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Key Points!

Chapter 12: The Renaissance ~15th Century--> a high regard for human dignity and worth and a realization of individual potentiality created a new social idea *secularization* House of Medici -Greatest bank in Europe, had branches in Venice, Milan, Rome, Avignon, Bruges, London, and Lyons; -Produced money for the papacy -Suffered a sudden decline at the end of the 15th century Slavery -During the second half of the 14th century, after the shortage of workers from the Black Death, Italians introduced Slavery on a very large scale! -Obtained mostly from the eastern Mediterranean & Blacksea Region -Slave trade developed 1414-1423: 10,000 slaves sold on Venetian Market -Slavery DECLINED in the end of the 15th century in Italian cities -By the end of the 16th century only at princely courts -In the 15th Century, the Portuguese imported 140,000 African Slaves for southern European Markets Marriages -Were arranged; women usually married between ages 16 and 18 while men in their 30's and 40's. -Great age differences caused sexual outlets, and since marriages were arranged there was a lack of emotional attachment -Prostitution Italian States: 5 Major Powers/ States Milan: -After the death of the last Visconti, Francesco Sforza, one of the leading condottieri of the time, turned on his Milanese employers, conquered the city and became its new Duke -Visconti and the Sforza rulers worked to create a highly centralized territorial state

-Devised a system of taxation--> enormous government revenue $$$ Republic of Venice: -Stable government by a small oligarchy of merchant aristocrats -commercial empire brought in enormous revenues and status of an international power Republic of Florence: -Dominated the region of Tuscany -Beginning of 15th century: governed by a small merchant Oligarchy that manipulated the republican gov. -1434: Cosimo de' Medici took control--> remained republican gov. Papal States: -Under the political control of popes, who were focused on reestablishing their control over the papal states (after the Great Schism) Kingdom of Naples: -Monarchy fought over by the French and the Aragonese -"Backward Monarchy" -Large population of poverty stricken people -dominated by unruly nobles -Shared little in cultural glories of Renaissance Europe Independent City States Mantua- Gonzaga Lords; helped by Isabella d'Este who married the Marquis of Mantua Ferrara- d'Este Family Urbino- Montefeltro dynasty

Birth of Modern Diplomacy -Product of the Renaissance -Useful in Italy where there were a lot of small states (some so small security was threatened by its neighbors)

Art -based on nature -artists were no longer viewed as artisans, growing respect -Italian Renaissance Art: PAGE (perspective, anatomy, gestures, emotion) humanistic -Northern European Renaissance Art: MEDDO (more, death, detail, oil paints) Jan Van Eych

Unification of Spain -Marriage of Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon -Reorganized military forces -secured the right to select church officials in Spain from the pope -To unify religion, expelled Jews: 150,000-200,000 fled; wanted to unify religion (ONLY CHRISTIANITY) -Successful HRE -failed to develop a monarchy -Habsburg Dynasty -Habsburg success due to a well executed policy of dynastic marriages rather than war Struggle for a Strong Eastern Europe Monarchy -different ethnic groups caused difficulties -religious differences ***ARTISTS

Chapter 13 Reformation