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Sociology

Societal structure and Dynamics

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Classifications of Society

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Society

Society gives us content, direction, and meaning to our lives and in turn we in countless ways reshape and leave the same to the next generation

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Conditions to be marked as a society


People must occupy a common territory They must interact with one another beside sharing a common territory They must have common culture and shared sense of membership we can say that society is a group of interacting individuals sharing the same territory and participating in common culture
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Ginsberg definition for society


Society implies a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes of behaviour which mark them off from others who do not enter into these relations or who differ from them in behaviour

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Features of a society
Society is universal having no assigned boundary and limits Members of the society are interdependent and family is the force of biological inter-dependence of society Society is invisible whose existence can only be felt. It can neither be seen nor touched. IT is a mutual interaction of individuals and groups Liberty is an essential elements of society but regulated through the mutual agreement of individuals Active cooperation is the backbone of a society Likemindness is an essential pre-requisite of a society

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Society is a web of social relationships


Social relationships are the outcome of interactions. It can be simple or complex; permanent or temporary. These relations form a web Mutual understanding, behaviour, usage of customs, conventions and attitudes are the foundation stones of societal web

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Sociology is the study of social relationship


Sociology studies the relationships and various social problems and finds a solution for the betterment of society at large Ogburn said that sociology is a body of learning about society. It describes the ways for making society better. It is concerned with the study of social life of a man and its relations like factors of culture, natural environments, heredity and groups Johnson said that sociology is the science that deals with social groups; their interval forms or modes of organizations; the processes that tend to maintain or change these forms of organization and relations between groups Conclusion: sociology is the study of social relationship

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Origin of society
Social contract theory

Society

Organic theory

Group mind theory


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Social contract theory


Hobbes said
Man was in continuous conflict with his fellow beings. He had selfish, nasty, brutish and mean nature. Every man was enemy of other human being. Therefore, for protection of men against their unbridled nature and its consequences, society was evolved

Locke opined,
The state of nature was a state of peace and order. This state of nature lacked a recognized and well established system of justice and law. Hence man entered into a contract and conferred powers upon community

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Organic theory
Herbert Spencer was the main propounder of the theory. He said
This theory conceives society as a biological system, a greater organism, alike in its structure. Its functions exhibit the same kind of unity as the individual organism and is subject to similar laws of development, maturity and decline. Individual persons are cells of the society. He further said Social structure can be compared to an animal body whose system of nutrition has its counter part in industrial and agricultural systems, the circulatory system with heart, arteries and veins, corresponds to the communication and transport system of a nation, the nerves system to the government and so on
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Group mind theory


Propounded by Plato and supported by thinkers like Higgle, Green, Bradley and others Higgle said
Society is an embodiment of absolute mind. An individual detached from the state, is merely an abstraction. Society represents a phase in dialectical evolution of mind. Therefore, individual attains meaning and reality only when he is a member of the state. In fact, state is a higher form of an individual. It is the manifestation of what is universal in a society

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Types of society
Hunting, gathering and tribal societies Tribal society Pastoral societies Horticultural societies
Agricultural societies or Peasant societies Industrial societies or Technological society Militaristic society
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Emergence of modern family in place of old, traditional and patriarchal family New system of production Division of labour Economic pursuits

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Social organization and mentality of a technological society


Social organisation of a technological society is as follows
1.Physical organization 2.Division of labour and specialization 3.Modern family emerge in place of traditional family 4.Economic pursuits are in abundance in technological society for women 5.Society is organized in a fashionable manner

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Mentality of a technological society


1.Society practice new system of production, distribution and exchange 2.Norms and standards are observed carefully 3.Liberal movement is the contribution of this society 4.Social mobility is very fast in technological society 5.Unrestricted exploitation of environment

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Differences between traditional and technological society


Traditional society
Traditional society comprise a large social group comprising several clans, village communities and joint families Traditional society is backward, primitive fundamentally concentrating on agricultural and animal husbandry pursuits Educational level of traditional society is low because it is a sort of peasantry society

Technological society
Technological society comprise a very small group, highly Technological advanced basically concentrate on the production and distribution of industrial goods In industrial society people are educationally, vocationally and professionally qualified

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Difference between peasant society and industrial society


Peasant society
Potential size of the society practice agriculture

Industrial society
Potential size of the society practice industrialization, mechanization and computerization in the process of production Medium of exchange is money throughout in case of an industrial society Industrial society is complex and advanced in modern sense Industrial society: USA is a highly advanced industrial society. The crime rate in this society is very high

Barter system of exchange prevail in peasant society to some extent Peasant society is aesthetic, backward and simple Crime rate is low in peasant society whereas the rate of crime is comparatively high in advanced society

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Social mobility
Movement of people in a population from one social or economic class to another is social mobility Members of the industrial society can raise or lower their status thro their achievements People live in stress and strain in working in shifts A mechanical life is led where exploitation, classstruggle and culture lags prevail Suicide and drug addiction is also high in this society
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Differences: Social structure and physical structure


Concept of social structure was innovated by Herbert Spencer. According to Ginsberg, social structure constitute principal groups and institutions included in different societies. Principal social group is a collection of individuals having definite relations among themselves Social groups can be both personal and impersonal groups Personal groups are family, neighbours and impersonal groups are municipality and corporation etc. A complex collection of these groups constitute social structure Physical structure means nature and behaviour of people while being in society Physical structure is concerned with mind and body. Eg., love, strength, beauty, education and training
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Groups-Primary and secondary


Groups

primary

secondary

A primary group consist of a small no of people who interact over a relatively long period to an intimate over face-to-face basis. The members of this group know each other and interact in an informal manner. E.g.., families, friends and small communities These groups are building blocks of social structure and are also called as informal groups A secondary group is a formal one which consists of a no of people who interact with each other in a family temporarily and in personal manner. These people do not know each other personally. E.g.., political parties, IAS officers etc.,
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Contd When an individual or a group of individuals for socio-economic, political and psychological reasons regards some other groups as worthy or imitating such a group is called reference group. The behaviour involved in imitating the group by individuals is called the reference behaviour. It accepts the reference group as model and follow it Individuals of lesser social strata try to follow the cultural levels of high strata and in this way reference group proceed on.
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Voluntary and Involuntary groups


Voluntary groups are those groups which are formed by a no. of people interacting with each other in an informal manner. E.g.. Cliques of friends Involuntary groups are those consisting a no. of people interacting with each other in a personal manner. They are formed to serve specific purpose having no emotional touch. E.g.., group of government bureaucrats
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Society and community


Man is linked directly or indirectly with his fellow men in many ways. He establishes his relations with people who live nearby in a definite part of the territory. A sort of like-mindedness is developed. This fact of social living likeness among these in specific area gives birth of community. In general, this community is defined as any circle of people who live together and belong together in such a way that they do not share this or that particular interest only, but a whole set of interests. According to Bogardus community is a social group with some degree of eve feeling and living in a given area Blaire and Merca said A human community is a functionally related aggregate of people who live in a particular geographic locality at a particular time, share a common culture, are arranged in a social structure, and exhibit an awareness of their uniqueness and separate identity as a group

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Elements of a community
A community is essentially a group of people sharing the common feeling and basic conditions of a common life Group of people residing in a definite locality form a community. Feeling of community sentiments is an important characteristics of a community. Unlike crowd, community is of permanent nature Community is not created and made by an act of will but its emergence is quite natural Likeness in language, customs and mores is a significant elements of a community. Sociologist Green said community is a cluster of people living with a narrow territorial radius, who share a common way of life. Ends and objective of a community are wider and natural and not artificial A community has no legal status. It can neither sue nor to be sued Every community has some specific and particular name

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Differences between community and society


Society: According to Giddings Society is a union of like minded individuals, who know and enjoy like-mindedness and are therefore able to work for common ends Community: According to Sutherland A community is a local area wherein people are using the same language, confirming to some more, feeling more or less the same sentiments and acting upon the same attitudes.

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Contd
Society Society is a web of social relationship and adjustments resulting from human behaviour Society is universal Society constitute a largest social group Society is self sufficient Society enrich culture and heritage Society is the most ancient institution in which man has been living since time immemorial Division of labour is an essential characteristic of the society
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Community Community is a group of people having feeling of oneness Community has well defined bound within which individuals live and develop Community is a part of society Community is scarcely self sufficient Community has hardly any role to play in this respect Life in community started much latter when man became socially conscious There is very little scope for division of labour in community
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Differences between an institution and association


Association is a group of people who voluntarily cooperate with each other with a view of achieving certain well thought and defined objectives. According to MacIver An organisation becomes an association when a group may organise itself expressly for the purpose of pursuing some of its interests together Institution is a complex organisation of collective behaviour established in the social heritage and meeting some persistent needs or wants. E.g.., family, marriage etc.,
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Contd
Institution Established rules and regulations accepted to the society are given in institution Institution is a self evolved organisation Institution has definite structure Institution is an abstract phenomenon Institution is concerned for meeting the elementary human requirements Institution is a permanent organisation Institution abide by the rules and regulations of an institution Institution has name and symbol Association Association is a voluntary co-operative organisation of individuals Association constitute its members Association has no specific and defined structure Association comprise aggregate no. of human beings Association has some definite objective to achieve Association is a temporary organisation and last till the objectives are not achieved There is no such binding on the part of individuals in case of an association Association has definite name and banner

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Differences between caste and tribe


Caste It is a social group whose members are found spread over in a large society Caste system has its origin traced out to division of labour on the basis of occupation Endogamy is rigidly enforced All people of the caste have some social status and enjoy equal level of prestige rank People of various castes are great conscious of their status and rank Caste would never become a political organisation The members accept the profession of a caste in general Clan names are adopted from ancient sages Tribe It is a localized group living with in a specified geographical area Tribes have their origin based on the feeling of community Endogamy is not rigidly enforced The ranks and status of people in a tribe differs They are less conscious of their status and rank A tribe may become a political organisation The members follow the profession of their choice Clan names are based on fruits, vegetables, food-grains etc.
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Differences between community and association


Community is a social group of members which are permanently bound with each other by sentiments and feelings of oneness An association is a group of people who voluntarily cooperate with each other with a view of achieving certain well thought and defined objectives
i) Community is a group of people having feeling of oneness. Association is a voluntary cooperative organisation of individuals ii) Community has well defined bound within which individuals live and develop. Association has no specific and defined structure iii) An association has definite name and banner. Community has hardly any role to play in this respect.
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Social tensions
Numerous causes of social tensions Class struggle a form of social conflict which creates tension in the society Misuse of public power for private profit Diversified or heterogeneous population Competition Crime Unemployment Racialism Religious variation Linguistic intolerance Gay and lesbian Divorce Juvenile delinquency Rapid social change War Lack of tranquility in family Uneven distribution of wealth General poverty
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Conflicts
Unequal distribution of income in society leads to conflicts. Some earn more while the other find difficult to earn bread and butter. These situations lead to conflict. On this account society is divided between 1. rich and the poor 2. labour and capitalist 3. exploitee and exploiters 4. haves and have nots To bridge the gap government has imposed various taxes on the rich to facilitate the poor 1. Direct progressive income tax on rich 2. wealth or property tax 3. Commodity tax 4. Gift tax The revenue collected is changed to public benefit and is given for the beneficial to the poor as follows 1. subsidy to marginal farmers 2. road construction and flyovers 3. free medical facilities 4. opening of perish-houses and old houses 5. help age 6. free schooling 7. opening of old age houses 8. rationing

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Meaning of work
Work means expenditure of mental and physical energy to achieve decided objectives Work generates income which governs the diversified activities performed in this planet Work changes life style positively It keeps soul and body fit It reduces tension and engage in job Work keeps man busy and away from social evils It elevate human personality and inject extreme joy in mind Work maintain dignity of man in society Work keeps the limbs of body alive Work enhance knowledge Work destroy worries
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Social responsibilities of an individual


Birth Death Marriage Employment Accommodation Upbringing children Safety of children Education Social relationship friendly terms Health sanitation
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Differences between competition and conflict


Competition It is a market condition It is governed by economy It leads to benefit of the society in the long run Conflict It is personal or between two firm s It is governed by personal gains or losses It leads to loss or troubles to the society

Consumers during competition of product No one is benefitted are benefitted

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