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Greece sGoldenAge

Greece sGoldenAge

Duringthe400sBCGreekciviliza:on reacheditsculturalheight,especially inAthens.Thisperiodhasbeen calledGreece sGoldenAge. Agoldenageisaperiodofgreat achievementsintheartsand sciences.

Greek Philosophers
Philosophers lovers of wisdom Sophists workers of wisdom Teachers phileo = love sophia = wisdom
If sophia = wisdom and moron = fool, then a sophomore is a wise fool.

Sophists
TheSophists:theproblemofman Sophists(Wisest) TravelledaroundgeJngpaidtobescholarly expertsinRhetoricandPhilosophy SophistwerepowerhungrysaysPlato FocuschangedfromNATURALtoManand Society

The Three Most Famous Philosophers

Socrates 469 - 399 B.C.

The unexamined life is not worth living. Socrates


Socrates Plato Aristotle

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Socrates 469 - 399 B.C.


Socratic Method:
I. II. III. IV. Admit ignorance. Never rely on tradition. Continuously question. Formulate your own opinions. V. Test your opinions with others.

Plato 427 - 347 B.C.


Preserved and perpetuated the work of Socrates Most important source of info on Socrates Founded the Academy Wrote dialogues Universal Forms was a recurring theme The Republic most important dialogue Those things which are beautiful are also difficult.

Aristotle 384 - 322 B.C.


Most famous student of Plato Most famous teacher of Alexander the Great Developed Logic as a field of study Devised a complex system of classification
Used in biology

Views on Government

Aristotle 384 - 322 B.C.


Views on Government
3 Good Governments:
Monarchy Aristocracy Democracy

Aristotle 384 - 322 B.C.


All things in moderation Man is by nature a political animal.

3 Bad Governments:
Tyranny Oligarchy Mob Rule

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Architecture
Thestyledevelopedduringthis periodiscalledclassical,whichis verysimpleandelegant.(Thestyle wascopiedbytheRomansandiss:ll usedtoday.)

TheParthenonisthebestexampleof Greekarchitecture.Itwasbuilt undertheruleofPericles.

TheGreeksworshippedeitherat theirhomesoratoutdooraltars,so theybuilttemples. TotheGreekstheParthenon exempliedtheiridealof nothingto excess .

BecauseoftheGreek sgreat understandingofperspec3vethey madethetemple scolumnsthicker inthemiddleandthinneratthetop sothatthecolumnsappeared straightwhenviewedfroma distance.(Thestepsarelowerinthe centeralsotoappearstraightfroma distance.)

Sculpture&Pain:ng
Vasesprovideourmainexampleof Greekpain:ng.Po[erydesignstold anobject sfunc:on.They illustratedscenesofeverydaylife andmythology.

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Phidiaswasinchargeofthe Parthenon ssculptures. Praxiteles,reec:ngthechangesin Greeklife(a^erthePeloponnesian War),favoredlifesizestatues, emphasizinggraceratherthan power.

Drama&Theater
TheearliestGreekplayswere tragedies.Comediesaroselater. Theaterwasdevelopedtohonorthe Greekgod,Dionysus.Theywere preformedinlargeoutdoortheaters, withli[lescenery.Menwerethe onlyactors,theyworemasksplaying allroles. Aeschyluswastherstofthegreat tragicplaywrightsinthe400sBC. (Althoughhewrote90plays,only7 survived)Oresteiaisatrilogy showinghowtheconsequencesof one sdeedsarecarrieddownfrom onegenera:ontoanother.

Sophocles,author ofOedipusRex, saidhuman sueringwas unavoidable,yet hestressedhuman courageand compassion.

Aristophanesisthemostfamous writerofcomedies.Hewrote Lysistratawhichshowsthewomen ofAthensworkingtogethertoforce theirhusbandstostopgh:ngwith Sparta.

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ImportantPeople
Herodotusfatherofhistory,rstto separatefactfromc:on,wrote HistoryofthePersianWars Euclidmathema:cs,planeand solidgeometrywroteElementsof Geometry

Euclid" c.300 B.C.


One of the most prominent mathematicians Wrote The Elements

Said to Ptolemy: There is No Royal Road to geometry!

Widely used till about 1903. 2nd only to the Bible in numbers of translations, publications, and study Greek Arabic Latin

PythagorasPythagoreantheorem a2+b2=c2 AristarchusEarthrotatedonits axisandheliocentric(sunisthe centeroftheuniverse)

Pythagoras" 582-500 B.C.


The universe could only be understood thru numbers. Sun, moon, and earth revolved around a central re. Each planet produces a tone! Famous for the Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2

Pythagoras" 582-500 B.C. c2 a2 b2

Archimedesmeasured volume,invented cylinderscrew,lever, compoundpulley EratosthenesEarthisroundand accuratelycalculatedits circumference

Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2

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Archimedean Screw

Modern application of the Archimedean Screw

Hippocratesfather ofmedicine,said thatdoctorsshould takeanethicaloath Hismedicaladvice: goodhygiene,good dietandgetplenty ofrest

Addi:onalSlidesonGreekPhilosophersfrom intranet.wcastl.org/sites/tjohnston/upload/ 47c2df9a6088e.ppt