t he subsequent analysis of super luminal
dual cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D.
6
2.3 Eu ler equ at ion
Since t her e is no mechanical mass, var iat ion of (3) gives simply t hat t he par t icle moves t o
ensur e t hat t he t ot al force is z er o,
( ) ( ) ( ) = =
_
D
,
0
j j k j j
k
f e F u . (4)
( )
j
f is a for ce 4 vect or and ( )
, k j
F is t he for ce t ensor der ived fr om t he t r aject or ies of all t he
par t icles, including t he par t icle = j k . The der ivat ion of F fr om t he Euler equat ion involves a
few depar t ur es fr om t he t r adit ional der ivat ion fr om t he Linar d Wiecher t pot ent ial, for
example as given by Jackson [22]. The Euler equat ion for a gener al t wo t ime act ion is der ived in
t he appendix. Inser t ing int o t he r esult (A16) t he par t icular expr ession for t he dir ect  act ion
ker nel (A6), one obt ains, , l
(
o
o
=
  c c
' '
)
o + A =

c c
\ .
_ _
)
D
2 2
,
, 1
0
s
j k j k k j s
j k l l
d
e e d u u s
x d u
. (5)
It is t o be under st ood t hat in t he above we int end t o t ake t he limit A 0 aft er per for ming t he
int egr at ion. Car r ying out t he differ ent iat ions in (5) one has
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
o
=
' ' ' ' o + A =
_ _
)
D D
2 2
, , ,
1
2 0
s
j k k j k j j k k j k j s
k
e e d u u s u u s s , (6)
and wr it ing
( )
( )
(
o o o o
' + A = + A
' ' D
2 2 2
,
,
1
2
k j s k j s
k k j
d
s
d u s
)
2
,
s (7)
t he Euler equat ion becomes
( ) ( )
( )
( )
o
o
o
o o
=
=
' '
' o + A =
' '
'   .
' + 

' '
\ .
_ _
)
_ _
)
D D
D
D
D
, ,
2 2
,
1 ,
, 2 2
,
1 ,
0
0
s
s
k j k j j k k j
j k k j s
k k k j
k k j
j k j k j s
k k k j
u u s u u s
d
e e d s
u s d
u s
d
e e d u s
d u s
A =
. (8)
Per for ming t he int egr at ion over ' , t his is
o
=
'   .
= 

' ' '
\ .
_ _ _
D
D D
,
1 r oot s , ,
1
0
s
k k j
j k j
k k k j k k j
u s
d
e e u
d u s u s
(9)
wher e t he r oot s ar e t he ( ) ' such t hat o + A =
2 2
,
0
k j s
s (t o be subst it ut ed int o t he ker nel of t he
sum af ter t he differ ent iat ion has been per for med). Compar ing wit h (4) one sees t hat t he for ce
t ensor is
( )
o
=
'   .
=
, ,
1 if
2 1
1 if
k j k j
k j
k j
(21)
and also define t he dimensionless quant it ies
( )
u e c e ' = = A
, , , ,
,
l k j l k j
t t / 2 (22)
wher e c is posit ive because e and A ar e posit ive. Wit h (21) and (22), (20) can be wr it t en
( )
u o u o c + +
2 2 2
, , , , ,
2 cos 1 4
l k j k j l k j s
v = 0 . (23)
Because (23) is even in u, for fixed j,k t he u
, , l k j
come in opposit e signed pair s, making it
convenient t o employ a signed index l such t hat
u u u
> =
, , , , , ,
0,
l k j l k j l k j
. (24)
This symmet r y is t he expect ed out come of t he configur at ion of t he t wo char ges: for ever y
int er sect ion on t he f uture (r et ar ded) light cone at r elat ive phase u t her e exist s anot her
int er sect ion on t he past (advanced) light cone fr om t he same point at t he r elat ive phase  u.
3.2 For ces on t h e p ar t icles
Since t he light cone condit ion depends only on u it is convenient t o go t o t he r ot at ing
fr ame of t he j
t h
par t icle in whose fr ame t he for ce is t o be comput ed:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
e  e 
e  e 
 

= + +

+ +
\ .
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
j
j j
x x t t x
t t


j
. (25)
In t his fr ame t he quant it ies (18) and (19) ar e
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
u o u o
e
o u o u
o e u u
'
'
, , ,
, ,
,
1
, cos 1 , sin
1, sin , cos
0, cos ,sin
1, 0,
k j k j k j
k k j k j
k k j
j
s
u
a
u
v v
v v
v
v
u
. (26)
The scalar pr oduct s appear ing in t he for ce, Eq. (11), ar e fr ame independent , and can be
comput ed using eit her (26) or (18) and (19). Suppr essing t he indexes on u one obt ains
( )
( )
o u
o u
u o u
e
o e u
' =
' =
' ' ' = + =
' = =
' =
D
D D
D D
D
2 2
2
, ,
2 2
, ,
2
, , ,
2
,
1
1 cos
1 cos
1
sin
sin
k
k k j k j
k j k k k j k j
j k j k k j k j
k j k j
u
a s
u u u a s
u s u s
a u
v
v
v
v
v
. (27)
10
Not ing t he equalit ies in (27) of some of t he t er ms in (11), t he for ce in t he r ot at ing fr ame is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o =
' ' ' ' ' ' ' +
'
_ _
D D D D D D
D
2
, , ,
3
1 ,
,
s
k k j k j k j k j k k j k j k k k j k
j k j
l k
k k j
u s a u u u s u s u u u u s a
f e e
u s
'
,
, (28)
wher e t he sum is over t he r oot s l of u as given by (23) and (24). As a consequence of t he lat t er
only t er ms t hat ar e even in u sur vive t he sum. Using (27) let us denot e t he par it y of t he scalar
pr oduct s in (28) by t he subscr ipt s o and e, cor r esponding r espect ively t o odd and even:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o =
' ' ' ' ' ' ' +
=
'
_ _
D D D D D D
D
2
, , ,
3
1 ,
,
s
k k j k j k j k j k k j k j k k k j k
o o e o e o
j k j
l k
k k j
e
u s a u u u s u s u u u u s a
f e e
u s
'
,
. (29)
Let t ing and ext r act t he par t s of t heir oper ands t hat ar e r espect ively odd and even in u it is
deduced t hat (29) can be wr it t en
E
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
o = >
=
'
 
' ' ' ' ' ' ' +

\ .
_ __
D
D D D D D D
3
1 0
,
2
, , ,
1
2
s
j k j
l k
k k j
e
k k j k j k j k j k k j k j k k k j k
o o e o e o
f e e
u s
u s a u u u E s u s u u O u u s E a '
,
)
. (30)
Wit h r efer ence t o (27) it is seen t hat t he 0
t h
and 2
nd
(t he t ime and x
2
 dir ect ion) component s of
t he for ce ar e aut omat ically z er o, which is a pr edict able consequence of t he symmet r y of t he
configurat ion. This leaves only x
1
component of t he for ce t o be r esolved. Not ing t hat
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
( )
u o u o u o
o u u u
' ' ' =
= +
D D D
2 2
2 2 2
, , ,
2 4
,
sin sin 1 cos
2 cos sin 1
k k j k j k j k j k j k j
k j
u s a u u u v v
v v
u
,
v
(31)
and let t ing be a unit vect or in t he x x
1
 dir ect ion, t he t ot al force on t he j
t h
par t icle is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
o
o
o u u u o u
e
o u o u
u o u
u o u
u o u o u
e
u o u
= >
= >
 
+


 
=


+


  +
\ . \ .
+ + +
=
_ __
_ __
2 4
, ,
2
2
, ,
3
2
2
1 0
,
,
2
, ,
4 2 2
2
3
2
1 0
,
2 cos sin 1 cos
2
1 cos sin
sin
sin
sin cos
1 cos
2
s in
s
s
k j k j
k j
j k j k j
l k
k j
k j
k j k j
k j
l k
k j
e e
e e
v v v
x
f v v
v
v
v v
v v v
v x
v
( )
( )
v
( ) ( )
( )
o
u u o
o u u
u o u
e
u o u
o u u u
= >
 
+


 +
\ .
   
+ + +


\ .
=


+
\ .
_ __
2 2 4 2
,
2
,
2 2
2 2 2
2
,
3
2
2 2 2 1 0
,
,
2 1 cos
1 sin
1 1 cos
2
s in
1 sin sin
s
k j
k j
k j
k j
l k
k j
k j
e e
v v
v
v v
v x
v
v v
u
m
(32)
(t he t ime component of t he for ce t he power is alr eady z er o). Rest or ing t he indexes on u one
can wr it e wher e is t he scalar =
j j nor
f f f
j
f
11
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
u o
o u u u
u o u
= >
   
+ + +


\ .


+
\
=
_ __
2 2
2 2 2
, , , , ,
2 2
, , , , , , ,
1 2
3
2
1 0
, , , , ,
1 1 co
1 sin s in
sgn
sin s
l k j k j l k j
k j l k j l k j l k j
j
l k
l k j k j l k j
f e e
v v
v v
v
u
.
2
s
(33)
and wher e
e
2 2
2
norm
e f v x (34)
is a fixed finit e for ce independent of j, k and l.
3.3 Clas s ificat ion of for ces
A super luminally moving par t icle may int er act wit h it self by cr ossing it s own light cone any
number of t imes. The fir st such cr ossing is ` local in t hat t he associat ed t ime int er val ' 0 t t
as c 0 . Ot her light cone crossings wher ein ' = 0 t t at c = 0 will be r efer r ed t o as ` dist ant .
Whilst t he local cr ossing necessar ily connot es self int er act ion, dist ant cr ossings may be eit her
of ` ones own light cone, or of t he light cone of anot her par t icle. In addit ion t o t hese
dist inct ions it is also impor t ant t o dist inguish bet ween for ces t hat ar e singular fr om t hose t hat
ar e finit e as c
+
0 . It will be seen below t hat t he local self for ce is necessar ily singular ,
wher eas t he dist ant self for ce and dist ant for ce fr om ot her par t icles can be eit her finit e or
singular . It will t ur n out t hat t her e ar e differ ent degr ees of singular it y, t hough it will be
sufficient for t he following discussion t o dist inguish simply bet ween finit e and singular for ces .
In summar y t hen, a light  cone cr ossing connot ing an elect r omagnet ic int er act ion and giving
r ise t o a for ce can be charact er iz ed by t hr ee qualit ies, each of which can t ake t wo values:
, { } e , strength f inite singular { } e , proxim ity local distant , and { } e ,  source self not self .
We have alr eady ident ified an int r insic for ce t hat , in t er ms of t his cat egor iz at ion
scheme, has t he qualit y vect or ( . In accor d wit h t he labels int r oduced in
sect ion 3.1, for par t icle 1 t he
) , , singular local self
= source self qualit y gives t hat = = 1 j k . If we label t he r oot s of
(23) wit h l incr easing as one moves fr om local t o distant, t hen t he for ce in quest ion will be
associat ed wit h , and t her efor e wit h t he angle = 1 l u
1,1,1
. Taking int o account t hat = j k and (24)
, and making t he subst it ut ion u o =
1,1,1
2 , one has t hat o sat isfies
. (35)
c
o o o c o o
+
+ = >
2 2 2 2
0
sin 0, 0, lim 0
s
v =
(Recall t hat t he r est r ict ion t o posit ive o is in accor d wit h t he der ivat ion of (30) from (29).) In
Figur e 1b t he t wo point s of int er act ion cor r esponding t o bot h signs of o ar e shown as t wo r ed
point s close t o t he or igin, t he lat t er being t he pr esent posit ion of t he par t icle. Since t he
12
par t icle is super luminal (35) has r eal solut ions only for posit ive o
s
, as is appar ent fr om t he
figur e. Wit h t his, Eq. (33) gives t hat t he local for ce on par t icle 1 is:
( ) ( ) ( )
o o o o
o o
 
+ + + +

\ .
=
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
3
2
1 4 1 cos 2 1 2 sin 2 sin 2
2 sin 2
local
f
v v v v
v
o
2
=
)
)
)
(36)
wher e t her e ar e now no sums and o has just one value sat isfying, for fixed speed,
. (37)
c
o o c o o
+
+ = >
2 2 2 2
0
sin 0, 0, lim 0 v
The subscr ipt local will t ur n out t o be sufficient t o dist inguish t he for ce in fut ur e calculat ions.
In t he following sect ion it is shown t hat t his for ce can be ident ified wit h ( 1 t imes) t he mass
acceler at ion of Newt ons second law. Since it is singular, t he associat ed mass is infinit e, and one
concludes t hat t his for ce offer s infinit e r esist ance t o t he act ion of ext er nal for ces.
In or der t o sust ain cir cular or bit s t he char ges must be subject t o anot her for ce whose
st r engt h is singular. Tr adit ionally a for ce having a qualit y vect or ot her t han
is t er med ext er nal. However , t hat designat ion will not be used her e
because such a for ce might mist akenly be int er pr et ed as having a sour ce t hat is necessar ily
not self . By cont r ast her e t her e exis t s t he possibilit y t hat ot her for ces (i.e. wit h qualit ies ot her
t han ) can be sour ced eit her by self or by not self , t he for mer possibilit y
ar ising because t he char ges ar e super luminal. The sought for addit ional singular for ce may
even have mult iple singular, distant cont r ibut ions fr om eit her or bot h (self and not self )
par t icles. In t his document however we will exclusively consider an ar r angement wher ein just
one, ot her , singular for ce is sour ced exclusively by t he ot her , opposit ely char ged, par t icle. Such
a for ce t her efor e has qualit y ( , which for ce, act ing on par t icle 1, in
accor d wit h t he labels int r oduced in sect ion 3.1, has labels
( , , singular local self
( , , singular local self
, , singular distant not  self
= 1 j and = 2 k . The label l for t he
associat ed angle is t he par t icular unique index, = l L say, int o t he or der ed s et of r oot s t hat ar e
t he solut ions of (23) for which t he cor r esponding for ce is singular . Taking int o account t hat
= j k and (24), and making t he subst it ut ion u  =
,2,1
2
L
, one has t hat  sat isfies
. (38)   o c + =
2 2 2 2
cos 0, 0
s
v  >
(Again, r ecall t hat t he r est r ict ion t o posit ive  is in accor d wit h t he der ivat ion of (30) fr om (29).)
Figur e 1a shows t he gener al case for ar bit r ar y mot ion of a dist ant t r aject or y. The four blue
point s ar e t he point s of int er act ion bet ween t wo dist ant t r aject or y segment s and t he pr esent
locat ion (nominally of par t icle j) at t he or igin. However , in sect ion 3.5 it is shown t hat t he
dist ant t r aject or y must st r ike t he light cone of t he local par t icle at a t angent . Figur e 1b is a
r epr esent at ion of t his sit uat ion but wher e t he mot ion is confined t o 1+ 1D. Wit h t his addit ional
const r aint it is deduced t hat (38) can have a r eal solut ion for just one value of o
s
in t he r egion
13
of some int er sect ion point . (Ther e may be ot her int er sect ion point s involving t he same
t r aject or y.) Accor dingly we can dr op t he sum over o
s
fr om (33) so t hat t he dist ant for ce on
par t icle 1 fr om par t icle 2 is
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
   
 
 
+ + + +

\ .
=
+
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 2
3
2
1 4 1 cos 2 1 2 sin 2 sin 2
sgn
2 sin 2
distant
f e e
v v v v
v

2
. (39)
The subscr ipt distant will t ur n out t o be sufficient t o ident ify t his for ce in fut ur e calculat ions,
t hough a full descr ipt ion is ( ) . , , singular distant not  self
Under t he st at ed assumpt ions t hese t wo cases ar e an exhaust ive cat alogue of t he
singular forces. One also has, however , addit ional  finit e  elect r omagnet ic for ces t hat ar e
t r adit ionally admit t ed in t he classical and quant um analyses aft er subt r act ion of t he
elect r omagnet ic mass. For t he syst em under discussion it will become appar ent t hat , unlike t he
case of singular for ces, t her e ar e a var iable number of cont r ibut ions t o t he t ot al finit e for ce
fr om bot h par t icles, t hese coming fr om mult iple dist ant cr ossings of t he light cone (see Figur e
3b). The var iabilit y consider ably complicat es an alr eady lengt hy analysis, and so t his document
will concer n it self only wit h balance of t he singular for ces. This is not a big loss however ,
because (as will become clear ) none of t he quant it ies of int er est t he angle  (at c = 0 ), t he
speed v , ener gy, and angular moment um depend, t o leading or der , on t he balance of t he
finit e for ces.
Since t her e is no mechanical mass t he Euler equat ion (4) dict at es t hat t he sum of t he
elect r omagnet ic for ces on each part icle must vanish. Consider ing just t he singular for ces (36)
and (39) one t her efor e has simply
+ =
0
local distant
f f . (40)
Eqs. (35), (38) and (40) (wit h definit ions (36), and (39)) ar e t hr ee equat ions in t hr ee unknowns
, t o be solved as o 
2
, , v c
+
0 . In sect ions 3.3 and 3.4 we solve t hese only t o t he degr ee
r equir ed t o per mit i) ident ificat ion of t he local cont r ibut ion t o t he elect r omagnet ic mass t o
or der 1/ c, and ii) ident ificat ion of t he condit ion t hat t he dist ant for ce is singular t o som e
degr ee. Det er minat ion of t he lat t er condit ion is necessar y but not sufficient t o guar ant ee
sat isfact ion of t he Euler equat ion at t he or der 1/ c. However , it s det er minat ion is sufficient t o
ident ify an impor t ant geomet r ical const r aint leading t o quant iz at ion of t he or bit . Mor e pr ecise
det er minat ion of t he dependencies of on c are necessar y t o pr ove sat isfact ion of t he
Euler equat ion up t o but not including or der c
o 
2
, , v
0
. They ar e also necessar y in or der t o comput e t he
t ot al ener gy and angular moment um of t he sys t em. The r elevant calculat ions ar e given in
sect ion 4.
14
3.4 Local for ce t o or d er 1/ c
Eq. (35) per mit s t he solut ion o
+
0 as c
+
0 which is t he local solut ion t hat gives r ise t o local
self act ion r esponsible for self for ce and self ener gy. Not e t hat o is pr opor t ional t o c in
appr oaching t he limit . It is infer r ed fr om (35) and (38) t hat t he speed is a funct ion of c . Wr it ing
c =
2 2
0
0
v v (35) gives
c
o =
2
0
1 v
(41)
plus higher  or der t er ms in c whose pr es ence her e is suppr essed. The associat ed self for ce is
found by inser t ing (41) int o (36). Since o is s mall, t he t r ig t er ms need be expanded only t o
lowest or der in o. The numer at or in (36) is even in o , but t he 0
t h
or der const ant t er m
vanishes. One t hen has
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
o o o o o
o
c
o o o o
+ + +
=
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
3 3 2
2
2 3 2
0
0
0
4 2 1 4 1 4 2 1
1 1
4 1
4 1
8 sin cos 8 1
local
f
v v v v
v
v
v v
= . (42)
As expect ed t he self for ce is singular as c
+ +
A 0 0 , wit h set t ing t he mass
scale. In fact t he cor r es pondence wit h mechanical is mass is exact . To see t his we r est or e t he
const ant fact or defined in (34), and not e t hat t he speed
A
norm
f v t her ein is r equir ed only at t he
0
t h
or der in o, t o give t he local for ce in t he rot at ing fr ame:
e e
c
=
A
2 2 2
0
2 2
0 0
2 1
local
e e v v
f x
v v
0
1
x . (43)
Compar e t his wit h a plausible expr ession for t he or dinar y r elat ivist ic Newt onian mass
acceler at ion for a super luminal char ge in cir cular mot ion at speed const ant
0
v , r adian
fr equency e, possessing mechanical mass :
0
m
( )
e
= =
0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2
0 0 0
1 1 1
m m m d
t
dt
v a
x
v v v
v
A
. (44)
Cast in t he r ot at ing fr ame of t he par t icle, (44) is t he negat ive of (43) pr ovided one makes t he
associat ion . The sign differ ence is because t he Newt onian Lor ent z equat ion is
wher eas t he Euler equat ion for t he pur ely elect r omagnet ic syst em is
. That is, if t he dist ant for ce is consider ed as ` applied, a char ge wit h only
elect r omagnet ic mass ` r esponds wit h a r eact ion for ce whose negat ive is t he t r adit ional mass
acceler at ion of Newt ons second law. It is concluded t hat
=
2
0
/ m e
= 0
dist ant
f m a
+ = 0
distant local
f f
A her e plays t he r ole of t he classical
r adius of t he char ge, which, as it t ends t o z er o, causes t he elect r omagnet ic mass t o t end t o
infinit y. The self for ce due t o self act ion r eplaces ( 1 t imes) t he t r adit ional for ce of iner t ia.
15
3.5 Th e Cer en k ov cone con d it ion
Given t hat t he local for ce is singular at or der c 1/ , for t he t ot al for ce t o vanish it is necessar y
t hat t her e exist anot her canceling  cont r ibut ion at t his or der . For some r elat ive phase 
solving (38) t he distant for ce coming fr om t he ot her par t icle must be singular at or der c 1/ wit h
t he cor r ect magnit ude t o exact ly cancel t he self for ce. Clear ly, if it exis t s, t hat value of  must
cause t he denominat or in (39) t o vanish as c
+
0 , t hough, as discussed above, t his is a
necessar y but not sufficient condit ion t o guarant ee cancellat ion of for ces at or der c 1/ . Let
c
 
=
0
0
denot e t he value of  in t he limit t hat c o
+ +
A = 0 0
+
0 . Then for t he
denominat or in (39) t o vanish r equir es
   + =
2
0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 v . (45)
To t his or der (38) gives
  =
2 2 2
0 0 0
cos 0 v . (46)
Toget her t hese give t hat t he speed is
 =
0
cosec v
0
(47)
wher e 
0
is a solut ion of
   = >
0 0 0
t an 1, 0 . (48)
(  >
0
0 is r equir ed by (24)). The fir st few solut ions ar e given in Table 1. The smallest (n = 1)
admissible value for 
0
is 2.798, which cor r esponds t o 320.6
o
of or bit al mot ion. Figur es 2a and
2b illust r at e t he balance of for ces s uppor t ing cir cular mot ion for t his par t icular mode. In t he
limit of lar ge speeds t he phase and speed appr oach
 t
0 0
, n v (49)
wher e n is a posit ive int eger . It will be useful for lat er t o expr ess 
0
in t er ms of
0
v . Wr it ing
(46) as
( )
  =
2 2 2
0 0 0
1 sin v (50)
and using (47), one obt ains
 =
2 2
0 0
1 v (51)
fr om which it is infer r ed t hat t he speed must sat isfy
=
2 2
0 0
1 t an 1 1 v v . (52)
16
Ever y admissible solut ion of (48) causes t he denominat or in (39) t o vanish t o 0
t h
or der in
c. By vir t ue of (47) each of t hese cor r esponds t o a par t icular or bit al speed for bot h par t icles.
One should be clear t hough t hat t he complet e s et of possibilit ies cor r es ponds t o a single value
for t he index l in (24). Ot her values of l, if t hey exist , would corr espond t o a differ ent
int er sect ion by par t icle 2 of t he for war d light cone of par t icle 1 for t he sam e paramet er s r, e,
and
0
v .
Eq. (46) select s t he r elat ive phase 
0
for some fixed speed
0
v at which t her e is
elect r omagnet ic cont act bet ween t he t wo par t icles. That is, (46) det er mines t he t imes at which
one par t icle is on t he light cone of t he ot her . For any laborat or y t ime t of par t icle 1, t her e will
always be at least t wo t imes (t wo values for t in (20)) at which par t icle 2 is in elect r omagnet ic
cont act . Independent of t he specifics of t he mot ion, at A = 0 t he light  cone condit ion (17) is
( ) ( )
' ' =
2 1
t t t t x x . (53)
which gives r ise t o (37) and (38) in t he par t icular case of cir cular mot ion consider ed her e. It will
be helpful t o r egar d t he coor dinat e t of par t icle 1 as t he fixed pr esent t ime, and ident ify wit h
' t
t he t wo t imes t hat ar e t he fut ur e and past (r elat ive t o t) t imes t hat par t icle 2 is in
elect r omagnet ic cont act .
Wher eas (37) and (38) and t her efor e Eq. (53) decides t he t iming of t he elect r omagnet ic
int er act ion, Eq. (45) imposes a const r aint on t he mot ion, valid only at t hat t ime. Independent of
t he specifics of t he mot ion and wit h r efer ence t o t he denominat or of (11), (45) cor r esponds t o
t he condit ion
' = D
2 2,1
0 u s (54)
which, in 3+ 1D for m, is
( ) ( ) ( )
' ' =
2 2 1
t t t t v . x x . (55)
This is t he condit ion t hat t he dist ant for ce fr om par t icle 2 on par t icle 1 is singular . As
discussed in sect ion 3.4, it is a necessar y but not sufficient condit ion in or der t hat an
uncompensat ed char ge deviat es fr om st r aight  line mot ion. In t he par t icular case of cir cular
mot ion discussed above, it has been ar r anged t hat t he denominat or of t he dist ant for ce vanish,
and t her efor e (54) hold, at both t imes
'
'
2 1
2 1
t
t
x x
n
x x
t
t
. (56)
Then (53) combined wit h (55) give
+
= =
2 2
1, 1 v .n v .n (57)
17
which gives t hat at t he t ime of EM cont act t he component of velocit y of par t icle 2 in t he
dir ect ion of par t icle 1 disr egar ding t he sign  is t he speed of light . For any super luminal
par t icle t he set of such velocit ies (which for ms a double cone in space) is called it s Cer enkov
cone. Mor e specifically, Eqs. (57) give t hat par t icle 2 is moving away fr om par t icle 1 at t he speed
of light at t he fut ur e t ime, i.e. as par t icle 2 cr osses t he r et ar ded light cone of par t icle 1, and t hat
par t icle 2 is moving t owar ds par t icle 1 at t he speed of light at t he hist or ical t ime, i.e. as par t icle
2 cr osses t he advanced light cone of par t icle 1. These condit ions will be r efer r ed t o collect ively
as t he Cer enkov cone condit ion. In t he space t ime diagr am t he condit ions (57) mean t hat
par t icle 2 int er sect s t he (double) light cone of par t icle 1 at a t angent . Figur e 1b illust r at es t his
possibilit y in 1+ 1 D. Figur es 2a and 2b show how t he balance of for ces suppor t s cir cular
mot ion. Figur e 3 shows a r ender ing of t he act ual mot ion in 2+ 1.
4. High er or d er t er ms in t h e Eu ler equ at ion
4.1 Mot iv at ion
The calculat ion of t he dist ant for ce culminat ing in (47) and (48) enforces t he Cer enkov cone
condit ion discussed in sect ion 3.7. Yet alt hough t hey guar ant ee t hat t he dist ant for ce is
singular , Eqs. (47) and (48) ar e not sufficient t o guar ant ee t hat t he dist ant for ce cancels t he self
for ce, for which it is necessar y t o expand t o higher or der s. In t he par t icular case of cir cular
mot ion, it will t ur n out t hat higher or der cor r ect ions will play no dir ect r ole in det er minat ion of
t he allowed mot ion; once t he speed have been chosen in accor d wit h (47) and (48) one has in
hand a full descr ipt ion of t he mot ion of bot h par t icles subject t o t he pr ior const r aint of
concent r ic cir cular mot ion. That is, t he out come of t his calculat ion can have no impact on t he
speed and r elat ive phase (at t he t ime of EM cont act ) in t he limit A = 0 . Nonet heless, it is
impor t ant t o show t hat it is mat hemat ically feasible t o com pletely cancel t he self for ce wit h t he
local for ce, wit hout , say, int r oducing imaginar y quant it ies. Also, it will t ur n out t hat t he higher
or der t er ms comput ed below will be r equir ed t o comput e t he ener gy and t he angular
moment um of t he syst em.
4.2 Ser ies s olu t ion of t h e ligh t  con e con d it ion s
We r equir e t he simult aneous solut ion of Eqs. (37), (38) and (40) (wit h definit ions (36), and (39))
for t he t hr ee unknowns , as o 
2
, , v c
+
0 . Not ing t hat Eq. (42) gives c 1
local
f , it follows, in
or der for t he t ot al for ce vanish, t hat t he denominat or of t he dist ant for ce (39) must be
pr opor t ional t o c (unless per haps t he numer at or vanishes at c = 0 , which will be seen not t o be
t he case). Fr om t he form of t he denominat or ,    +
3
2
sin cos v , it is deduced t hat o c
1/ 3
at
18
t he lowest or der and t her efor e t hat t he quant it ies can be expanded as a ser ies in o 
2
, , v c
1/ 3
.
Ther efor e let us define c =
1/ 3
(t her e is just one r eal r oot ) and wr it e
o o  
= =
= =
_ _
0 0
,
n
n
n n
n
n
(58)
wher e n is an int eger and t he coefficient s ar e const ant s. It will be convenient t o r e wr it e t he
modified light  cone condit ions (37) and (38) using c =
1/ 3
as
( ) ( )
o   o o + +
2 6 2 2 6 2
cos sin 0
s
= , (59)
and
o
o
+
=
2 6
2
2
sin
v . (60)
The pr oblem may now be st at ed as t he det er minat ion of t he coefficient s o  , ,
n n n
fr om t he
simult aneous equat ions (58), (59) and (60), and (40) (using (36) and (39)).
Fir st we solve for t he { } o
i
in t er ms of t he { } 
i
. Subst it ut ion of (58) int o (59) and
collect ing t er ms, one obt ains at 0
t h
order
o   o =
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
cos sin 0 . (61)
Since it has been alr eady deduced t hat 
0
sat isfies (48), plus t hat o
+
0 as c
+
, 0 , it
follows t hat t he above requir es t hat o =
0
0 , as expect ed. At t he 1
st
or der t he coefficient of in
(59) gives
(
(62)
)
o    o o   o o o   o +
2 2 2
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
2 cos sin 2 cos 2 cos sin 2 sin 0 =
2
which is clear ly alr eady sat isfied at o =
0
0 . One pr oceeds likewis e, set t ing t he coefficient of
each t er m in t he power ser ies for t o z er o. One can use (48) t o r eplace all appear ances of t he
t r ig t er ms wit h ir r at ional funct ions of 
0
:

 
 
= =
+
0
0 0
2
0 0
1
cos , sin
1 1 +
2
. (63)
One event ually obt ains
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
      
o
  
          

+ +
= +
+ + +
+ +
2 2 2 2
1 0 1 0 1 0 2
3 5 6
3 4
0 0 0
2 4 2 2 2
0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 3 0 2
7 8
5
0
1 1 3
1
2 3
1 1 24 12
24
O
. (64)
Using (64) one can now expr ess as given by (60) in t er ms of t he {
2
v } 
i
. Expanding and
collect ing t er ms one finds
19
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
    
  

          

+
= + + + +
+ + + +
+ +
2 2
1 0 0 2 1
2 2 2 2 2 3
0 1 0
0
2 4 2 2 2
0 1 0 0 1 0 3 1 2 0 2
4 5
2
0
2 1 3
1 1
3
1 2 1 6 3
3
O
v
. (65)
4.3 Ser ies s olu t ion of t h e Eu ler equ at ion
Using (64) and (65), and t he expansion (58) for , it is now possible t o expr ess t he for ces
ent ir ely in t er ms of t he { } 
i
. A ser ies expansion of t he Euler equat ion (40) in will t hen fix t he
in t er ms of { }  > ,
i
i 0 
0
. One finds for t he local for ce, (36), t hat
( ) ( )


 

= + +
2
2 1
0
3 2
0 0
1 1
1
4 2
local
f



.
0
O . (66)
Put t ing (64) and (65) and t he expansion (58) for  int o t he expr ession for t he dist ant for ce (39)
gives
( )
( )
           
     
 
+
= + + +


+
\ .
2 4 2 2 2 2
0 1 0 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 2 1 2
3 2 2 2 2 3
0 1 0 1 0 1
3 2 2 3 6 s gn( ) 1
4 1
distant
e e
f O . (67)
It may be obser ved t hat o
s
does not appear in eit her of t he above for ces. This is because o is
non z er o only at t he t hir d or der , so t hat t er ms involving o
s
fir st appear in t he expansion of
(59) at t he 12
t h
or der , which is t oo high t o cont r ibut e t o t he singular component s of t he for ce.
The t ot al for ce must be set t o z er o by solving (40) using (66) and (67) by set t ing t he
coefficient t o z er o of each of t he Taylor  Laur ent ser ies t er ms in up t o and including t he t er m
at or der
0
. Fr om (66) and (67) t he dominant t er m at or der
3
gives
( )

 
+ =
+
1 2
2 3
0
0 1
sgn( ) 1
0
1
e e
. (68)
One sees immediat ely t hat =
1 2
s gn( ) 1 e e , i.e. t he t wo char ges ar e of opposit e sign as expect ed.
Given t hat t his is t he case, one t hen has


 o

 
=


+
\ .
1/ 3
0
1 1
2
0
1
(69)
wher e

o
1
can be eit her of . Pr oceeding likewise for each t er m of t he Taylor  Laur ent ser ies ,
one event ually obt ains
1
( ) 
 
  o
  
   
= + + +
 
 
+ +
\ . \ .
1/ 3 2/ 3
2 0 0
0 1
2 2
0 0 0
1
3 1 1
O
3
. (70)
20
The 
i
implied in t he above (i.e. as defined in (58)) can now be subst it ut ed int o (64) and (65) so
t hat o and can now be r egar ded as funct ions of and
2
v 
0
. However , it is pr efer r ed her e t o
use (51) t o expr ess ever yt hing in t er ms of (t he squar e of t he speed in t he limit t hat
2
0
v = 0 ),
since t his is per haps mor e r eadily r egar ded as an obser vable pr oper t y of t he t wo par t icle
syst em. In t hat case t he ser ies (64) for o becomes
( ) ( )
( )
o
+
= +
2/ 3
2 3
0 5 0
7 / 6 11/ 6
2/ 3 2
2 2
0
0 0 0
9 28
1
2 1 72 1
O
v v
v
v v v
7 9
(71)
t he fir st t er m of which is in agr eement wit h (41). The ser ies for  is
( )
( )
( ) 
 o
= + + +
1/ 6
2
0
2
0 1
2/ 3 1/ 6
4 / 3
2
0
0 0
1
1
1
3 1
O
v
v
v
v v
2 3
(72)
and t he ser ies (65) becomes
( )
( )
( )
+
= + + +
2
1/ 3
2/ 3
2 2 2 2 4 6 0
0 0 0
1/ 3
2/ 3
2
0 0
9 7
1
9 1
O
v
v v v v
v v
. (73)
We can now invest igat e how each of t he t er ms in t he expansion of eit her t he local or t he dist ant
for ce depends on t he speed (because t he sum is z er o, one is just t he negat ive of t he ot her ).
Examinat ion of (66) and (67) immediat ely r eveals t hat t he coefficient of
2
must be z er o
because a t er m of t hat or der appear s in only one of t he t wo for ces. There r emains only
( )
( )
= = +
2/ 3
0 0
3 7 / 6
2
2
0
0
1 1 1
4 1
8 1
local dist
f f O
v
v
v
. (74)
To r est or e t he unit s t o t he for ces we r ecall and not e also t hat t he
nor maliz ing for ce (34) is it self a funct ion of via
( ) c e = = A
1/ 3
1/ 3
/ 2
v , an expansion for which can be obt ained
fr om (73):
( )
( )
( )
e e
e
e
 
 

= + +



\ .
\ .

 
A


= + + A



\ .
\ .
1/ 3
2
2 2 2 2 2 4 0
0
0
1/ 3
2 2 2
0
2 2 4 / 3
0
0
1 1
2 2
2
1
2
32
norm
e e O
e O
v
f x v x v
v
v
x v
v

. (75)
Mult iplying (74) by (75) gives
( )
( )
e
e
= = + A
A
A
2
2 5/ 3
0 0
7 / 6
1/ 3 2
5/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
0 0
1
2 1
local dist
e
e
O
v x
x
f f
v
v v
. (76)
21
(In fact t here ar e no cont r ibut ions in (76) t o t he for ce at or der A
0
ar ising fr om t he for egoing
analysis; t he fir st non singular cont r ibut ion t ur ns out t o be at or der A
1/ 3
. Ther e ar e, however ,
cont r ibut ions at fr om t he finit e int er act ions ignor ed in t his analysis, as discussed
above.) As requir ed, t he fir st t er m is in agr eement wit h (43). Though weaker t han t he fir st , t he
second t er m is also singular , and t her efor e likewise r equir es nullificat ion fr om balance of local
and dist ance for ces.
(
A
0
O
)
Ther e wer e no pr oblems encount er ed in t he above in assigning real values t o t he
expansion coefficient s in t he ser ies (58) in or der t hat t he singular part s of t he t ot al for ce
vanish. This confir ms t hat t he cir cular mot ion of t he t wo char ges (18) does indeed sat isfy t he
singular part s of t he Euler equat ions for t he act ion (3) in t he limit t hat  pr ovided t he
speed is a solut ion of (52). The non singular par t s, in par t icular t he t ot al for ce at
A = 0
( )
A
0
O can
similar ly be nullified t hr ough appropr iat e choice of t he coefficient s of t he higher or der t er ms
on t he expansions (58). As discussed above, t his is not demonst r at ed her e because of space
limit at ions and also because it has no bear ing on t he quant it ies of int er est . The main point , t hat
t he char ges int er act t o pr oduce non t r ivial mot ions despit e t he infinit e elect r omagnet ic
masses, is sufficient ly demonst r at ed by r esolving just t he singular par t s of t he for ce.
5. En er gy an d An gu lar Momen t u m
5.1 En er gy of p air in cir cu lar mot ion
In t his sect ion t he local and t hen t he dist ant cont r ibut ions t o t he energy ar e fir st comput ed
separ at ely. The t ot al ener gy is t hen given as t he sum. In t he case t hat t he mot ion is given by
(18) and t he scalar pr oduct s ar e (27), t he ener gy is
( ) ( ) (
( ) ( )
)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u o u u o u o u u
e
u o u
u u o u o u u o u
e
u u u u u o u u u u
u o u
>
 

=

 +
\ .
= + +
_ _
_ _
2
2 2 2
, , ,
3
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
,
,
, , ,
4 2 2 2 2
,
3
2
, 0
,
2 sin 2 sin 1 cos
1
2
sin
sin sin 1 cos
2sin sin cos 2 sin
sin
k j k j k j
j k
j k roots
k j
k j k j k j
j k
k j
j k roots
k j
e e
H
e e
v v v
v
v v v
v v
v
+
. (77)
The sum over o
s
has been dr opped because, as discussed above, bot h t he local and dist ant
int er act ions can simult aneously sat isfy t he modified light  cone condit ion and t he Cer enkov
cone condit ion for just one of t he t wo values. The root s ar e now given by (23). The angle
br acket s have been be omit t ed because not hing inside depends on t. Not ing t hat t he whole
expr ession is even in u, and t hat (23) is even in u and t her efor e t he r oot s come in opposit e
signed pair s, t he sum over r oot s gener at es a fact or of 2, and it is under st ood t hat in t he second
expr ession above one now uses just t he posit ive r oot of (23).
22
In accor d wit h t he discussion of sect ion 3.4 we dist inguish bet ween ener gy ar ising fr om
local self act ion and any ot her ener gy ar ising fr om t he act ion of t he dist ant for ce:
= +
local dist
H H H . (78)
The local ener gy is char act er iz ed by = j k and u
+
0 as
+
A 0 . Using u o = 2 and t hat t her e
ar e t wo par t icles having local cont r ibut ions fr om t he pair s ( ) ( ) = , 1, j k 1 ) 2 and ( ) , (77)
becomes
( = , 2, j k
( ) ( ) ( ( )
e
)
o o o o o o o o o
o o
= + +
2
4 2 2 2 2
3
2
4
2 sin 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2 1 sin 2 2
2 sin 2
local
e
H v v
v
+ (79)
wher e o is t he solut ion of (37). Using now t he expansion (71) for o and (73) for , aft er some
algebr a one finds
2
v
( )
( )
( )
(
e e
e
= + + = + +
A
A
2/ 3 2/ 3
2 2 2/ 3
2 2
0 0 0 0
7 / 6 7 / 6
3 2 2
2 2/ 3 1/ 3 2
0 0
0 0
2
1 1
2 1 2 1
local
e e
e e
H O
v v
v v
v v
)
A
O . (80)
Just as for t he for ce, t he t er m at or der A
0
comes fr om finit e int er act ions ignor ed in t he
for egoing analysis. The fir st t er m is just t hat expect ed fr om a pair of par t icles each of
(elect r omagnet ic) r est  mass , pr ovided one accept s t he gener aliz at ion, alr eady implied in
(80), of t he t r adit ional  fact or t o t he super luminal domain.
A
2
/ e
Taking int o account t he exchange symmet r y bet ween t he t wo par t icles, t he int er act ion
ener gy is t wo t imes t hat of just one of t hem. Using u  = 2 and t hat t her e ar e t wo opposit ely
char ged par t icles cor r esponding t o t he pair s ( ) ( ) = , 1, j k 2 and ( ) ( ) = , 2, j k 1 , bot h pair s assumed
t o cont r ibut e equally, (77) becomes
( ) ( ) ( ( )
e
)
        
 
= + + + +
+
2
4 2 2 2 2
3
2
4
2 sin 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2 1 sin 2 2
2 sin 2
dist
e
H v v
v
(81)
wher e  is t he solut ion of (38). Using now t he expansion (72) for  and (73) for , one obt ains
2
v
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
e e
e
= + = + A
A
A
2/ 3 2/ 3
2 2 1/ 3 2 2/ 3 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
7 / 6 7 / 6
3 2 2
2 1/ 3 2
0 0
0 0
3 2
2
1 1
3 1 3 1
dist
e e
e e
H O
v v v v
v v
v v
v v
3
O . (82)
The int er act ion ener gy is negat ive, as it should be.
Adding (80) and (82), t he t ot al ener gy is
( )
(
e
= + A
A
A
2/ 3
2 2/ 3 2 2
0 0 0
1/ 6
2/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
2 1
2 1
e e
H
v v
v
)
O . (83)
23
The t ot al ener gy of t he syst em is negat ive, confir ming t hat t he or bit s are binding. The ener gy is
not bounded fr om below; incr easing t he speed makes t he ener gy mor e negat ive. Since must
obey (52), t he ener gy is quant iz ed. Table 2 gives t he spect r um for t he fir st few quant um
number s. At high quant um number s (49) gives t hat t he ener gy appr oaches
2
0
v
t A
2
2 H e n , (84)
wher e n is a posit ive int eger .
Denot ing t he equivalent r est mass of each par t icle by = A
2
/ m e it may be not iced t hat t o
fir st or der in t he mass (83) appear s t o be a super  luminal gener aliz at ion of t he r elat ivist ic
Vir ial Theorem [23]
=
_
2
1
j j
j
H m v . (85)
However , a for mal r elat ion bet ween t he t wo has not been est ablished her e; t hat would r equir e
demonst r at ion of (83) independent of t he det ails of t he mot ion.
In t his purely elect r omagnet ic t heor y t he coefficient of t he act ion (3) is ent ir ely
ar bit r ar y. A coefficient pr opor t ional t o A , say, would in effect be a for m of r enor maliz at ion,
which would leave t he ener gy (83) finit e and t he angular moment um (96) z er o. In any case, t he
absolut e values of t he ener gy and angular moment um must be r egar ded as ar bit r ar y. Of cour se,
t he fact of t heir quant iz at ion is unaffect ed by t his ar bit r ar iness, since t he excit ed st at es can be
expr essed as dimensionless r at ios r elat ive t o t he gr ound st at e. For example, upon int r oducing
an ext r a subscr ipt t o denot e t he quant um number , so t hat , for example, t he n
t h
solut ion t o (52)
is labeled , t hen (83) gives
2
0,n
v
t
+
A
= ~
2
0,
2
2 0 lar ge
0 0,0
0,0
1
lim 1.301
1
1
n n
n
H n
n
H
v
v
v
(86)
wher e we used ~
0,0
2.614 v .
5.2 An gu lar momen t u m of p air in cir cu lar mot ion
In t his sect ion t he local and t hen t he dist ant cont r ibut ions t o t he angular moment um ar e fir st
comput ed separ at ely. The t ot al angular moment um is t hen given as t he sum. Fir st we simplify
t he t hir d t er m in lar ge par ent heses in (A77) using t he scalar pr oduct s for t he dual cir cular
mot ion (27):
24
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u u
u o u o u o e u o
e e e
u u u o u u u u
e
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' + +
 
= +

\ .
= + +
D D D D D
2
, ,
2
2 2 2 2
, , , ,
2
2 2
,
1
sin 1 cos sin 1 cos
s in cos 1 sin cos
k k j k j k j k k k j k j
k j k j k j k j
k j
u s u u t t a u t t u a s u u
v v v v
v
v
u . (87)
Fr om t he definit ions (18) and (19) t he vect or cr oss pr oduct s ar e:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
e   o u
e e
e   o u
e   o u
e e
e   o
e e
' ' = + =
' ' = + =
' ' = + =
' ' = + =
2 2
,
2 2
2 2
,
2
,
2 2
,
sin sin
sin sin
cos cos
cos cos
k j k j k j
k j k j k j
k j k j k j
k j k j k j
t t
t t
t t
t t
v v
x x z z
v v zv zv
v
x v z z
v v
v x z z u
2
v
. (88)
Then t he fir st vect or expr ession in (A77) is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
u
o u o u o u
e e e
o u u u
e
' ' ' ' + + = +
=
2 2
2
, , ,
2
,
cos cos sin
2 cos sin
j k k k j k j k j k j
k j
t t
v v
x v x v v z z z v
v
z
. (89)
Put t ing (87) (89) in (A77) one obt ains t he angular moment um specific t o t he dual cir cular
mot ion
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u o u u u u
o
u o u o u u u
u o u
u u u o u u u u u
u u
o
o u u u
u o u
 


=



+ +
\ .
= + +
_ _
2
2
,
2
, 2 2
, ,
3
2
,
,
2 2 2
,
4 2
2
, 2 2 2
,
3
2
,
sin 2 cos sin
s in 4 s
s in
k j
j k k j
k j k j
j k roots
k j
k j
k j j k
k j
k j
e e
e e
v
z v
L v v
v
v v
v
z v
v
v
( )
( )
u u
u u u u
>
 




+
\ .
_ _
, 0
2
in cos
cos sin
j k roots
. (90)
In accor d wit h pr evious discussions t he sum over o
s
has been dr opped. The angle br acket s
have been be omit t ed because not hing inside depends on t. Given t hat t he whole expr ession is
even in u and t hat (23) is even in u  and t her efor e t he r oot s come in opposit e signed pair s
t he sum over r oot s has been r eplaced wit h a fact or of 2 and t he posit ive r oot of (23) has been
st ipulat ed.
Pr oceeding as for t he ener gy let
= +
local dist
L L L (91)
25
wher e t he local cont r ibut ion is char act er iz ed by = j k and u
+
0 as
+
A 0 . Using u o = 2 and
t hat t her e ar e t wo par t icles cor r esponding t o t he pair s ( ) ( ) = , 1, j k 1 ) 2 and , (90)
becomes
( ) ( = , 2, j k
( )
( )
o o o o o
o o o o o o
 
+ +

=

+
\ .
4 2 2 2 2
2 2
3
2 2
sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 4 8 sin 2 cos 2
2
e
e
 

= + +


\ .


= +

A  A
\ .
2/ 3 2
2
0 0
2 0 0
7 / 6
3 2
2
0
0
2/ 3 2
2
0 0
2 0 0
7 / 6
2
2/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
0
2
1
2 1
2
2
1
2 1
local
e O
e O
v v
v
L z
v
v
v v
v
z
v
v

+ A
. (93)
In comput ing t he dist ant cont r ibut ion t o t he angular moment um we use u  = 2 and t hat
t her e ar e t wo opposit ely char ged par t icles cor r esponding t o t he pair s ( ) and
, and t hat bot h pair s cont r ibut e equally. Eq. (90) t hen gives
( = , 1, j k ) 2
) 1 ( ) ( = , 2, j k
( ) ( )
( )
      
 
= + + +
+
2 2
4 2 2 2 2 2
3
2
2
s in 2 cos 2 s in 2 4 4 cos 2 2 sin 2
2 sin 2
dist
e v
L z v v
v
 + (94)
wher e  is t he solut ion of (38) . Using now t he expansion (72) for  and (73) for t his is
2
v
( )
( )
( )
( )
e
e
= + +
= + + A
A
A
2 2 2 8/ 3
0 0 0
7 / 6
3 2
2
0
0
2 2 2 8/ 3
0 0 0
7 / 6
2
2/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 2
0
0
1
2 1
2
1
2 1
dist
e e
O
e e
O
z v z v
L
v
v
z v z v
v
v
. (95)
Compar ing (93) and (95) one sees t hat t he leading or der par t s of t he angular moment um
cancel, wit h t he r esult t hat t he t ot al moment um is singular only t o or der 1/ :
( )
( )
( )
( )
e
= + = +
A
2 2/ 3 1/ 3 2 2/ 3
0 0 0
1/ 6 1/ 6
2 1/ 3 1/ 3 2
0 0
2
1 1
e e
O
v v
L z z
v v
A
0
O . (96)
The angular moment um is quant iz ed by vir t ue of (52). At high quant um number s, (49) gives
t hat t he magnit ude of t he angular moment um appr oaches
t
e
 

A
\ .
1/ 3
2
2n
e L (97)
wher e n is a posit ive int eger .
26
6. Dis cu s s ion
6.1 Cer en k ov Rad iat ion
The advant age of t he dir ect  act ion analysis is t hat wit hout addit ional mat t er t her e can be no
r adiat ion fr om t he cir cular or bit s, i.e. even t hough t her e is acceler at ion. That is, t he analysis
above is exact for a 2 par t icle univer se. This is in cont r ast t o t he Maxwell t heor y in which t her e
will be (r et ar ded) r adiat ion due t o t he acceler at ion of t he sour ces. Wit h t his caveat it was st at ed
in t he int r oduct ion t hat t he t echnique of non compensat ion, and in par t icular t he analysis of
t he dual cir cular mot ion, could also be per for med in a Maxwell fr amewor k because t he t heor ies
ar e ot her wise t he same.
Ther e is an addit ional r eason, however , for pr efer r ing t he dir ect  act ion t heor y t hat was
not ment ioned in t he int r oduct ion. It is widely held t hat unif orm ly moving char ges at v > c will
r adiat e int o a vacuum. Such r adiat ion was pr edict ed by Sommer feld [24] in 1904. Ther e wer e no
known physical manifest at ions, and pr esumably wer e not expect ed t o be any  at least not due
t o or dinar y elect r ons whose speed could not exceed c  unt il 1934 when Cer enkov and Vavilov
obser ved luminescence pr oduced by r elat ivist ic elect r ons passing t hough a medium. The
phenomenon was explained in 1958 by Cer enkov, Tamm and Fr ank [25] as an inst ance of t he
effect pr edict ed by Sommer feld, but wher e t he condit ion for r adiat ion was r efor mulat ed as t he
r equir ement t hat t he char ged par t icle move fast er t han t he speed of light in t he local mat er ial.
See [26] for a suppor t ing calculat ion. Wimmel & Jones [27,28] lat er r e analyz ed t he pr oduct ion
of Cer enkov r adiat ion, r eplacing Sommer felds model of a r igid finit e siz ed elect r on
(int r oduced t o pr ovide a cut off for t he r adiat ion) wit h a r elat ivist ically cor r ect var iable for m, t o
achieve a finit e r elat ivis t ically invar iant expr ession for t he power loss. But t her e wer e feat ur es
of t he r esult t hat led Wimmel t o conclude t hat somet hing was wr ong wit h t he whole appr oach.
Ther e is a det ailed dis cussion of t his issue and a suggest ed solut ion in t he r ecent book by
Fayngold [29].
However , t her e ar e some  for example [30 32]  who hold t hat Sommer felds or iginal
analysis applies only t o elect r ons moving t hr ough a dense medium, and does not apply t o
mot ion in a vacuum. In par t icular , Recami and Mignani [30] make an ext ended ( ) Lor ent z
t r ansfor mat ion [33] of t he behavior of or dinary char ged t ar dyons t o deduce t hat Cer enkov
r adiat ion fr om char ged t achyons appear s only if t raveling wit h speed less t han t hat of light in a
medium, i.e. when . (The r efr act ive index n is less t han 1 in t achyonic mat er ial.)
> v c
> > / c n v c
An addit ional advant age, t her efor e, of adopt ing t he dir ect act ion over t he Maxwell
t heor y is t hat it avoids having t o t ake sides on t his cont est ed issue. Just as for or dinar y
acceler at ion r adiat ion, in t he dir ect  act ion t heor y t her e can be no Cer enkov r adiat ion of
ener gy wit hout t he pr esence of addit ional absorber s, r egar dless of which posit ion on t he issue
is cor r ect .
27
6.2 Real v er s u s imagin ar y mas s
Commonly it assumed t hat super luminal speeds connot e an imaginar y value for t he mass in
or der t hat t he classical mechanical act ion =
)
2
m ech
I m dx r emains r eal [29]. A consequence is
t hat one is for ced t o r egar d t ar dyonic ( < v c ) and t achyonic ( ) charged mat t er as differ ent
species, each making t heir own dist inct cont r ibut ion t o t he act ion:
> v c
= =
=
_ _
) )
*
2 *
1 1
N N
m ech i i i i
i i
I m dx m
2
dx (98)
wher e m and m * ar e t ar dyon and t achyon masses r espect ively. This is consist ent wit h t he
Himalayan analogy deployed by Sudar shan in defense of t achyons [34]. By cont r ast it may be
infer r ed fr om t he analysis above t hat a mass of pur ely elect r omagnet ic or igin cont r ibut es an
act ion
=
A
)
2
2
self i
e
I dx (99)
valid t her efor e for all s peeds. Of cour se t her e is not hing in t he above t o suggest t he possibilit y
of differ ent masses, or even of t he emer gence of a finit e mass scale; t hese ar e separ at e issues
t hat r equir e t r eat ment elsewher e. The impor t ant point here is t hat a s ingle act ion now cover s
t he full domain of speeds, wit h no ment ion necessar y of imaginar y mass.
It appear s t hat in un compensat ed EM a single species of char ge has t he capacit y t o
move wit h speeds bot h less t han and gr eat er t han light . It should be point ed out t hough t hat
t he possibilit y of null mot ion is not cover ed by t his conclusion and has yet t o be invest igat ed.
(Init ially it might appear t hat such a possibilit y is excluded because one always expect s a self
for ce of t he for m (43), and t her efor e an infinit e cont r ibut ion fr om t he gamma fact or as .
But a mor e car eful analysis shows t hat if
v c
= v c is st ipulat ed at t he out set , a differ ent Taylor 
Laur ent ser ies expansion in of t he local force exist s, i.e., having finit e coefficient s, and
t her efor e could pot ent ially be cancelled by a dist ant for ce of t he same or der .) Only if v = c is
per mit t ed is t her e a possibilit y of a single char ge (an unbr oken wor ld line) explor ing bot h
r egimes.
6.3 Non  localit y
It is clear fr om (10) and (11) t hat ' = D
,
0
k k j
u s wit h =
2
,
0
k j
s is t he Lor ent z  invar iant condit ion
t hat t her e exist s a singular for ce bet ween par t icles (mor e exact ly, event s) k and j. If t he speed of
bot h par t icles is less t han c t hen t his condit ion is sat isfied only at =
k j
x x I.E., when t he t wo
par t icles ar e coincident , in which case t he singular for ce is t he Coulomb for ce at z er o
28
separ at ion. For t he purposes of comput ing singular for ces, t her efor e, ' = D
,
0
k k j
u s wit h =
2
,
0
k j
s
is t he Lor ent z  Invar iant gener aliz at ion of t he z er o separ at ion condit ion, fr om which it follows
t hat a superluminal charge should be r egar ded (for t hese pur poses) as an ext ended object . Mor e
specifically, for each 4 point , ( ) z say, on t he wor ld line, a sour ce is effect ively ext ended
t hr oughout t he sur face whose point s ( ) { }
x simult aneously sat isfy t he t wo equat ions
( ) ( )
= D
2
0, 0
dz
z x z x
d
= . (100)
For a single value of t he sur face ( ) { }
x has co dimension 2 (i.e. a 2 sur face in 3+ 1D), so t hat
t he 1 dimensional world line gener at es an ext ended source of co dimension 1 (a volume in
3+ 1D). This ext ension is in space t ime, not in space alone. For example, a unifor mly moving
sour ce wit h speed gener at es a (double) Cer enkov cone or iginat ing fr om each point of
t he wor ld line  whose angle u bet ween t he sur face and t he axis of symmet r y sat isfies
> v c
u = cos v c . This double cone exist s for all t ime, and t her efor e has 3 dimensions in 3+ 1. The
addit ional const r aint t hat t he ext ended sour ce lie on t he (double) light cone t hen select s a
moving cr oss sect ion t hr ough t he double cone t hat is a pair of expanding cir cles of r adius
u = sin t r unning away fr om t he sour ce point at speed c, i.e. wit h = r t . A pair of expanding
cir cles is gener at ed by ever y point indexed by on t he wor ld line; t hey ar e t he effect ive
ext ension of t he char ge at least insofar as t hey det er mine a sur face upon which a t est char ge
will exper ience a singular elect r omagnet ic for ce. Due t o t he effect ive space t ime ext ension of a
super luminal char ge, at ever y point in t ime on t he dual cir cular mot ion analyz ed above each
char ge feels an infinit e for ce fr om it s par t ner fr om t wo places at once, as illust r at ed in Figur e 2.
(It may addit ionally feel t he influence of any number of finit e for ces, t hough t hese do not ar ise
fr om t he effect ive ext ension but fr om z er o dimensional point s on t he wor ld line.) Each inst ance
of t he infinit e for ce ar ises fr om t hose point s wher e t he wor ld line of one char ge sour ce
int er sect s t he effect ive ext ension (of co dimension 1) of t he ot her sour ce.
Con clu s ion
Fr om t he analysis of t wo par t icles in a posit r onium like configur at ion it has been demonst r at ed
t hat t her e exist s a non t r ivial physics of classical dir ect  act ion elect r omagnet ism of point
sour ces wit h mechanically un compensat ed elect r omagnet ic mass, even t hough t hose masses
ar e infinit e. In t he absence of mechanical mass adequat e infinit e for ces have been found t o
ar ise fr om dist ant char ges in super luminal mot ion. The for ces can be r egar ded as der iving fr om
super luminally induced change in dimensionalit y of a sour ce fr om a 1D wor ld line t o a hyper 
sur face in 3+ 1D. In t he par t icular case analyz ed it was found t hat t he adequat e infinit e for ces
29
exist only for discr et e values of t he par amet er s of t he mot ion, r esult ing in quant iz ed values for
t he t ot al ener gy and angular moment um.
30
Appendix A
Force, energy and angular momentum of a system of particles
governed by a twotime action
A.1 In t r od uct ion
In classical mechanics Noet her s t heor em is usually applied t o an act ion has just one t ime
var iable and cont ains only fir st der ivat ives:
( ) =
)
; , I dt L t q q , (A1)
wher e q can have any number of component s. Bar ut [35] gives a gener aliz at ion t o an ar bit r ar y
number of der ivat ives. However , published der ivat ions of conser ved quant it ies associat ed wit h
a classical two tim e Lagr angian,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' =
) )
; , , , I d d J q q q q '
)
, (A2)
have not been found. The solut ion t o t his deficit adopt ed her e is t o cast (A2) in t he one t ime
for m (A1) by int r oducing auxiliar y degr ees of fr eedom subject t o const r aint s, as descr ibed in
sect ion A.2, and t hen apply Noet her s t heor em t o t hat one t ime act ion. In sect ion A.3 it is
demonst r at ed t hat t he new alt er nat ive one t ime for m gives t he same Euler equat ion as
obt ained for t he or iginal t wo t ime for m. In t hat analysis q is a 4 component vect or t hat is t he
locus of t he par t icle wor ld line. The cor r esponding Euler equat ion is valid for t r aject or ies t hat
t ime r ever s e. If it is known a pr ior i t hat t her e ar e no t ime r ever sals, t hen a ver y similar analysis
can be per for med r est r ict ing q t o t hr ee degr ees of fr eedom, t he r esult s of which ar e simply
st at ed in sect ion A.4. The r esult ing one t ime act ion is t he st ar t ing point for comput ing t he
ener gy in s ect ion A.5 and in sect ion A.6 t he ener gy is given for t he par t icular case t hat t he
or iginal t wo t ime act ion is t hat of dir ect act ion EM. In sect ion A.7 is comput ed t he angular
moment um for t he alt er nat ive act ion of sect ion 4 and sect ion A.8 gives t he angular moment um
for t he par t icular case t hat t he or iginal t wo t ime act ion is t hat of dir ect act ion EM.
A.2 Conv er s ion fr om t wo t ime t o on e t ime for m
In t his appendix we will consider t he gener al case of a t wo t ime act ion t hat can be wr it t en in
t he for m
( ' ' ' ' ' ' = =
) ) ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
J
I d d J x x u u x x u u d L (A3)
wher e
( )
k k
+ + + +
) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , , ..., , , ..., , ,..., , ,...
J
L d J x x u u x x u u (A4)
31
and wher e t he following shor t hand has been used for t he 4 vect or s x and u
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) (
) k
+ +
'
' ' ' +
'
, , , , ,
j j
j j j j j j j j j j
dx dx
x x u x x u x x u u
d d
k +
o


.
. (A5)
Not e t he for m (A3) pr ecludes a mor e gener al possibilit y wher ein t he ker nel depends explicit ly
on bot h t imes independent ly; it depends explicit ly only on t he differ ence bet ween t he t wo
t imes. Clear ly, t he dir ect  act ion (3) is in t his form. In par t icular ,
. (A6)
( )
o
o
+ +
=

= + A
\
_ _
D
2
2
, 1
s
j k j k k j
j k
J e e u u x x
Eq. (A3) can be wr it t en as a one t ime act ion by expr essing t he posit ion and velocit y at t ime
k + in t er ms of t he der ivat ives of t he posit ion at t ime as a Taylor ser ies:
( ) (
k k
) + + +
= =
= =
_ _
1
0 0
,
!
m m
m
j j j
m m
x x u x
m m !
m
j
. (A7)
Here and subsequently it is assumed that the trajectory is infinitely differentiable, and that series
such as (A7) converge. Because we wish to cast (A3) as a onetime action with only first derivatives,
we now proceed as if, for each m,
( ) m
j
x in (A7) is an independent variable to be varied when
extremizing the action (A3), and establish the association between
( ) m
j
x and ( )
m
j
d d x with
Lagrange multipliers. In place of (A3) therefore, consider the action =
)
I d L where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
 


= +


\ .
0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
, ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, ,..., , , ..., , ,...,... , ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, ,..., , , ..., , , ..., ...
aux J
x x x x x x
L L x x x x x x L x x x x x x
p p p p p p
, (A8)
wher e is t he auxiliar y densit y
aux
L
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
+
=
_
D
1
,
m m m
aux j j j
j m
L p x x . (A9)
J
L is t he or iginal densit y
J
L but wit h t he replacement s
( ) ( ) ( )
k k + + +
_ _
1 1
, , ,
!
m m
m
j j j j j j j
m m
x x u x x x u x
m m !
m
j
(A10)
so t hat (A4) becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k k k k
k k
+ +
 

\ .
_ _ _ _
)
0 0 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , , ...
! ! ! !
m m m m
m m m m
J
m m m m
L d J x x x x x x x x
m m m m
. (A11)
It may be obser ved t hat
J
L cont ains no der ivat ives (at all) and is in one t ime for m; t he
funct ions depend only on . In t hese t er ms t he par t icular case (A6) of dir ect act ion EM
becomes
( ) m
j
x
32
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
k k
k o
+
=
 
 
= + A

\ .
\ .
_ _ _ _
)
D
2
1 1 0 2
, 1
! !
s
m m
m m
j k s j k k J
j k m m
L e e d x x x x
m m
o


j
. (A12)
A.3 Eu ler equ at ion s
The goal of t he following is t o show t hat t he act ion (A8) is equivalent t o (A3) in t hat t he
r esult ing Euler equat ions for t he par t icle t r aject or ies ar e t he same. The Euler equat ions for (A3)
ar e ver y s imply obt ained as follows. The incr ement in t he act ion due t o an incr ement in t he
t r aject or ies is:
o o o o o
  c c c c
' ' = + + +

'
' ' c c c c
\ .
_
) )
D D D D
l l l l
l l l l l
I d d x u x u
x u x u
J . (A13)
Int egr at ing t he 2
nd
and 4
t h
t er ms by par t s, and assuming t hat t he incr ement s vanish on t he
boundar y (i.e. in t he r emot e  past and r emot e  fut ur e), t his is
o o o
     c c c c
' ' = +
 

' ' ' c c c c
\ . \ \ .
_
) )
D D
l l
l l l l l
d d
I d d x x
x d u x d u


.
J . (A14)
Renaming as ' and ' as one obt ains
( )
(
o o
  c c
' = +

c c
\ .
_
) )
D
1
l
l l l
d
I d d x S
x d u
)
' J (A15)
wher e oper at es on J swapping and
  c c
' ' + =

c c
\ .
)
1
l l
d
d S
x d u
0 J l . (A16)
The Euler equat ions for t he syst em (A8) can be comput ed as follows. Var iat ion of t he
auxiliar y var iables in t he auxiliar y act ion (A9) immediat ely est ablishes t he r equir ed
r elat ion bet ween
( ) m
j
p
( )
( )
m
j
x and ( ) ( )
m
j
d d x :
( ) ( ) +
=
1
,
m m
j j
k m x x . (A17)
Eq. (A9) also gives that
( ) ( )
c c =
n
l l
L x p
n
. (A18)
Bot h t he auxiliar y and t he or iginal act ion (A11) par t icipat e in giving
( ) ( ) ( )
c c = O
1
1
n n n
n l l l
L x g p (A19)
wher e g is t he 4 vect or
33
( )
( )
k k
k o o
+ +
c c c c
+ + +
`
c c c c
)
)
1
,0 ,1 1
! 1 !
n n
n
n n n l
l l l l
J J J J
g d
x u n n x u
O . (A20)
Here the o s are Kronecker symbols, and O is the asymmetric Heaviside step function limited to
integer arguments which is zero for negative argument and otherwise one, so that . The
derivatives of J in (A20) are to be evaluated using the form given in (A4). With (A18) and (A19), one
has that the Euler equation for is
O =
0
1
( ) n
l
x
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
c c
= O
c c
1
1
0
n n n
n l l l
n n
l l
L d L d
g p p
d
x x
=
d
. (A21)
The can be eliminated by differentiating n times and alternately adding and subtracting:
( ) n
l
p
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
     
O = =
  
\ . \ . \ .
_
1
1
0
n n
n n n
n l l l l
n
d d
g p p g
d d
_
n
n
d
d
. (A22)
Putting in from (A20)
( )
k k
k o o
+ +
c c c c  
+ + +
`

c c c c \ .
)
_
)
1
,0 ,1 1
0
! 1 !
n
n n
n n n
n l l l l
d J J J J
d
d x u n n x u
O = . (A23)
Offset t ing by 1 t he sum over t he last t er m in br aces, ' = 1 n n n , (A23) is
k
k k
+ +
(
   c c c c  
+ (  
c c c c \ .
( \ . \
_
) )
0
!
n
n
n l l l l
J d J d J d J
d d
x d u n d d x u

=


.
. (A24)
Recognizing the expression in square braces as the shift operator
( ) ( )
k
k
 
=

\ .
_
:
!
n
n
n
d
h h
n d
h , (A25)
the second term in (A24) is
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k
k k
k k k k k k
k k
+ + + +
+ +
(
 
c c  
( 


c c \ .
( \ .
  c c
=

c c
\ .
  c c
=

c c
\ .
_
)
)
)
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
!
, , ,..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
,
n
n
n l l
l l
l l
d d
d J x x u u x x u u
n d d x u
d
d J x x u u x x u
x d u
d
d J x
x d u
( )
u
( )
( )
+ + + +
  c c
' ' ' ' ' ' =

c c
\ .
  c c
' ' =

c c
\ .
)
)
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ..., , , ..., , , ..., , , ...
, , , ..., , ,..., , ,..., , ,...
l l
l l
x u u x x u u
d
d J x x u u x x u u
x d u
d
d S J
x d u
(A26)
(The t hir d st ep comes fr om negat ing t he var iable of int egr at ion, k.) Using t his for t he second
t er m in (A24) and using t hat k ' = d d in t he fir st t er m in (A24), one obt ains (A16). It is
concluded t hat t he syst em (A8) is equivalent t o t he t wo t ime densit y (A4).
34
Having now a one t ime fir st or der differ ent ial for m for t he act ion, one can employ t he
st andar d r esult s for ener gy and angular moment um.
A.4 Res t r ict ion t o t ime mon ot on ic wor ld  lin es
So far t he t r aject or y x has been t r eat ed as a gener al 4 vect or wit hout r est r ict ion on t he 0
t h
element . For t he r emainder of t he appendix however , in or der t o employ est ablished r esult s, it
will be necessar y t o assume t hat t her e ar e no t ime r ever sals, and t her efor e t hat t he 0
t h
component is a monot onic funct ion of t he or dinal par amet er . Wit h t he 0
t h
component no
longer a degr ee of fr eedom, in place of (A3) and (A4) we now consider t he act ion
(A27) (
' ' ' ' ' ' = =
) ) ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , , ..., , ,..., , , ..., , ,...
K
I dt dt K t t dt L x x v v x x v v )
)

+ A

.
2
wher e
. (A28)
(
k k
+ + + +
) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , ,..., , ,..., , , ..., , ,...
K
L d K x x v v x x v v
Clear ly t hese ar e not so gener al as (A3) and (A4) because t he t ime coor dinat es , which could
have appeared in an arbit r ar y way in t he lat t er , must now appear only as a differ ence. The
dir ect  act ion ker nel (A6) can be wr it t en in t his for m:
', t t
. (A29)
( ) ( )
o
o k o
+ +
=

=
\
_ _
2
2
, 1
1
j k j k k j
j k
K e e v .v x x
The Euler equat ions cor r esponding t o (A16) ar e
( )
( )
  c c
' ' + =

c c
\ .
)
1
l l
d
dt S t t K l
dt x v
0 . (A30)
The pr evious analysis demonst r at ing t hat (A8) is equivalent t o (A4) can be r epeat ed wit h t he
act ion specified by (A27) and (A28) as t he st ar t ing point . One easily finds t hat t he equivalent
one t ime syst em is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
 


= +


\ .
0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
0 0 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
, ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, , ..., , , ..., , ,...,... , ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...,
, ,..., , ,..., , ,...,...
aux K
L L L
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
p p p p p p
, (A31)
wher e
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
+
=
_
1
,
m m m
aux j j j
j m
L t p . x x . (A32)
In place of Eq. (A21) one t hen has
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
c c
= O
c c
1
1
0
n n n
n l l l
n n
l l
L d L d
dt dt
g p p
x v
= (A33)
wher e
35
( )
( )
k k
k o o
+ +
c c c c
+ + +
`
c c c c
)
)
1
,0 ,1 1
! 1 !
n n
n
n n n l
l l l l
K K K K
d
n n
g
x v x v
O . (A34)
A.5 En er gy of wor ld  lin es ext r emiz in g a t wo t ime act ion
Tr eat ing t he as independent var iables, t he Hamilt onian for t he syst em is
( ) n
l
x
( )
( )
( ) ( )
c
= =
c
_ _
, ,
n n
l l
n
l n l n
l
L
H L v . v .p
v
n
l
L (A35)
wher e L is t he t ot al densit y. The conjugat e moment a
( ) n
l
p can be found by solving (A33)
it er at ively as follows. From onwar ds (A33) can be wr it t en = 0 n
( ) ( ) +  
+ =

\ .
1
1
n n
l l
d
E
dt
p g (A36)
wher e incr ement s t he super scr ipt :
E
( ) ( ) ( ) +
=
1
,
n n
Eq q q
n
. Assuming conver gence, (A36) can be
inver t ed as
( ) ( ) ( ) + + +
 
     
= + + = 
  

\ . \ . \ .
\ .
_
2 3
1
1 ...
m
n n
l l
m
d d d d
E E E
dt dt dt dt
p g
1 m n
l
g . (A37)
Put t ing t his in (A35) gives
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
t t
t o o
+ +
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ +
 
=

\ .
c c c c  
= + + + O
`

c c + + + c c \ .
)
_
_
)
1
, ,
1
1,0 1,1
, ,
1 ! !
m
n m n
l l
l m n
m
m n m n
n
m n m n m n l
l n m l l l l
d
H L
dt
d K K K K
d L
dt m n m n
v . g
v .
x v x v
. (A38)
The fir st t er m in br aces is z er o. The second t er m is
( ) ( )
k o k o o k
+ +
c c    
= =
 
c c
\ . \ .
_ _
) ) 1,1 ,0 ,0
, , , ,
m m
n n
m n m n l l l
l n m l n m l l l
d K d K
d d
dt dt
v . v . v .
v v
c
c
_
)
l
K
d
v
. (A39)
The t ot al densit y L appear ing in (A38) is t he sum (A31). However , t he auxiliar y densit y is z er o
once t he Euler equat ions (A17) ar e invoked. Ther efor e L can be r eplaced wit h
K
L , which is t hen
equal t o . Wit h t his and (A39), (A38) can be decomposed as
K
L
= +
0
H H H
1
(A40)
wher e
k
c
=
c
_
) 0 l
l l
K
H d v .
v
K
L (A41)
and
36
( )
( ) ( )
k k
k
+ + +
+ +
c c  
= +
`

+ + + c \ . c
_
)
1
1
, ,
! 1
m
m n m n
n
l
l n m l l
d K
H d
dt m n m n
v .
v
)
!
K
x
. (A42)
(Not e t hat one cannot wr it e (A41) as
c
=
c
_ 0
K
l
l l
L
H v .
v
K
L because t he appar ent commut ivit y of
t he funct ional der ivat ive wit h t he int egr at ion can be dest r oyed simply by a change of
int egr at ion var iable.) Since it is conser ved, t he ener gy and it s t ime aver age over t  denot ed by
br aces  ar e t he same. Her e we choose t o aver age over a per iod of t he syst em. In t hat case t he
aver age of any t ot al t ime der ivat ive will vanish, ( ) = 0 g dg t dt , and t her efor e
( )
( )
( )
( )
=
db t da t
a t b t
dt dt
. (A43)
Wit h t his, (A42) gives
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
k k
k
k
k
k
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+
+ +
c c  
= +
`

+ + + c c \ .
 
c c
=


+ + c c
\ .
_
)
_
)
1
1
, ,
1
, ,
1 ! !
1 !
m
m n m n
n
l
l n m l
m n
n m
l
l n m l l
d K
H d
dt m n m n
K d K
d
m n d
v .
x v
v .
x v
) l
K
(A44)
wher e t he second t er m in br aces has been int egr at ed over k by par t s, and it is assumed t hat all
quant it ies vanish on t he boundar y (t he limit s of t he int egr at ion over k). Let t ing and
r eplacing t he sum over m , t he above becomes
+ = m n p
( )
( )
k
k
k
+
+
=

c c
=
+ c c
\
__
)
1
1
, 0
1 !
p p
p
l
l p n l l
K d K
H d
p d
v .
x v
+



.
. (A45)
Not ing t hat t he sum over n just gives p+ 1 and using (A25), t his is
( )
k
k k k k
k k
+
+ + +
  
c c c c
= =


c c c c
\ . \
_ _
) ) 1
,
!
p
p
l l
l p l l l l l
K d K K d K
H d d
p d d
v . v .
x v x v
+



.
. (A46)
Not ing t hat
k k k k
+ + + +
+ + + + +
  
c c c c c c
= + + = +
  `
 
k

c
+
`
c c c c c c c
) \ . \ )
_ _
l l l l
l l l l l l l
dK K K K K d K d K K
d d
v . v . v . v .
x v x v v
.
d
, (A47)
(A46) is
k k
k k k
+
+

c
=
c c
\
_
) 1 l
l l
dK K d K
H d
d d
v .
v

c


.
. (A48)
Int egr at ing by par t s and again assuming t hat quant it ies vanish on t he boundar y:
k k k k k
k k
+ +
+ +
 
c c c
= =


c c c c
\ .
_ _
) ) 1 l l
l l l l
K K K
H d K d L d v . v .
v v
c
) K
K
. (A49)
Combining (A41) and (A49), and, for not at ional simplicit y, ext ending t he t ime aver age t o
include t he t er ms in H
0
, one finally obt ains
37
k k k
k
+
+
c c
= + k
c
c c c
_ _
) ) )
2
l l K
l l l l
K K
H d d L d v . v .
v v
K
(A50)
wher e t he angle br acket s denot e an aver age over a per iod of t.
The plausibilit y of (A50) can be demonst r at ed by showing t hat t he expr ession Eq. (A50)
agr ees wit h t he t r adit ional r esult when t he act ion is one t ime. If one set s
( ) ( ) o k = ,
trad
K L x v (A51)
t hen (A27) wit h (A28) gives t he t r adit ional for m
( ) =
)
,
trad
I dt L x v . (A52)
Put t ing (A51) in (A50) and not ing t hat
+
c c = 0
trad
L v , one has
( )
( )
o k
k k
k
c c
=
c c
)
2
trad
trad trad
L
H L d L v . x v
v
, . (A53)
Not ing now t hat in t his case t he par t ial der ivat ive wit h r espect t o k is t he same as t he t ot al
der ivat ive wit h r espect t o k, t he last t er m can be int egr at ed by par t s, aft er which one simply has
c
=
c
trad
trad
L
H v .
v
L (A54)
as r equir ed.
A.6 En er gy of ch ar ges obey in g d ir ect  act ion EM
Comput ed above is t he ener gy associat ed wit h a gener al t wo t ime act ion wher ein t he explicit
dependence on t ime is only on t he t ime differ ence, i.e.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' ' ' ' =
) ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
, , , ..., , , ..., , ,..., , ,... I dt dt K t t t t t t t t t t x x v v x x v v . (A55)
Pr ovided t he par t icle world lines ar e t ime monot onic, it is shown t hat ener gy is given by (A50):
( )
c c c
' ' ' = +
`
' ' c c c
)
_
)
2
l l
l l l
K K
H dt K t t
t
v . v .
v v
K
(A56)
wher e
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' , , ,
j j j j j j j j
t t t x x v v x x v v ' t (A57)
wher e t he angle br acket s signify a t ime aver age (over t) over a per iod of t he mot ion. In t he
par t icular case of t he dir ect  act ion EM considered in t his document , t he K in (A55) implied by
(3) is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
o
o
=
' ' ' =
_ _
2
2
2
1 ,
1
s
j k j k k j s
j k
K e e t t v .v x x o + A . (A58)
Inser t ing (A58) int o (A56), t he ener gy a syst em of t ime monot onic, self int er act ing,
mechanically massless par t icles int er act ing elect r omagnet ically is found t o be
38
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
o
o
=
c  
' ' ' ' ' =

' c
\ .
_ _
)
2
2
2
1 ,
2 1
s
j k j k k j s
j k
H e e dt t t t t
t
v .v x x o + A . (A59)
Not ing t hat
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o o ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' + A = + A
'
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
k j s k k j k j s
d
t t t t t t
dt
v x v . x x x x o . (A60)
t hen
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o o o
o o
k
+
c
 
' ' ' ' ' + A = + A

' c \ .
'
' ' =
' ' '
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
k j s k j s
k j s
k k j
t t t t t t
t
t t d
t t
d t t
x x x x
x x
v . x x
+ A
. (A61)
Put t ing t his in (A59) and int egr at ing t he second t er m by par t s gives
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
o
=
   
' '
 
' ' = +
 '  ' ' '
\ . \ .
_ _
)
2
2
2
2
1 ,
1
2
s
j k
j k k j s
j k
k k j
t t
d
H e e dt t t
dt t t
v .v
x x
v . x x
o ' + A . (A62)
Not ing t hat t he r esult of a t ot al differ ent ial is insensit ive t o t he choice of algebr aic
r epr esent at ion of it s oper and, t he 4 vect or not at ion can be rest or ed t o give
( )
( )
o
o o
=
   
' '
  ' =
' '  
\ . \ .
_ _
)
D
D
2
2 2
,
1 , ,
2
s
k j
j k k j s
j k k k j
t t u u
d
H e e dt s
dt u s
+ A . (A63)
Car r ying out t he int egr at ion over t and per for ming t he differ ent iat ion, t his is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o
+
=
 
' ' ' '

=

' ' ' ' ' ' + + 
\ .
_ _ _
D D D
D D D D D
2
, ,
3
2
2
1 ,
, , ,
2 2
1
2
s
k k j k k j k j
j k
j k roots
k k j k j k k k j k k j k j
u s t t u s u u
e e
H
u s t t u u u a s u s a u
. (A64)
wher e t he r oot s ar e t hose values of t sat isfying (17). Eq. (A64) is a gener ally valid expr ession for
t he t ot al ener gy of a syst em of t ime monot onic mechanically massless par t icles int er act ing
accor ding t o dir ect  act ion EM. It is evaluat ed in t he par t icular case of dual cir cular mot ion in
t he following sect ion.
A.7 An gu lar momen t u m of wor ld  lin es ext r emiz in g a t wo t ime act ion
Tr eat ing t he as independent var iables, t he angular moment um L of t he densit y (A31) is
( ) n
l
x
( )
( )
( ) ( )
c
= =
c
_ _
, ,
n
i l l
n
l n l n
l
L
L x x p
x
n n
. (A65)
Using t he r esult (A37) for t he conjugat e moment um and inser t ing (A34) t his is
( )
( ) ( )
k k
k o o
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ +
c c c c  
= + + + O
`

c c + + + c c \ .
)
_
)
1
1,0 1,1
, ,
1 ! !
m
m n m n
n
m n m n m n l
l m n l l l l
d K K K K
d
dt m n m n
L x
x v x v
. (A66)
We now pr oceed much as for t he ener gy. The fir st t er m in br aces is z er o. The second t er m is
39
( ) ( )
k o k o o k
+ +
c c    
= =
 
c c
\ . \ .
_ _
) ) 1,1 ,0 ,0
, , , ,
m m
n n
m n m n l l l
l m n l m n l l l
d K d K
d d
dt dt
x x
v v
c
c
_
)
l
K
d x
v
. (A67)
Using (A67) we can wr it e for (A66)
= +
0
L L L
1
(A68)
wher e
k
c
=
c
_
) 0 l
l l
K
d L x
v
(A69)
and
( )
( ) ( )
k k
k
+ + +
+ +
c c  
= +
`

+ + + c \ . c
_
)
1
1
, ,
1 ! !
m
m n m n
n
l
l m n l l
d K
d
dt m n m n
L x
x
)
K
v
. (A70)
Since it is conser ved, t he angular moment um and t her efor e it s t ime aver age over t  denot ed in
t he following by angle br acket s  ar e t he same. Repeat ing st eps leading fr om (A44) t o (A46)
t hen gives
k k
k
+
+

c c
=
c c
\
_
) 1 l
l l l
K d K
d
d
L x
x v
+



.
. (A71)
Int egr at ing t he second t er m by par t s:
k k
+ + +
+ +

c c c
= + +
c c c
\
_
) 1 l l l
l l l
K K
d L x x v
v x
+



. l
K
v
. (A72)
Combining t his wit h (A69) one has t hat t he angular moment um of a syst em wit h act ion (A27)
wit h (A28) is
k k
+ + +
+ +

c c c c
= + + +
c c c c
\
_
) l l l l
l l l l
K K K K
d L x x x v
v v x
+



. l
v
. (A73)
A.8 An gu lar momen t u m of ch ar ges obey in g d ir ect  act ion EM
The gener al r esult for t he angular moment um vect or of a closed syst em whose act ion is of t he
for m (A55) is
( )
 c c c c
' ' ' ' ' = + + +


' ' c c c c
\
_
) l l l l
l l l l
K K K K
dt t t L x x x v
v v x v '
. l
. (A74)
Using t he K int r oduced in (A58) t he angular moment um of a syst em of t ime monot onic, self
int er act ing  but mechanically massless  par t icles int er act ing elect r omagnet ically is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
o
o o
=
  c
' ' ' ' ' ' ' + + +

' c
\ .
' =
' ' + A
_ _
)
2
, 1 2
2
1
s
j k k k j k j k
k
j k
j k
k j s
t t t t
e e dt
t t
x v x v v v .v x
x
L
x x
. (A75)
40
Using t hat
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o o o
o o
c
' ' ' ' ' ' + A = + A
' c
'
' ' = + A
' ' ' '
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
k j s k j k j s
k
k j
k j s
k k j
t t t t
d
t t
dt t t
x x x x x x
x
x x
x x
v . x x
, (A76)
and assuming all r elevant quant it ies vanish on t he boundary, (A75) can be wr it t en
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
o
o
o o
=
=
    ' ' '
  ' ' ' ' + +
'   ' ' '
' = \ . \ .
' ' + A
 ' ' '
' ' ' ' = + + +
' ' '
\
_ _
)
_ _ _
D
D D
, 1
2
2
2
, 1 , ,
1
1
2
s
s
k j k j
j k k k j
k k j
j k
j k
k j s
k j k j j k
j k k k j
j k roots k k j k k j
t t
d
t t
dt t t
e e dt
t t
t t u u e e
d
t t
dt u s u s
v .v x x
x v x v v
v . x x
L
x x
x x
x v x v v
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
o =
  
 
 
. \ .
 


' ' ' ' ' + +


' ' ' ' = +

'

  ' ' ' ' +


' + 

' ' ' '  +
\ . \ .
_ _ _
D
D D
D
D D D
D D
2
,
,
3
, 1
,
,
2
,
1
2
s
k k j j k k k j
j k
k k j k j k j
j k roots
k k j
k k j k j k j
k j
k k k j k j
u s t t
e e
t t u s u u
u s
u s u u t t a u
t t u a s u u
x v x v v
v x
x x
. (A77)
41
References
[1] F. Rohrlich, Phys. Rev. D 60 (1999) 0840170840175.
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42
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43
Table 1
Tit le: Solut ions of t he equat ion   =
0 0
t an 1 wit h  = +
2
0 0
1 v .
mode index 
0 0
v
1 2.798 2.972
2 6.121 6.202
3 9.318 9.371
4 12.486 12.526
5 15.644 15.676
6 18.796 18.823
7 21.946 21.968
lar ge n nt nt
44
Figu r e Cap t ion s
Figu r e 1a
Effect of modified light cone condit ion on point s of int er act ion. The pr esent posit ion of t he
par t icle is at t he or igin. The t wo r ed dot s show t he point s of local self act ion. The blue dot s
show t he point s of dist ant act ion for arbit r ar y mot ion of a dist ant t r aject or y.
Figu r e 1b
The same modified light cone condit ion except now t he dist ant t r aject or y int er sect s t he light
cone at a t angent so t her e is just one point of int er act ion wit h each segment . In 1+ 1D t angency
t o t he light cone necessit at es light  speed at t he point of cont act , but in 2+ 1D and 3+ 1D t he
t angency condit ion can be fulfilled by a dist ant t r aject or y having any super luminal speed.
Figu r e 2a
For ces keeping t he t wo char ges in cir cular mot ion. A posit ive char ge of infinit e elect r omagnet ic
mass, her e denot ed by t he r ed disk, lies simult aneously  on t he light cone and t he Cer enkov
cone of bot h t he point s indicat ed by dar k blue disks, which ar e hist or ical and fut ure locat ions
of t he negat ive char ge. The r esult ant for ce on t he posit ive char ge is singular and dir ect ed
t owar ds t he or igin. An ident ical r elat ionship exist s bet ween t he pr esent locat ion of t he negat ive
char ge and t he hist or ical and fut ur e locat ions of t he posit ive char ge.
Figu r e 2b
Det ails of t he geomet r y showing t he r ole of t he angle  for t he mode n = 1. A char ge moves
t hr ough an angle 2 dur ing t he t ime it t akes for t he singular elect r omagnet ic cont act t o
pr opagat e t o it s opposit e signed part ner . For t he mode n = 1 t his is .
o
= 5.596 r ad. 320.6
45
Figu r e 3a
A r ender ing of t he cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D for t he mode n = 1 showing point s of singular
elect r omagnet ic cont act . The lower / upper br own dot s, for example, show t he locat ion of
posit ive char ge when it was / will be simult aneously on t he light  cone and Cer enkov cone of
t he pr esent locat ion of t he negat ive char ge.
Figu r e 3b
A r ender ing of t he cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D for t he mode n = 1 showing t he int er act ion point s
on t he light cone of t he posit ive char ge. The pink dot s ar e non singular dist ant self
int er act ions. The light  blue dot s (only one of which is visible in t his view) ar e non singular
dist ant int er act ions wit h t he ot her negat ively char ged par t icle. The dar k blue dot s ar e t he
singular dist ant int er act ions wit h t he negat ively char ged par t icle, t he s pace t ime helical pat h
of which gr az es t he light cone at t hese point s in fulfillment of t he Cer enkov cone condit ion.
The heavy black lines show t he locus of t he singular int er act ions.
46
x
t
2 2 2
0 t x A =
2 2 2
0 t x +A =
A
1 o =
s
1 o =
s
1 o =
s
1 o =
s
0
1
s
o
o
>
=
0
1
s
o
o
<
=
Figu r e 1a
Effect of modified light cone condit ion on point s of int er act ion. The pr esent posit ion of t he par t icle is at t he or igin. The t wo r ed dot s
show t he point s of local self act ion. The blue dot s show t he point s of dist ant act ion for ar bit r ar y mot ion of a dist ant t r aject or y.
x
t
2 2 2
0 t x A =
2 2 2
0 t x +A =
A
0
1
s

o
>
=
0
1
s
o
o
>
=
0
1
s
o
o
<
=
0
1

o
<
=
s
Figu r e 1b
The same modified light cone condit ion except now t he dist ant t r aject or y int er sect s t he light cone at a t angent so t her e is just
one point of int er act ion wit h each segment . In 1+ 1D t angency t o t he light cone necessit at es light  speed at t he point of cont act ,
but in 2+ 1D and 3+ 1D t he t angency condit ion can be fulfilled by a dist ant t r aject or y having any super luminal speed.

present location of
positive charge
present location of
negative charge
v = c / cos
historical location
of negative charge
future location of
negative charge
retarded lightspeed influence
from historical location
advanced lightspeed influence
from future location
(diverging spatially with
decreasing time)
resultant of
singular attractive forces
Figu r e 2a
For ces keeping t he t wo char ges in cir cular mot ion. A posit ive char ge of infinit e elect r omagnet ic mass, her e denot ed by t he r ed disk, lies  simult aneously 
on t he light cone and t he Cer enkov cone of bot h t he point s indicat ed by dar k blue disks, which ar e hist or ical and fut ur e locat ions of t he negat ive char ge.
2
2t 2
  t/2
t


a t


Figu r e 2b
Det ails of t he geomet r y showing t he r ole of t he angle for t he mode n = 1. A char ge moves t hr ough an angle 2 dur ing t he t ime
it t akes for t he singular elect r omagnet ic cont act t o pr opagat e t o it s opposit e signed par t ner .
present location
of positive charge
locus of singular
electromagnetic contact
t
x
y
Figu r e 3a
A r ender ing of t he cir cular mot ion in 2+ 1D for t he mode n = 1 showing point s of singular elect r omagnet ic
cont act . The lower / upper br own dot s, for example, show t he locat ion of posit ive char ge when it was / will
be simult aneously on t he light  cone and Cer enkov cone of t he pr esent locat ion of t he negat ive char ge.
Figure 3b