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CO2 emissions from the Telecom sector (Indian Scenario )


Around 4% of the total GHG emissions are from the ICT sector , contributing around 80 million tones of CO2 emissions every year. ~ 25% of GHG emissions i.e. 1% of the GHG emissions is from the telecom sector which is around 20 million tones of CO2 year. In contrast the Global GHG emissions from telecom sector is only 0.7% The Average CO2 emissions per subscriber in India is around 21kg when compared to the Global average of 8Kg of CO2 emissions per subscriber. The Telecom sector enables second order / third order impacts of ICTs. -- tele-working ,e-medicine etc - which can save on CO2 emissions of the other sectors. Of the 100 million tonnes of CO2 emission reduction target, 30% reduction will be from ICT adoption in buildings, transport and other sectors.
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CO2 emission in ICT

Global telecom footprint (devices and infrastructure)

The Telecom sector constitutes 24% of the CO2 emissions of the ICT sector The ICT sector constitutes 4% of the total CO2 emissions

Alarming !The Mobile sector will constitute about 51% of the emissions by 2020

Green Telecom Strategy


Green Telecom Networks estimation of carbon footprints of the industry, use methods to reduce CO2 emission and evolve a voluntary Carbon credit policy. Green Manufacturing greening the manufacturing process involving eco-friendly components , energy efficient manufacturing equipments and adoption of Life Cycle Assessment in manufacturing process. Waste disposal collection , transportation, recycling and efficient disposal of phones and telecom / network equipments. Green Buildings optimization of energy , thermal emission and minimization of GHG emissions.
The Green rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) adopted by Govt of India as national Green building rating system could be adopted by the service providers for reducing the energy consumption levels and the CO2 emissions levels. 4

Estimationofcarbonfootprint
The Carbon footprints in the telecom industry (CT) could be broadly divided into four categories in the Access network:(i) Carbon footprint from Landline (CL) (ii) Carbon footprint from Mobile (CM) (iii) Carbon footprint from Fixed Broadband (CFB) (iv) Carbon footprint from FTTx (CFT The other THREE vital blocks that add to the Carbon footprints of the telecom network are:(i) Carbon footprint from Core Network (which includes edge / core Routers / NGN /softswitches / IP Cores /all core items / data centers / all centralized sub systems / peripherals ) (CC) (ii) Carbon footprint from Aggregrators or Backhaul (CA) (iii) Carbon footprint from Transmission Networks (CTX) There are also various other factors of the Life Cycle Assessment LCA.

Formula for calculation of carbon Footprint


If the consumption of power of the Network element, in KW (including Air Conditioning etc) is P , the Grid power is for x hrs , the power from z KVA DG is for y hrs and the efficiency of the generator is then C = 0.365 [0.84Px + (0.528 yz /) ] in Tonnes Similarly carbon footprints for each of the network elements are to be calculated.

Green Telecom Networks -Carbon footprints and Carbon credit policy


The Service providers should estimate the carbon footprints of their networks and declare the same half yearly. Power consumption in the network constitutes for 75 % of the CO2 emissions. DG sets -one of the main sources of CO2 emissions. An 8 hour DG set usage will result in 8760 liters of diesel consumed every year per tower. Only 70% of the telecom towers have grid/Electricity Board power availability of less than 12 hours.(The national average is only 13.5 hrs per day). Therefore State Electricity Boards to provide grid power on priority basis to BTS sites.
Service providers should endeavour to ensure that the total power consumption of each BTS will not exceed 500 W by the year 2020.

Green Telecom Networks -Carbon footprints and Carbon credit policy


All Service providers should evolve a Carbon Credit Policy in line with carbon credits norms with the ultimate objective of attaining full carbon neutral footprints in rural areas and with 50% carbon neutral footprint in urban areas by the year 2020. The base year for calculating all existing carbon footprints would be 2011, with an implementation period of one year. Hence the first year of carbon reduction would be the year 2012. Service Providers should effect carbon reduction targets of 8% by 2013, 12% by 2015 , 17% by 2017 and 25% by 2019from the current levels(Base line year as 2011);thus creating Carbon Credits. The carbon credits calculated could be traded over MCX
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Methods for reducing Carbon Footprints Better network planning Infrastructure Sharing Adoption of energy efficient equipment and innovative technologies Improvement in supply of Grid Power Use of Renewable sources of energy

Green Telecom Networks -Methods for reducing Carbon Footprints


Better network planning
a) b) c) d) Deployment of power amplifier efficient BTS systems Reduced use of Air Conditioners by efficient energy cooling systems Intelligent network elements shutdown system. Use of Software defined Radios , Mistral Cooling system and deploying more number of femto cells

Step1: Large vs. small cells applying the energy metrics

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Green Telecom Networks -Methods for reducing Carbon Footprints


Infrastructure Sharing
a) b) Operators can jointly roll out sites both passive and active sharing which could typically achieve a 30% CAPEX saving accumulated over five years. This will also reduce OPEX by 15% per year by the fifth year. Active sharing of network infrastructure, which involves the sharing of antennae systems, backhaul transmission systems and base station equipment, will allow operators to save an additional 40% on top of available savings from passive infrastructure sharing. Sharing also results in reduction of number of generator sets and telecom masts installed, which leads to reduction in noise, air and visual pollution. Sharing of the infrastructure using passive as well active methodologies should be done to minimize the eventuality of locating new sites within the vicinity of existing towers. [say within 200m, in Urban areas & within 2 Km, in Rural areas]. Service providers should plan to have at least 10% of their sites actively shared by the year 2014.

c) d)

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Adoption of energy efficient equipment and innovative technologies a) Intelligent shutdown of TRXs b) By modifying BTS as outdoor units in place of Indoor BTS, substantial savings could be achieved in cooling. c) An Integrated BTS with transmission backhaul system could be planned for future networks .

Improvement in supply of Grid Power a) 67% of OPEX costs is because of energy. b) Only 70% of the telecom towers have grid/Electricity Board power availability of less than 12 hours. (The national average is only 13.5 hrs per day ) c) On improvement in grid supply, the CO2 emissions levels could be reduced. d) Grid power to rural BTS sites should be provided on priority 12 basis.

Use of Renewable sources of energy


a) b) c) d) Wind and Solar Energy Utilisation Fuel Cells Biomass Energy Pico Hydro

A phased programme should be put in place by the telecom service providers to have their cell sites, particularly in the rural areas, powered by hybrid renewable sources including wind energy, solar energy, fuel cells or a combination thereof. The eventual goal under this phased programme is to ensure that around 50% of all towers in the rural areas are powered by hybrid renewable sources by the year 2015. Service providers should evolve a Voluntary Code of Practice encompassing energy efficient network planning , active infra sharing , deployment of energy efficient technologies and adoption of renewable energy sources.

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Standardization
The energy efficiency is reported by a factor called Energy consumption rating [ECR] (W/Gbps) . It is calculated as an energy consumption normalized to effective throughput. In other words, we assume the more energy-efficient network system to be the one that can transport more data (in bits) using the same energy budget (in Joules). [ ECR= E / T] , where E denotes the maximum energy consumption (in watts) and T denotes the effective system throughput (in bits per second) The tests should cover all the following different scenarios:Energy Consumption in relation to dynamically changing load Energy Consumption in relation to Statically changing load Component level energy footprint. Embedded energy monitoring capabilities. Collateral Energy Management.

The results obtained from the tests Nos 1 to 4 forms the energy passport of the product under test, can be used directly by consumers for evaluation and energy planning purposes. Comparing product metrics will allow the service providers to had energy efficiency to purchase criteria. Normalization of the energy consumption to the highest sustained throughput recorder will be estimate of best technology level. Energy billing estimates over a period of time (Operational Cost) C could also have to be determined. This will help the service provider to estimate the best product i.e. energy efficient with respect to cost over a period of time.

Rimports/domestic purchases for research &D Customs/central excise duty on


purposes 125 % weighted tax deduction on R&D expenditure in certain areas Depreciation allowance on plant & machinery set up based on indigenous technology 3 years excise duty waiver on patented products. A profit making industry registered with Department of Scientific & Industrial Research for in-house R&D may get support upto 50% of the cost of the project A consortium of industry, academic institutions, research laboratory and R&D institution etc., could be formed to undertake a R&D project. Consortium members will be required to share at least 50% of the cost of the project. Balance will be released from MNRE funds to the implementing institution in the consortium selected by consortium members. An industry may join hands with the Ministry to entrust an R&D project to an R&D institution/research laboratory or an academic institution. MNRE support up to 50% of the cost of the project will be available. For some proposal from Universities, Government research institutions etc. Ministry may provide upto100% funding, depending on project priority.

Normalized

ECR =

0.8

0.533

0.3733

0.32

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